NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU

Sample Answer for NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU

For this discussion, I chose Watson’s theory of Human Caring and Orem’s self-care Deficit Theory. Watson’s theory insists on the significance of caring in the healing process. According to this model, nurses should form a caring relationship with those that they care for instead of just offering care (Aghaei et al., 2020). This theory can be applied to behavior change in that when nurses have a caring relationship; it creates a supportive environment that encourages patient’s participation in their care plan. This theory is beneficial in that it enhances the all-around care approach increases patient satisfaction and builds trust in nurses and treatment increasing patient outcomes. However, forming and maintaining nurse-patient relationships can be time-consuming as not all patients are cooperative and it may not be applied in situations with high levels of stress or in acute care where patients are incapacitated.

Orem’s theory based on self-care needs is grounded on the notion that patients get well faster and all around when they can care for themselves to the best of their ability. According to Gligor & Domnariu (2020), this theory is applied to behavior change by encouraging patients to participate in their care through patient education on imperative self-care practices. This theory is beneficial because it empowers patients to be in control of their health and encourages their independence. Nevertheless, much patient education must be done to make the patient compliant and all patients cannot be able to take part in their own care.

In my future role as a nurse leader, I will incorporate the two theories into care to create an all-around patient care approach that supports patient autonomy while offering a supportive and caring environment. While incorporating these theories, it is important to consider that while establishing a relationship with patients, it is important to keep professional boundaries to overcome any potential implications that may arise.

References

Aghaei, M. H., Vanaki, Z., & Mohammadi, E. (2020). Watson’s human caring theory-based palliative care: a discussion paper. International Journal of Cancer Management13(6). https://brieflands.com/articles/ijcm-103027

Gligor, L., & Domnariu, C. D. (2020). Patient care approach using nursing theories-comparative analysis of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory and Henderson’s Model. Acta Medica Transilvanica25(2), 11-14. https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amtsb-2020-0019

Self-awareness and effective leadership are critical attributes for nurse practitioners. Nurses and nurse leaders require reflective approaches to understand their leadership attributes and improve self-awareness. Self-awareness allows nurse leaders and nurses to recognize their strengths, weaknesses, and values. Understanding one’s emotional intelligence level and leadership style helps develop effective leadership for nurse practitioners in different settings (Cummings et al., 2021). The purpose of this paper is to reflect on leadership style based on self-awareness tests. The paper explores the different self-assessment tests and their results, leadership style closely aligning with the nursing philosophy, characteristics of an effective professional nurse leader, and a leadership theory that supports professional nurse leaders in different ways like collaboration and conflict resolution.

Rationale and Summary of Self-Assessment Tests

Self-assessment tests like personality assessment and learning styles assessment allow nurses and nurse leaders to enhance their skills by understanding their personalities and values. As a critical part of healthcare delivery, nurses must have sufficient skills based on their values and attributes to influence patients and attain quality outcomes (Grossman et al., 2021). The three self-assessment tests that I took include the VARK learning style questionnaire, the values profile assessment, and the Big 5 personality test. These tools, while presenting diverse outcomes, illustrated my exceptional nursing leadership skills and abilities to influence others in practice. The rationale for deploying these tools was to ascertain my leadership attributes and ways to improve them within the nursing practice context.

The VARK learning assessment showed that I am a robust kinesthetic learner with effective coordination abilities and a sense of body timing. The trait is essential as it ensures that patients’ needs and healthcare workers’ concerns are a priority for nurse leaders (Cummings et al., 2021). The value profile assessment showed that my personality is based on dominant values that include caring followed by social attributes and realistic values. These values are essential when dealing with patients and subordinates as one listens to them. The values also imply that I can negotiate policies that benefit patients. The Big 5 personality test showed that I am extroverted implying that I relate easily with patients and healthcare workers. This trait is essential for transformational and servant leaders in nursing who seek the best of patients and even providers, especially fellow nurses and other healthcare workers.

Leadership Style Aligning with Philosophy of Care

Nurses and nurse leaders develop their philosophy of care to guide their interaction with patients and care delivery. Such philosophies entail values and attributes that make one unique and focused on their role as nurses in different specialty areas. In this case, my nursing philosophy is developing an innovative and transformative health environment to care for patients from diverse backgrounds based on inherent values and the dignity of human beings. As such, the leadership style that aligns with the philosophy is transformation, which emphasizes openness to work and enables leaders to seek innovative ideas from the team. Transformational leaders encourage innovative team thinking and diversity of ideas. They embrace divergent views and integrate them to offer quality care through models like evidence-based practice (EBP) (Brunt et al., 2023). Transformational leadership aligns with this philosophy as it implores nurse leaders to work with all stakeholders to deliver quality care by considering emerging aspects and concepts based on innovative models (Stanley et al., 2021). What appeals to me about this leadership style is its futuristic perspective and helping others grow for the greater common good. The implication is that transformational leaders nurture their subordinates to deliver quality care to patients.

Integration of Elements of Transformational Leadership in Health Care Setting

Transformational leadership is a critical leadership model in nursing because of its attributes or components. These include individualized or personalized consideration, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and inspirational motivation. These factors are essential in healthcare settings where leaders influence subordinates through their interactive work. For instance, individualized consideration entails a leader attending to the individual needs of each follower and mentors, coaches, and guides (Rasheed et al., 2021). Nurse leaders are mentors, especially for new nurses joining the profession. Individualized consideration allows leaders to know the unique talents of every follower and support them as required to acquire nursing skills.

Inspirational motivation allows leaders to articulate and advance an appealing vision that inspires and motivates others to perform and deliver quality care. Transformational nurse leaders are optimistic about the abilities of their followers. Transformational nurse leaders also demonstrate idealized influence because they are role models and mentors for their followers (Stanley et al., 2021). Through intellectual stimulation, transformational leaders challenge assumptions, take risks, and seek ideas from their followers to advance better approaches to care. Therefore, all these components are integral to nursing practice due to the role that transformational leaders play in their workplaces to improve quality care delivery.

Areas of Improvement Based on the Assessment Results

The results of the three assessments demonstrate weak areas that require improvement to be effective as a leader. Transformational leaders inspire and motivate followers through idealized influence and individual consideration (Grossman et al., 2021). However, the results from the three assessments show areas for improvement that include decision-making, enhancing mentorship, and better approaches to conflicts in the organization. These areas are vital and implore one to reflect once in a while to understand their weaknesses and build on their strengths. As a leader, one needs to appreciate expectations from the subordinates and meet them. Therefore, effective interactive skills and communication are essential. Leaders should improve team approach and individualized consideration to enhance their comprehension of all team members in organizations (Specchia et al., 2022). Reflection is essential and helps transformational leaders enhance their skills, competencies, and abilities. The implication is that nurse leaders should have complex skills and abilities to help team members.

Characteristics of an Effective Nurse Leader

Nurse leaders are critical because of their influence; both implied and real, based on their positions. As such, nurse leaders possess certain characteristics or attributes that set them apart from others. These include integrity, social and emotional intelligence, accessibility, and motivation of others. Effective nurse leaders should be transparent and approachable (Specchia et al., 2022). They should support and empower others, be team builders, have passion for their work, and clear vision. They should also possess a strategic focus, demonstrate empathy, and be caring and committed to developing their staff to meet patient demands (Magbity et al., 2020). They must also possess skills like effective communication, create a healthy work environment, and embrace collaboration, shared decision-making, and delegation. For instance, shared decision-making practices allow active and full participation and engagement of stakeholders. By serving as role models through idealized influence, leaders motivate and empower others with appropriate tools and resources to attain set goals and objectives. Leaders motivate others when they recognize their worth, contributions, and services. Delegation is essential to nurture others and ensure they possess sufficient skills to steer the nursing facility in the right direction.

Selected Leadership Theory and Style

Different leadership theories and styles explain how individuals advance and practice certain approaches as leaders. The servant leadership theory and style is one of the most significant and emerging among providers, especially in nursing practice. The servant leadership theory advances that leaders are humble and protective while striving to serve their followers (Grossman et al., 2021). Under this leadership style and theory, leaders are servants and serve others by putting their interests first. The theory and style support professional nurse leaders through its principles like listening, building a team, empowering others, continuous improvement, effective communication and integrity, and demonstrating authenticity. Servant leaders prioritize their followers before considering themselves. The theory shapes the nurse leader in different aspects like collaboration, resolution of conflicts, making decisions, and negotiation (Robbins et al., 2020). For instance, by building teams and listening, nurse leaders collaborate with followers to attain set goals and objectives in healthcare settings. Further, teams reduce conflicts while being authentic allows nurse leaders to demonstrate integrity.

Conclusion

Reflective practice through self-assessment tests related to leadership attributes is essential for nurses and nurse leaders to deliver quality care. Self-assessment allows nurses to understand their weak areas, develop strategies to overcome them, and offer quality care to diverse patients and health populations. As such, transformational and servant leadership theories and styles enable nurses to model better leadership and mentor subordinates to deliver quality care.

References

Brunt, B. A. & Bogdan, B. A. (2023). Nursing professional development leadership.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519064/

Cummings, G. G., Lee, S., Tate, K., Penconek, T., Micaroni, S. P., Paananen, T., & Chatterjee,

  1. E. (2021). The essentials of nursing leadership: a systematic review of factors and educational interventions influencing nursing leadership. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 115, 103842. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103842

Grossman, S. C., & Valiga, T. M. (2020). The new leadership challenge: Creating the future of

            nursing. FA Davis.

Magbity, J. B., Ofei, A. M. A., & Wilson, D. (2020). Leadership styles of nurse managers and

turnover intention. Hospital Topics, 98(2), 45-50.

DOI: 10.1080/00185868.2020.1750324.

Rasheed, S. P., Sundus, A., Younas, A., Fakhar, J., & Inayat, S. (2021). Development and testing

of a measure of self-awareness among nurses. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 43(1), 36-44. DOI: 10.1177/0193945920923079.

Robbins, B., & Davidhizar, R. (2020). Transformational leadership in health care today. The

            Health Care Manager, 39(3), 117-121. DOI: 10.1097/HCM.0000000000000296

Specchia, M. L., Cozzolino, M. R., Carini, E., Di Pilla, A., Galletti, C., Ricciardi, W., &

Damiani, G. (2021). Leadership styles and nurses’ job satisfaction. Results of a systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research And Public Health, 18(4), 1552. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18041552

Stanley, D., Bennett, C. L., & James, A. H. (Eds.). (2022). Clinical leadership in nursing and

            healthcare. John Wiley & Sons.

Sample Answer for NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU Included After Question

Assessment Description

APA Style is used for professional writing in nursing and health care. As a professional, it is important to be able to clearly communicate your research or professional writing in an accurately formatted paper using the most current APA Style. The purpose of this assignment is to write a 500-750-word paper focusing on the proper application of APA Style.

Refer to the resources in the Class Resources and Student Success Center for assistance with APA. Use the APA Style Guide resource, located in the Student Success Center, to complete this assignment.

Include the following in your paper:

  1. Describe the purpose of applying nursing theory to patient care.
  2. Explain why nursing theory is meaningful to current practice.
  3. Explain how a nursing theory can be applied before planning and providing care in current practice.
  4. Discuss which theory best reflects your personal view of the essence of nursing and how it has been helpful to you for planning and providing care to your patients.

You are required to cite a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the past 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA Style and formatting criteria and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as an appendix at the end of your paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Attachments

Sample Answer For The Assignment: NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU

Title: NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU

Writing is an interesting art through which wordsmiths utilize their skills to deliver meaningful content to the audience. Academic writing, in particular, is unique since it demands strict adherence to predetermined standards to enhance a piece’s appeal to a professional audience. My journey as a writer has been quite fulfilling, especially when I reflect on the knowledge I have gained so far in matters pertaining to paper formatting and content presentation. In 1929, a group of business managers, anthropologists, and psychologists collaborated to form the American Psychological Association (APA) standards of writing to guide professionals in various domains including psychology, neuroscience, sociology, linguistics, human geography, political science, economics, and cognitive science. It is important to have a rough idea of the disciplines of writing in which the APA style is applicable to avoid employing it in unwarranted pieces. Other notable styles of writing include Chicago, MLA, OSCOLA, and Harvard. The limiting scope of the present piece only allows its author to focus on the APA Style of writing.

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Effective Communication

First and foremost, it must be established that the official criteria for the recent version of the APA style is accessible from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition. The third chapter of this manual offers its readers some guidelines on how to communicate effectively through clear and concise writing. Clarity and conciseness are largely dependent on the organization of the paper, writing style, bias, and grammar usage. Each of these dynamics has a crucial role in creating a sense of connection between the writer and his/her audience. The sixth chapter ‘Crediting Sources’ provides further guidance on how citations and references can be leveraged to enhance both the credibility and relevance of a piece (APA, 2010). This section acknowledges the challenge often faced by writers as they engage in personal communication: this kind of communication involves the use of private content, which can only be included in the in-text citations, but not the reference list.

Personal Communication

The two main types of communications in academic writing include personal and interpersonal, depending on the reader’s ability to retrieve the primary data: the first includes pieces of information that cannot be retrieved by the reader while the latter are retrievable. Personal communications include live speeches, personal interviews, emails, online chats, text messages, unrecorded classroom lectures, letters, non-archived discussion group messages/bulletins, and memos (Appelbaum, et al., 2018). As highlighted earlier, personal communications cannot be included in the reference list, so it is important to incorporate sufficient details inside the text. For example, email messages received from John Doe on September 8, 2020 will be cited as either (D. John, email, September 8, 2020) or D. John (email, September 8, 2020). Noteworthy is the fact that the first is written in a parenthetical manner while the latter assumes a narrative structure, yet both are correct.

Levels of Heading

As stated, clarity and conciseness are primary quality indicators in the APA style of writing. For a writer to experience proficiency in this factor, he/she should be willing to utilize the APA level of headings (APA, 2010). According to the sixth edition edicts, APA pieces ought to abide to the five-level heading protocol.

First-Level Heading. Typically, first-level headings should be centered, boldface, with both uppercase and lowercase words. The headings “Introduction” and “Effective Communication” are good examples of first-level header. Noteworthy is how they have been applied to shape the discussion.

Second-Level Heading. On the other hand, the second-level heading follows the same technique save for the fact that it is flushed left. The present subsection “Levels of Heading” offers a clear illustration of how this level of heading can be applied in an article to advance the discussion.

Third-Level Heading. The third-level heading in APA is usually used as further advancement of the argument summarized in the second-level heading. The preceding parts have presented clear illustrations of how the first two levels of heading are utilized in the writing process (APA, 2010). At this point, the reader is urged to reflect on how this third-level of heading is used to advance the information summarized in the second-level heading titled “Levels of Heading”.

Fourth Level Heading. Like the third-level heading, this level is also indented and bolded. However, fourth level headings are written in the sentence form, with a period at the end. When taken into perspective, this heading would be written as Fourth level heading (APA, 2010). Unfortunately, this piece has not utilized this level of heading as there lacks a need for its usage.

Fifth-Level Heading. This level of heading also follows the same format as the fourth-level heading, but it is not written in bold. In such a case, this heading would be written as Fifth level heading. Like the other headings, this one has to contain information that advances the previous word.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

What is a DOI?

The internet is a wide network of information presented in a broad range of formats including websites, pdfs, GIFs, video, and audio formats among others. In an attempt to enhance the accessibility of academic information in this huge network, researchers utilize a digital object identifier (DOI) (APA, 2010). A DOI incorporates a string of letters, symbols, and numbers to allow web crawlers to locate a document or article, then link it to a particular website portal. Most DOIs use the following format http://doi.org/10.0000/0000. This link is usually inserted in the reference, just after including the publication.

Why is a DOI Important to a Researcher?

As a researcher, my primary goal is to deliver written content to the desired audience. Such a progressive move cannot be attained without the use of strategic tools such as a DOI. Digital object identifiers allow a researcher to share his/her work via a short link: the audience can also partake in this process by sharing the link (Appelbaum, et al., 2018). This technique makes it easy for information to be disseminated across the internet easily compared to when the audience is only given the option of downloading a piece.

Accessing Information at the Jerry Falwell Library

Jerry Falwell is an online library that applies the ‘information fence’ technique to prevent visitors from accessing data unless they have an active membership. For members, this site offers a broad range of resources including an academic database (for e-books, journals, and other media), interlibrary loan, and access to academic events and workshops. One of the most interesting resource in this digital library is research assistance and student interactions. The research assistance guides site visitors on how he/she can utilize keywords to access the desired articles and research reports.

Conclusion

At this point, it is fair to assert that academic writing is a unique skill that demands efficacy, especially in matters pertaining to academic style and standards. The APA style of writing offers the most appropriate set of rules that ought to be followed by a writer in order to deliver a piece that demonstrates conciseness, clarity, quality, credibility, and relevance.

NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU Reference

American Psychological Association (APA) (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition. APA. Available from https://www.apa.org/pubs/books/4200066

Appelbaum, M., Cooper, H., Kline, R. B., Mayo-Wilson, E., Nezu, A. M., & Rao, S. M. (2018). Journal article reporting standards for quantitative research in psychology: The APA Publications and Communications Board task force report. American Psychologist, 73(1), 3. Retrieved from https://psycnet.apa.org/journals/amp/73/1/3/

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NUR 513 APA Assignment

Nursing theories have been an important part of nursing practice as they have been applied as foundations for nursing practice and the implementation of various patient interventions. The implication is that these theories should be applied depending on the situation at hand to help solve the problem (Butts & Rich, 2021). Therefore, nurses should have sufficient knowledge regarding nursing theories and when and how to apply them from time to time during practice. Therefore, the purpose of this assignment is to explore nursing theories while focusing on the APA format. Various aspects will be discussed, including the purpose of applying nursing theories to patient care, why they are meaningful to current practice, how theory can be applied before planning and providing care, and the best theory that reflects my personal view.

The Purpose of Applying Nursing Theory to Patient Care

            Nursing theories are composed of knowledge-focused ideas and organized perceptions which help in defining the nursing practice scope and the tasks which nurses have to accomplish. Nursing theories are applied in patient care since they provide a fundamental understanding of nursing care concepts. Such concepts delve into the nursing action toward patients and why such actions are performed, which consequently helps the nurses to explore evidence justifying the patient care practices and activities (Kaakinen et al.,2018). Nurses also use nursing theories to help in shaping the nature of care delivery strategies to achieve defined or acceptable care outcomes.

Why Nursing Theory is Meaningful to Current Practice

Nursing theory is also meaningful to current practice since, through nursing theories, nurses strive to improve the quality of nursing care. Theory-guided nursing practice, when integrated with evidence-based practice, lead to improved patient quality of life, self-efficacy, and self-care (Younas & Quennell, 2019). In addition, the use of theories ensures that nurses implement care decisions based on proven and reliable data, hence improving care.

How Nursing Theory Can be Applied Before Planning and Providing Care

Nursing theory can be applied prior to planning and provision of care with the main focus of informing advances in scientific reasoning, academic research, and clinical practice. Nursing theory can be applied to nursing care principles and concepts to help in optimizing care. As such, the underpinnings of a nursing theory can be used to inform care decisions that will be used when the time for offering patient care comes to improve the chances of success, as theories have proven frameworks (Kitson, 2018). The nursing theories offer principles that underpin practice hence helping in nursing knowledge generation. This knowledge is key when planning and implementing care.

The Theory That Best Reflects Personal View

            The theory that best reflects my personal view is Jean Watson’s theory of Human Caring. As a nurse, I believe that a patient should be offered the most appropriate care and that while caring for patients, they should show humanism. This is in harmony with Jean Watson’s theory which is concerned with the nursing humanistic aspects integrated with nursing practice and scientific knowledge (Wei et al.,2018). The theory also stresses that nursing should focus on health promotion, illness prevention, offering care to those who are sick, and health restoration. This theory has been helpful when planning and providing care to my patients as I have been focusing on the carative factors to plan for patient care. Above all, I have applied the theory’s principle to plan for health promotion for my patients.

Conclusion

            The use of nursing theories is key in patient care, and the fact that nursing theories are applied to various aspects of care makes nursing a unique discipline. Integration of theory-based care and evidence-based practice promotes patient care and outcomes. It is important for nurses to have adequate knowledge regarding the theories and when to apply them.

NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU References

Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2021). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Kaakinen, J. R., Coehlo, D. P., Steele, R., & Robinson, M. (2018). Family health care nursing: Theory, practice, and research. FA Davis.

Kitson, A. L. (2018). The fundamentals of care framework as a point-of-care nursing theory. Nursing Research67(2), 99-107. Doi: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000271

Wei, H., Fazzone, P. A., Sitzman, K., & Hardin, S. R. (2019). The Current Intervention Studies Based on Watson’s Theory of Human Caring: A Systematic Review. International Journal for Human Caring23(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.20467/1091-5710.23.1.4

Younas, A., & Quennell, S. (2019). Usefulness of nursing theory‐guided practice: an integrative review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences33(3), 540-555. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12670

NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU Assessment Description

APA style is used for professional writing in nursing and health care. As a professional, it is important to be able to clearly communicate your research or professional writing in an accurately formatted paper using the most current APA style. The purpose of this assignment is to write a 500-750 word paper focusing on the proper application of APA style.

Data-based decision-making allows healthcare systems to generate real-time insights and predictions to optimize their performance. They can test the success of different strategies and make informed decisions for sustainable evidence-based healthcare provision and growth (Katkade et al., 2018). Clients require such information to choose healthy behaviors, demand effective policies and services, and hold health institutions and governments accountable for allocating and using resources for health. The essay summary seeks topropose strategies for meeting the data needs of Vila Health. While Vila Health operating in a community need to elucidate to stakeholders the type of clients it serves, and the results of its treatments, the usage of data in making such decisions is critical.

Types of Internal Data Available within a Health Care System

Internal data is information, statistics, and trends that healthcare organizations discover through their operations. It includes facts and figures that they pull from internal databases, software, customers, and reports (Mehta & Pandit, 2018). The data include information systems such as a radiology information system, a cancer registry, or the patient financial system. The internal data can be classified as electronic health records, administrative, claims, patient and disease registries, health surveys, and clinical trials.

Refer to the resources in the Class Resources and Student Success Center for assistance with APA. Use the APA Style Guide resource, located in the Student Success Center, to complete this assignment.

Include the following in your paper:

  1. Describe the purpose of applying nursing theory to patient care.
  2. Explain why nursing theory is meaningful to current practice.
  3. Explain how a nursing theory can be applied before planning and providing care in current practice.
  4. Discuss which theory best reflects your personal view of the essence of nursing and how it has been helpful to you for planning and providing careto your patients.

You are required to cite a minimum of three sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA style and formatting criteria and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as an appendix at the end of your paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Attachments

Select one theory discussed during Topics 4 and 5. Describe how this theory applies to your future role in advanced nursing practice (individuals, families, communities, and special populations)? Why or why not? Use examples from your current practice to illustrate differences or similarities.

As a Nurse Educator in a college environment, guiding students and influencing their climb to success is an honor. The Nurse Educator must have strong clinical skills, effective communication techniques and sensitive awareness of different personalities. Everyone learns in a different way, and each person may have unique barriers to attaining knowledge that must be constructively addressed. Nursing school is a rigorous program, and making sure nobody feels left behind is important.

Imogene’s theory of goal attainment is a nursing model that defines the action, reaction and interaction that a nurse and patient have in response to a situation. This theory can also include that of a nurse educator and nursing student problem solving together. This theory utilizes key elements which includes roles, stress, space, and time. Meeting necessary standards can be difficult at times, and these four factors are heavily involved in possible hardships surrounding the achievement of desired goals (McQueen, 2017).

I found an article that addresses the millennial generation of students and graduates. This generation has many positive attributes associated with many areas including technology, confidence and ambitions. The article states that “In the last years, nurse educators have been introduced to and provided information on strategic teaching methodologies for millennial students in nursing programs in the United States (McQueen, 2017)”. Imogene’s theory helps provide a framework to guide and mentor the upcoming graduate nurse into their practice. Different types of learning modalities can be utilized to empower this generation to create change and become effective leaders within the profession. Health care delivery can be greatly improved and utilizing Imogene’s goal attainment theory can be highly beneficial in the success of this important generational movement (McQueen, 2017).

For roles, the nurse educator can establish an appropriate relationship with the students gaining respect and trust. Stress can be reduced by defining mutual appreciation and understanding between the educator and student. This can help create a safe and healthy learning environment. Space can define the educator’s ability to let the student experience learning opportunities in a constructive way, with criticism being delivered as guidance not reprimand. Time can involve the sharing of the educator’s knowledge and experience with the student. This, in turn, can help to identify weaknesses and strengths, and can help set reasonable goals for each unique individual eventually leading to goal attainment.

We have nursing students come in our unit often. I try my best to positively influence these student nurses’ confidence and provide as much as I can for them for the short amount of time I have. I not only teach about the daily nursing tasks, but also comfort them with my own experiences as a student nurse and practicing nurse. Reassuring them on their capabilities and letting them do things on their own while I stand by really means a lot to them.

NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU Reference:

McQueen, L, Cockroft, M, & Mullins, N. (2017). Imogene king’s theory of goal attainment and the millennial nurse: an important mentoring tool for nurse educators. 12(3): 223-225. Teaching and Learning in Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2017.03.003.

Nursing theories consist of concepts, perspectives, frameworks and hypotheses that guide nurses in care delivery. Theorists develop these models using inductive and deductive reasoning. The use of nursing theories is critical as it allows one to address issues in care provision and promote the attainment of positive patient outcomes (Watson & Woodward, 2020). The purpose of this essay is to explore the role and importance of nursing theories based on their purpose and significance to the current practice.

Purpose of Applying Nursing Theory to Patient Care

The use of nursing theories is critical to patient care because of the different purposes that they serve. Nursing theories assist in informing every interaction between nurses and patients. Through defining the features of the nurse-patient interaction, these theories shape how nurses develop relationships with patients (Wei et al., 2019). The purpose of most nursing theories is to help nurses identify care needs among patients, articulate what they can do for patients and why they do it, and determine the kind of information to collect to develop care plans. Through theories, nurses can comprehend and evaluate health situations, explain and anticipate certain responses from patients and map out objectives and anticipated outcomes (Bahabadi et al., 2020). These theories also help nurses determine the interventions to deliver, best practices, and selection of productive areas for research. The implication is that nursing theories are fundamental to quality care provision as they help nurses to possess background propositions to offer the best care.

Importance of Nursing Theory in Current Practice

The current practice trends implore nurses to offer innovative and patient-centered care to enhance outcomes. Models like the Quadruple Aim, evidence-based practice (EBP), and value-based care all urge nurses to be well-positioned to offer quality and cost effective care to patients and maintain their wellness in practice. Therefore, nursing theories are essential to the current practice as they offer nurses background approaches to the integration of these models. Nursing theories are essential because of the focus on patient-centered care. The use of nursing theories enhances values and goals of nursing practice implying that nursing models can only work when there are proper guidelines in care provision. These theories are interconnected and inextricably intertwined in nursing practice, irrespective of the nursing situation or circumstance. The application of nursing theories in any nursing situation means that nurses are keen on improving care outcomes, reducing the cost of care, and increasing accessibility.

The current practice environment emphasizes inter-professional collaboration and teamwork to deliver quality care. Therefore, through these theories like Nola Pender’s health promotion model, nurses understand their roles and the actions that they can initiate to improve public health (Bahabadi et al., 2020). Theories provide answers to complex nursing healthcare issues that emerge based on trends like increased use of technology to offer virtual health care services.

Application of a Nursing Theory

Planning and providing care in current practice are essential as they allow nurses to understand and use the most appropriate and effective interventions to deliver care. Nursing theories focus on the four main concepts in nursing metaparadigm. These include the person, the environment, health and nursing (Ortiz, 2018). The use of a nursing theory implies that one must focus on the metaparadigm when offering care. The planning should focus on patients, their environment, the need to attain healthy outcomes, and the role of nurses or nursing in this context.

Dorothea Orem’s self-care model entails three critical areas that include self-care, self-care deficit, and the nursing process. Similarly, Watson’s caring model emphasizes the significance of allowing patients to attain independence and understand their underlying conditions and what they can do to alleviate adverse outcomes (Watson & Woodward, 2020). Therefore, nurses can use a theory to plan care provision as it will help determine what they need to implement their care plans in consultation with the patient. Gathering information before the care provision is essential and requires nurses to leverage appropriate theories in nursing.

Theory Reflecting my Personal Perspective on the Essence of Nursing

Theories are essential in nursing because they offer guidelines and a framework, concepts and approaches that one can deploy to offer quality patient-centered care. Younas & Quennell (2019) assert that theory-guided practice in nursing leads to better quality of life, increased self-efficacy and self-care and reduces patient’s levels of stress, especially those with chronic conditions. The theory that aligns with personal perspective on nursing is Watson’s caring theory. Watson asserts that effective caring regenerates life energies and potentiates individual capability. Caring promotes self-actualization and mutually benefits both the patient and the nurse (Watson & Woodward, 2020). The theory advances that nursing is about health promotion, prevention of illness, caring for the sick and restoration of health. The theory captures my perspective on nursing since I believe that nursing is a selfless profession to help people attain the best outcomes from their health conditions. The theory has been effective in planning and providing care to patients as it focuses on health promotion and interventions that can guarantee better outcomes. Nurses must demonstrate the ten carative factors that Jean advances like willingness to learn to enhance one’s caring experience.

Conclusion

The use of nursing theories is critical as it offers guidelines on how nurses can implement different components of care provision and attain quality patient outcomes. Nursing theories are essential because they help nurses to generate interventions to improve care and understand their roles in care provision. Theories also help in shaping nurses’ personal perspectives on nursing and promotion of quality care.

NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU References

Bahabadi, F. J., Estebsari, F., Rohani, C., Kandi, Z. R. K., Sefidkar, R., & Mostafaei, D. (2020).

Predictors of health-promoting lifestyle in pregnant women based on Pender’s health promotion model. International Journal of Women’s health, 12, 71. DOI: 10.2147/IJWH.S235169.

DeNisco, S. M. (2019). Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession:

            Essential Knowledge for the Profession. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Ortiz, M. R. (2018). Patient-centered care: Nursing knowledge and policy. Nursing science

quarterly, 31(3), 291-295. DOI: 10.1177/0894318418774906.

Watson, J., & Woodward, T. (2020). Jean Watson’s theory of human caring. SAGE Publications

Limited.

Wei, H., Fazzone, P. A., Sitzman, K., & Hardin, S. R. (2019). The Current Intervention Studies

Based on Watson’s Theory of Human Caring: A Systematic Review. International Journal for Human Caring, 23(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnss.2018.12.001

Younas, A., & Quennell, S. (2019). Usefulness of nursing theory‐guided practice: an integrative

review. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 33(3), 540-555. DOI: 10.1111/scs.12670.

Topic 4 DQ 1

Nursing theories are essential components as they offer organized bodies of knowledge to help nurses define nursing, what they do and reasons for doing it. Nursing theories allow nurses to define the profession as a unique discipline which is different from others based on the concepts that it advances to help guide the nursing practice (DeNisco, 2019). Dorothea Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory and Jean Watson’s caring theory are critical nursing theories used by nurses in their practice to help them deliver quality care.

Orem’s self-care deficit advances that all people have the ability to perform se3lf-care and maintain their health and life to meet the nursing paradigms of human, health, environment and nursing. The model has three components that include self-care, self-care deficit and the nursing process (Smith, 2019). The theory advances that individuals have self-care capabilities but when they lack due to certain deficits, the nursing process becomes critical to allow them overcome the challenges. The nursing process focuses on overcoming human limitations for needs and self-care. Nurses can help their patients to enhance self-care through acting and doing, guiding and supporting, promoting personal development and teaching.

Watson’s caring model advances that caring is core to nursing process and it should focus on holistic model aimed at health promotion and disease prevention (DeNisco, 2019). The theory has four ideas that include the value of human being, health being of essence for overall mental, physical, and social functioning, and society offering values and goals. Fourthly, the theory advances that nursing is a human science.

Both theories demonstrate that nursing is essential to overall quality outcomes for patients. Both Watson and Orem emphasizes the need for nursing process to be patient-centered. The two theories assert the role of nurses as assisting individuals maintain their health (Ortiz, 2018). They also agree that health should be holistic by embracing all components of care. However, while Watson’s focus is on holistic care, Orem’s focus is identification of gaps in the nursing process to improve overall outcomes. Further, Orem’s theory has three main parts while Watson’s model focuses on five critical areas in care provision (Smith, 2019). The intent of Orem’s theory is nursing process while Watson’s intent on personalized patient care. Watson’s theory is more relevant to my future role as a nurse leader since it focuses on provision of holistic care services to patients.

NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU References

DeNisco, S. M. (2019). Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession:

            Essential Knowledge for the Profession. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Ortiz, M. R. (2018). Patient-centered care: Nursing knowledge and policy. Nursing science

            quarterly, 31(3), 291-295. doi: 10.1177/0894318418774906.

Smith, M. C. (2019). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.

The two different nursing theories that I am going to compare, and contrast are Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations and Imogene King’s Theory of Goal Attainment. The main idea of Peplau’s theory is that the relationship between a nurse and patient is a substantial part of nursing practice and significantly affects patient outcomes (Gonzalo, 2021a). Peplau believed that nurses must clearly understand who they are as well as their different viewpoints to be able to help patients to their full potential because if we know ourselves, we avoid limiting patient choices (Gonzalo, 2021a). One of the most important skills a nurse must have to fulfill this theory is communication and interviewing skills (Gonzalo, 2021a). The main idea of King’s theory is the attainment of certain life goals by a nurse following the process of action, reaction, and interaction (Gonzalo, 2021b). The patient shares information with the nurse about their perception of what is happening and then goals are set together and achieved (Gonzalo, 2021b). King believes that the focus of nursing is the care of the patient and that humans are open systems that constantly interact with their environment (Gonzalo, 2021b). King really just follow’s the basics of the nursing process where a nurse and patient communicate, set goals, and act to achieve those goals (Gonzalo, 2021b). The one think they both have very much in common is that in the end their goal is to overall improve patient outcomes.

Although I think both theories are very important and should be implemented in all nursing careers the one that I think may be more relevant to my future role is Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations. I really believe that if I go into nursing leadership and management, I need to have a big focus on communication and interviewing skills. I also believe that Peplau’s theory can work towards patients as well as nurses. If you are a manager being able to effectively communicate with nurses under your supervision can really improve their outcomes as a nurse which in turn positively impacts patient outcomes. I think it is very important that we all understand ourselves on a very deep level to prevent bias actions.

NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU References

Gonzalo, A. B. (2021a, March 5). Hildegard peplau: Interpersonal relations theory. Nurseslabs. https://nurseslabs.com/hildegard-peplaus-interpersonal-relations-theory/

Gonzalo, A. B. (2021b, March 5). Imogene king: Theory of goal attainment. Nurseslabs. https://nurseslabs.com/imogene-m-kings-theory-goal-attainment/

TOPIC 4 DQ 2

The two different nursing theories I am going to describe are Faye Abdellah’s Typology of 21 Nursing Problems and Dorothea Orem’s theory. Faye Abdellah had a very unique nursing theory as she complied 21 nursing problems that fall into specific categories such as basic human needs, interpersonal relationships, and other common patient care elements. She then created a ten-step problem-solving method and eleven nursing skills to fix these nursing/patient problems. Abdellah viewed nursing as a comprehensive service. As you can imagine her theory is very lengthy with many parts but has great content. I would recommend checking it out. Abdellah uses a patient-centered approach to nursing and the theory is considered a human needs theory (Gonzalo, 2021b). Some pros to Abdellah’s theory are that she create the model to guide care in all settings not just to hospitals as well as the model was created in a way that healthcare providers and practitioners can use it as well (Gonzalo, 2021b). The language Abdellah uses is simple and very logical making it easy to use (Gonzalo, 2021b). Some of the cons of her theory is that it is inconsistent with the concept of holism because of this, patients may be diagnosed with numerous problems causing care to be spread across many different teams leading to the possibility of certain things being overlooked or forgotten about (Gonzalo, 2021b).  Overall, her theory can definitely be used for successfully enticing behavioral change since it is so patient centered and has steps that are needed for this success. 

Dorthea Orem’s theory is a Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. One interesting fact is that it is considered a grand nursing theory, which means it is broad and can be applicable to all nursing (Gonzalo, 2021a). The general idea of Orem’s theory is to assist others in management of self-care to maintain human functioning and to be able to perform activities of daily living to maintain life, health, and well-being (Gonzalo, 2021a). Some of the key points are to stay alive people must participate in constant communication among themselves and their environment, mature humans are able to perform all actions of self-care, in times of incapacity humans with structured relationships can delegate care to those willing to help them (Gonzalo, 2021a). I really love Orem’s theory because I think that it needs to be practiced by all and I think that everyone at some point in their lives has struggled with self-care. A great definition of self-care agency was provided and states that, “Self-care agency is the human’s ability or power to engage in self-care and is affected by basic conditioning factors” (Gonzalo, 2021a). Some pros of Orem’s theory are that it is applicable to all healthcare providers, that it provides a comprehensive basis for nursing practice, ad that is specifically defines when nursing is needed (Gonzalo, 2021a). Some of the cons are that although her theory seems simple it is actually really complex, and not as simple to follow as Abdellah’s. Also, there is limited acknowledgement of the patient emotional needs (Gonzalo, 2021a). Overall, her theory can also be used for successfully enticing behavioral change as the main idea is literally changing a patient’s behavior of self-care. This theory focuses on patient’s independence and really tries to show that all patients want to care for themselves. Patients can recover more quickly by performing their own self-care as much as they’re able (Gonzalo, 2021a). 

NUR-513 APA Assignment GCU References 

Gonzalo, A. B. (2021a, March 5). Dorothea orem: Self-care deficit theory. Nurseslabs. https://nurseslabs.com/dorothea-orems-self-care-theory/ 

Gonzalo, A. B. (2021b, March 5). Faye abdellah: 21 nursing problems theory. Nurseslabs. https://nurseslabs.com/faye-g-abdellahs-21-nursing-problems-theory/ 

Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is the first theory that I would like to examine. Watson’s approach incorporated elements from the fields of nursing, therapeutic, educational, and social psychology. Caring relationships between patient and caregiver, carative circumstances, and caring occasion/moment are the primary conceptual parts of the approach. This philosophy encourages, on a broader scale, self-awareness and connectivity with humanity and the universe (Gunawan et al, 2022). The purpose of Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is to identify the beneficial characteristics of caring nursing and their effect on patients. Watson eventually used the term caritas for carative. This changed theory nomenclature from a medical antonym to a nursing-specific patient care theory. The fundamental caritas processes are accept, inspire, nurture, trust, forgive, balance, humanity, deepen, co-create, and infinity. This caritas theory approach is seen as a set of nursing competencies for caring for others (Gunawan et al, 2022). Watson’s Theory of Human Caring applies to all nursing personnel. As they should demonstrate caritas as a competency for caring for others. This applies to the highest levels of administration as well as the nursing personnel. Watson’s Theory of Human Caring has as its ultimate objective the protection, preservation, and enhancement of human dignity.

The second nursing theory I will discuss is Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory (OSCDT). People-centered care and population health, which specifically addresses social determinants of health, are two OSCDNT concepts that continue to be relevant (SDOHs). In order for nurses to play a role in empowering and engaging individuals in their healthcare, reducing health inequities, and enhancing healthcare outcomes, these are important (Hartweg & Metcalfe, 2022). OSCDT aims to structurally and functionally include self-care into the scope of nursing practice by increasing the personal, health, and sociocultural aspects of self-care. According to Hartweg and Metcalfe (2022), the OSCDT defines self-care as “the practice of actions that individuals initiate and undertake on their own behalf for the purpose of maintaining life, health, and well-being.” The scope of this theory is to empower patients and their families to take on a greater and more ongoing role in their own care. The objective of OSCDT is to enable nurses to collaborate with their patients in order to support them in attaining better outcomes.

Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory both employ the themes of caring for and preserving human dignity. While Watson’s Theory is more focused on nursing practices throughout the healthcare system, Orems’ theory is more concerned with enabling the patient to improve their health through a strong collaborative relationship with the nurses providing assistance. I believe Watson’s Theory of Human Caring will be more applicable to my future position because it focuses more on nursing behaviors and influences all levels of nursing positions.

References

Gunawan, J., Aungsuroch, Y., Watson, J., & Marzilli, C. (2022). Nursing Administration: Watson’s theory of human caring. Nursing Science Quarterly35(2), 235–243. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/08943184211070582

Hartweg, D. L., & Metcalfe, S. A. (2022). Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory: Relevance and need for refinement. Nursing Science Quarterly35(1), 70–76. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/08943184211051369

The first theory I’d like to discuss is, Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. Watson’s theory combined components from nursing, clinical, educational, and social psychology. The major conceptual elements of the theory consist of caring relationships between patient and caregiver, carative factors, and caring occasion/caring moment. On a larger level this theory encourages self-awareness and interconnection with humankind and the universe (Gunawan et al, 2022). The intent of Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is to define the valuable aspects carative nursing and recognize the impact they have on patients. Watson eventually replaced the term carative was caritas. This moved theory terminology away from being a medical antonym to a nursing specific theory of patient care. The caritas processes consist of embrace, inspire, nurture, trust, forgive, balance, humanity, deepen, co-create, and infinity as essential to the theory. This caritas theory process is considered a set of competencies for nurses to take care of others (Gunawan et al, 2022). The scope of Watson’s Theory of Human Caring extends to all nursing staff. As they should display the described caritas as a competency to care for others. This extends from the highest levels of management to staff nursing. Ultimately, the goal of Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is to protect, preserve and enhance human dignity.

The second nursing theory I’d like to cover is, Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (OSCDT). Two particular constructs OSCDNT has that hold continued relevance: people-centered care and population health specifically addressing social determinants of health (SDOHs). These are necessary if nurses are to have a role in empowering and engaging people in their healthcare, reducing health disparities, and improving healthcare outcomes (Hartweg & Metcalfe, 2022). The intent of OSCDT is to place self-care structurally and functionally within the scope of nursing practice by expanding the personal, health, and sociocultural features of self-care. As Hartweg and Metcalfe state, OSCDT defines self-care as “the practice of activities that individuals initiate and perform on their own behalf in maintaining life, health, and well-being.” The scope of this theory seeks to empower patients and their families to care for themselves on an increased and ongoing level. The goal of OSCDT is to empower nurses to form collaborative care with their patient to assist them with achieving improved outcomes for themselves.

Both Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory utilize the concepts of caring and protecting human dignity. While Watson’s Theory is directed more towards nursing behaviors throughout the healthcare system, Orems’ theory focuses more on empowering the patient to improve their wellbeing by having a strong collaborative relations ship with nurses providing support. I think Watson’s Theory of Human Caring will be more relevant to my future role because it is more directed at nursing behaviors and impacts all levels of nursing roles.

Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory, also known as Culture Care Theory (CCT), developed after World War II due to Dr. Madeleine M. Leininger’s realization that nurses caring for immigrants would need to understand different cultures. This would require nurses to learn transcultural nursing practices. At the time, Leininger cared for children of different cultures and recognized that she struggled because each child’s behaviors, needs, and responses were unique due to cultural differences. Furthermore, it was clear that each parent had a different expectation of care depending on their cultural background. One consideration that I had while researching this theory was that social media, not yet the norm in Leininger’s time, may help to provide a better foundation for today’s nurses to understand cultural diversity.

This theory is still very relevant in today’s clinical settings. As a leader, I can use the fundamentals of this theory to reinforce the importance of understanding cultural differences more entirely in order to provide culturally congruent care to all patients. The difficulty with this theory is that one cannot immerse themselves into every culture as suggested. Leininger does offer that understanding the philosophy of transcultural nursing and the CCT is a foundation for inciting behavioral changes in nursing. (293-298)

Dr. Pamela G. Reed’s Theory of Self-Transcendence gave birth to two widely used research instruments: The Spiritual Perspective Scale and the Self-Transcendence Scale. She focused on spiritual perspective, self-transcendence, mental health, and well-being among older adults at the end of life. According to Reed, during difficult health-related experiences, individuals expand and refine self-boundaries. One becomes more aware of beliefs, values, personal relationships with people, nature, and their past and future. The difficulty or barrier with this theory could be that people could misunderstand its intent to be that of separation from self or others instead of its intention, the connection to everyday aspects of the environment.

Understanding this theory is very helpful when caring for cancer patients. People deal with their diagnosis differently, but anxiety is one commonality among all cancer patients. Perhaps if nurses understood and could articulate this in a particular way to their patients, it would be a source of comfort. Nurses could use the tools and understanding of self-transcendence as a predictor of well-being and use that finding to guide their patient care.

In conclusion, I found no ethical issues related to either theory. I believe both views hold ethical value and can be used practically by nurses to enhance their understanding of their patients and their patient’s needs.

Change often embodies a noble desire to improve self or a system, but often people fail to recognize the amount of work that is required in order to effect lasting positive change. Havelock and Reddin’s theories of change helps us recognize this as agents of change.

Reddin’s theory of change : is a seven-step technique that can be used by nurses to bring about change. The seven steps are diagnosis, mutual setting of goals, group emphasis, maximum information, discussion of implementation, use of ceremony and ritual and resistance interpretation. This theory also has a participatory element to it.

Step 1: Observe the environment and diagnose the problem.

Step 2: Invite all nurses and anyone who will be affected by the change to a meeting. Discuss what the problem is and why there is a need for change. Solicit their ideas on the best way to initiate a change so that all parties who will be affected will be satisfied with the direction of the change project.

Step 3: Lay great emphasis on the fact that the change project will be implemented by all affected parties. When everyone is involved, there is less resistance to change and more momentum in moving it forward.

Step 4: Provide as much information as possible to the nurses being affected by the change project. This keeps them involved with and informed of what’s going on. It reduces uncertainty and the development of resistance.

Step 5: Create a plan for the implementation of the planned change. Discuss this plan with the nurses and staff who will be affected by it. Let them know the stages involved, the expected milestones, how much it will cost and assistance that will be needed from them. Gather resources and put the plan into action.

Step 6: Study the culture of your environment. Apply any existing ceremonies in the environment to further keep the nurses and staff involved in the change process.

Step 7: Check for resistance to change. After implementation of change, check to see if everyone is complying with the new processes. If a certain number of people still are resistant, work with them to help them gain acceptance of the instituted change.

Havelock’s Theory of Change: has been formulated to manage change through planning and monitoring. The stages are discussed below.

Relationship: Havelock states that a relationship with the system in need of change needs to be established. This could be regarded as a stage of “pre-contemplation” where things are going along as usual.

Diagnosis: Once the agent of change is comfortable with the system as it is, the person or entity being evaluated needing change is evaluated to see if there is any awareness of a need for change. During this contemplation phase, the subject of change must decide whether or not change is needed or desired. Often the change process can end prematurely here because the subject decides that change is either not needed or not worth any effort to correct.

Acquire resources for change: At this change, the need for change is understood and the process of developing solutions begins by gathering as much information as possible that is relevant to the situation that requires change.

Selecting a pathway: The fourth stage of Havelock’s change theory is when a pathway of change is selected from available options and then implemented.

Establish and accept change: Once the change has been put in place, it must be established and accepted. Careful attention must be given to make sure that the change becomes part of new routine behavior. After change has been accepted, the change process can be declared successful.

Maintenance and separation. Now that the change is successful, the change agent should monitor the affected system to make sure that it is successfully maintained. Once the change has become the new “normal,” the change agent can separate from the person or organization that was changed. At this stage, we hope that the person or organization has learned enough about themselves and the change process that they can maintain their new behaviors.

Based on the two great example of theories, I prefer Reddin’s change theory and mentor because it is more inclusive of staff and their input. It’s also very comprehensive because it covers all stages of the change process .

APA Assignment – Rubric

Rubric Criteria

Total50 points

Criterion

1. Unsatisfactory

2. Insufficient

3. Approaching

4. Acceptable

5. Targeted

Nursing Theory

Nursing Theory

0 points

The theory presented is not a nursing theory.

6 points

A nursing theory is presented. The criteria for the assignment are incomplete. There are major inaccuracies.

6.6 points

A nursing theory is summarized. The criteria for the assignment contain some omissions or inaccuracies.

6.9 points

A nursing theory is presented. The criteria for the assignment are addressed with sufficient support. There are minor inaccuracies or omissions.

7.5 points

A nursing theory is clearly and accurately presented. The criteria for the assignment are clearly addressed and well supported.

Title Page

Title Page

0 points

The title page is not formatted according to required style. The title page is omitted.

2 points

The title page reflects some required formatting, but overall it is not correctly applied.

2.2 points

The title page is presented. required formatting is applied but there are minor errors.

2.3 points

The title page is presented. required formatting is applied, although there may be one or two errors.

2.5 points

The title page is presented. required format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

Introduction

Introduction

0 points

The introduction is not presented in required format. The introduction is omitted.

6 points

An introduction is presented but the overall required formatting is not consistently or correctly applied.

6.6 points

An introduction is presented. The required formatting is applied but there are minor errors.

6.9 points

The introduction is presented. The required formatting is applied, although there may be one or two errors.

7.5 points

The introduction is presented. The required format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

Main Body

Main Body

0 points

The required formatting is not used for the main body.

6 points

The way the main body is disorganized. Overall, the required formatting is not consistently or correctly applied.

6.6 points

The sections of the main body are generally identifiable. The required formatting is applied but there are minor errors.

6.9 points

The sections of the main body are clear. The required formatting is applied, although there may be one or two errors.

7.5 points

The sections of the main body are organized to reflect the main points of the author. The required format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

APA Style Citations

APA Style Citations

0 points

Sources are not cited throughout. The required style is not used for citations..

6 points

Citation of sources is incomplete. The use of the required style for citation of sources is inconsistent and incorrect.

6.6 points

Most sources are cited. One maybe missing. The required style and format are typically applied. Some errors are present.

6.9 points

All sources are cited. The required style and format are applied and mostly correct. There may be one or two errors.

7.5 points

All sources are cited. The required style and format are correctly applied and are free from error.

Appendix

Appendix

0 points

The Appendix is not formatted according to The required style. The Appendix and APA Writing Checklist are omitted.

2 points

The APA Writing Checklist is attached in the Appendix but is incomplete. The Appendix reflects some the required formatting, but overall it is not correctly applied.

2.2 points

The APA Writing Checklist is complete and attached in the Appendix. The required formatting is applied but there are minor errors.

2.3 points

The APA Writing Checklist is complete and attached in the Appendix. The required formatting is applied, although there may be one or two errors.

2.5 points

The APA Writing Checklist is complete and attached in the Appendix. The required format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

References

References

0 points

Sources are not documented. A reference page is not included.

6 points

Documentation of sources using a reference page is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and the required style, with numerous formatting errors.

6.6 points

Sources are documented on a reference page, as appropriate to assignment and the required style, although some formatting errors may be present.

6.9 points

Sources are documented on a reference page, as appropriate to assignment and the required style, and format is mostly correct.

7.5 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented on a reference page, as appropriate to assignment and the required style, and format is free of error.

Mechanics of Writing

Includes spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, language use, sentence structure, etc.

0 points

Errors in grammar or syntax are pervasive and impede meaning. Incorrect language choice or sentence structure errors are found throughout.

6 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors are present. Inconsistencies in language choice or sentence structure are recurrent.

6.6 points

Occasional mechanical errors are present. Language choice is generally appropriate. Varied sentence structure is attempted.

6.9 points

Few mechanical errors are present. Suitable language choice and sentence structure are used.

7.5 points

No mechanical errors are present. Skilled control of language choice and sentence

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