NRS 430 Topic 3 CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

NRS 430 Topic 3 CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

NRS 430 Topic 3 CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

Nurses constitute a critical part of the healthcare system. As practitioners, they leverage various theories to offer care. These models allow the to use various approaches to patient care and community health. Nursing theories offer a systematic way of executing nursing practice to achieve quality outcomes. These theories include various components of healthcare and the setting that influence care delivery (Younas, 2019). The theories focus on four nursing metaparadigm comprising of person, health, nursing, and the environment (Deliktas et al., 2019). The aim of this presentation is to describe Dorothea Orem’s self0care theory and its conceptual model. The presentation illustrates how the policy can be applied in nursing settings.

The presentation’s objectives entail providing an overview of Dorothea Orem’s self-care theory, and evidence to support its efficacy in nursing practice. The presentation also explains and demonstrates the theory’s conceptual model. It also explains the integration of the four metaparadigm concepts into the theory. The presentation also shows three evidence-based illustrations of self-care model’s support for the nursing practice based on rationales.

Dorothea Orem made important and long-term impact in nursing through her self-care theory. Born in 1914, Orem worked in different parts in the country to advance the nursing profession before her demise in 2007 (Younas, 2019). Orem developed her nursing model in 1971 and was vital in assisting to shape the holistic approach nurses use towards patient care. Using the theory, nurses can determine the aspects of care they should emphasize. Self-care model also emphasizes the critical role played by patients play in maintenance of autonomy over the nursing processes.

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The theory explains that nurses should intervene in patient care by helping them to make independent decisions based on their autonomy. The theory advances that all people have the ability to care for themselves if given right information and incentive. The model comprises of self-care, self-deficits and theory of nursing system.

According to Orem, Self-care emanates from actions that individuals freely and deliberately start and execute on their own to maintain life, health and wellness based on their environment. deficit occurs when one requires nursing due to incapacitation in providing self-care (Wills, 2019). The nursing system focuses on the interactions between nurses and patients as well as the wholly or partial compensatory nursing system and supportive-educative model that occurs in healthcare settings.

The efficacy of self-care theory is buoyed by diverse study findings which illustrates that health professionals leverage the model to lower costs, develop quality care interventions and allows faculty members to reduce the gap between theoretical aspects and practice for nursing students (Maslakpak et al., 2019). The model helps in enhancing patient outcomes and as it can be used to evaluate appropriate interventions for better results and maintenance of autonomy for patients.

The self-care model focuses on patient care and assists nurse practitioners to think and interact well with patients and colleagues. The framework is vital in development of nursing school curriculum and improving quality of nursing care for patients in different settings by leveraging interventions which are self-sustaining and initiated by patients or individuals in need of care. The self-care model’s primary objective is to ensure that an individual returns and maintains their former state of health and this allows providers to customize care interventions based on patients and their practice settings (Wills, 2019).

The Model’s Conceptual Framework includes three areas: Self-care, self-care deficits and Nursing Agency. Self care contains two aspects that comprise of self-care agency and self-care demands. The self-care agency advances that an individual can care for themselves based on their age, life experience, and sociocultural orientation health and accessible resources (Wazni & Gifford, 2017). The second concept is the therapeutic self-care demand which denotes to the totality of self-care where one performs actions to meet the self-care needs or requisites using acceptable approaches. The self-care requisites are things needed by individuals at al stages of life to care for themselves.

The universal self-requisites affect all people and are linked to life processes and maintenance of integrity of human structure and optimal functionality (Wazni & Gifford, 2017). These comprise of daily activities in life aimed at sustenance of sufficient intake of air, water, food, and having elimination processes. It also entails creating a balance among a host of activities that include rest, solitude and social interactions as well as hazards’ prevention to attain wellness and promote optimal human functioning.

Self-deficit implies that one cannot provide care for themselves due to various reasons. The deficit model illustrates the interaction between the self-care agency and the capability to conduct aspects self-care based on the expected requisites (Wills, 2019). The therapeutic self-care demands may not be satisfied when the agency dos not have the ability to initiate and carry out the respective interventions.

Nursing system comprise of three aspects that include wholly compensating model where an individual attains total care by care provision of the nurse, partly compensating where patients can care for themselves with support from nurses, and the supportive-educative where the nursing system focuses on providing education to individuals to enhance self-care (Bender, 2018). The implication is that the self-care model meets the conceptual framework as it shows that nurses should focus on assisting individuals attain better outcomes based on their abilities’ levels.

The metaparadigm on person and environment requires providers to assess individual abilities of the patient and the influence of their environment in care provision. The person entails the individual getting nursing care. The self-care model incorporates person metaparadigm as it focuses on holistic approach to care. The model implores one to use learned behavior and instincts to meet their needs (Bender, 2018).  The model also encourages learning about one’s self-care needs for effective care delivery.

The environment metaparadigm advances that environment influences one’s health care and the interventions they can take to attain better outcomes. The self-care model emphasizes the need for one to be in appropriate environment and understand their external and internal systems to attain better care. The self-care model is categorical that external environment is essential as it meets the universal requisites like access to water, and food among other aspects.

Health metaparadigm involves attainment of wellness and better quality of life. The paradigm encourages individuals to make necessary interventions to satisfy changes in self-care requirements (Deliktas et al., 2019). An individual should restore their health to the original or former optimal state. Therefore, health as a paradigm implores nurses to assist the patient go back to their former optimal state through self-care approaches (Bender, 2018). The nursing concept needs nurses and other healthcare providers to offer optimal care aimed at meeting individual self-care needs. Nurses should leverage their skills and knowledge to attain this concept. They should also leverage care by using all the four concepts.

Diabetic persons may not have knowledge on how to control their situations and live optimal lives. These persons can use self-care model to get knowledge from providers. In this case, nurses provide information about evidence-based practice interventions like insulin based diets, attainment of low glycemic levels and carbohydrate rich diets and starch. They should also avoid high impact outdoor activities. The second EBP example is having a juvenile individual with diabetes and needs nutrition to recover and be restored to optimal functioning. The minor can have either total parental nutrition or intravenous nutrition. The intravenous nutrition should consists of all elements that include vitamins and minerals, fats and carbohydrates as well as electrolytes. Total parental nutrition requires provision of all nutrients alongside monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Health populations; particularly communities and individuals who have elevated risk for diabetes, should have general education to enhance self-care and prevent diabetes. These include knowledge on symptoms associated with the condition, and knowledge on insulin administration in events of an attack. The public should have information on aspects like glucose monitoring to position patient better to meet care interventions. The education should also enable the public to understand other aspects like not massaging an individual with the condition and locating positions to administer the insulin. Therefore, Orem’s theory is important in attaining better outcomes among diabetic patients and at risk individuals and populations.

Orem’s self-care deficit theory is essential for nurses as it offers a systematic way for dealing with patients and providing appropriate interventions. Evidence shows that the model is effective in nursing practice and supports the four metaparadigms of nursing. The illustrative examples show that the model is critical in evidence-based practice interventions in nursing

NRS 430 Topic 3 CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation References

Bender, M. (2018). Re‐conceptualizing the nursing metaparadigm:

Articulating the philosophical ontology of the nursing discipline

that orients inquiry and practice. Nursing inquiry, 25(3), e12243.

Deliktas, A., Korukcu, O., Aydin, R., & Kabukcuoglu, K. (2019). Nursing

students’ perceptions of nursing metaparadigms: A

phenomenological study. The Journal of Nursing Research, 27(5),


Maslakpak, M. H., Shahbaz, A., Parizad, N., & Ghafourifard, M. (2018).

Preventing and managing diabetic foot ulcers: application of Orem’s

self-care model. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries,

38(2), 165-172.

This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.
This assignment is to be completed in a group, which will be assigned by your instructor. The presentation will be submitted and graded as a group assignment.
Nursing theories are tested and systematic ways to implement nursing practice. Select a nursing theory and its conceptual model. Prepare a 10?15 slide PowerPoint in which you describe the nursing theory and its conceptual model and demonstrate its application in nursing practice. Include the following:

Present an overview of the nursing theory. Provide evidence that demonstrates support for the model’s efficacy in nursing practice. Explain how the theory proves the conceptual model.
Explain how the nursing theory incorporates the four metaparadigm concepts.
Provide three evidence?based examples that demonstrate how the nursing theory supports nursing practice. Provide support and rationale for each.

Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

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Topic 5 DQ 2

Sep 19-23, 2022

Discuss the importance of advocacy as it pertains to client care. What is the nurse’s role in client advocacy? Describe a situation in which you were involved with client advocacy. Explain what the advocacy accomplished for the client, and what the repercussions would have been if the client would not have had an advocate.

NRS 430 Topic 3 CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

Dana McKay

Sep 24, 2022, 9:56 AM

Being an advocate for patients is something nurses do daily. But how do we advocate for them?  When do we advocate for them?

Lampert (2016) makes a good point stating “The first step in successfully advocating for your patient revolves around knowing your patient’s wants and needs” (para. 2). Lampert goes on to remind nurses of the importance of advocating for the patient and what they want not the wants of others such as family members or even the wants of the nurse (2016).

Advocating for the patient requires the nurse to be assertive in discussing the wants and needs of the patient. Being assertive is different than being aggressive according to Lampert (2016). Learning this balance is important.

What are your thoughts on these things? How do you find you can be assertive in advocating for patients?

Lampert, L. (2016). How to advocate for your patient.

Lampert brings up a great point between aggression and assertiveness. I think bedside nurse and advocating for your patients is a huge and very important part of our job because we have a responsibility to keep our patient safe from harm. I believe one can be assertive without being aggressive when advocating for their patient by collecting as much objective information about the patients as possible and presenting it to whomever in this case most likely the hospitalist in charge of the patient in a manner where you have to show legitimate concerning information and direct advocation for your patients health and well being. I believe if you present information in this manner it is assertive and shows concern without being aggressive.

  • Shelby Young


Sep 24, 2022, 4:35 PM

Advocating for your patient helps build trust and overall helps that patients wellbeing and outcome. You’re putting that patients needs and wants above all else, and involving them in their care. We must listen to what our patient wants and think about what is best for that patient when following through with their care plan, making sure they are involved also!

We can advocate for our patients by being diligent in our documentation, paperwork, charting and directions. Make sure to carefully read all orders and double check with doctors, pharmacists, nurse practitioners to prevent errors, misinformation or oversight. When do we advocate for our patients? All the time. Anytime we see or have the hunch that things might be wrong, we have to follow up on it and make sure we are doing everything we are supposed to do to ensure patient safety.

Advocating for patients can help improve patient wellbeing and help to improve patient outcomes. It’s important that nurses advocate for their patients because it gives patients a voice in their own care and helps them to keep up with their treatment and procedures. By having a voice patients can also communicate confidently with physicians and the ones that are invested in their care. Those advocates will take the time to explain and answer questions that they may have (2022).

I’ve advocated for this particular patient because of the lack of care the patient was receiving. The patient had a Specialist a nephrologist as her primary care physician, under normal circumstances the hospitalist will act as the primary medical physician and the specialist would be consulted to suit the patient’s needs and care. The patient was seen earlier that day by the specialist in the office for follow-up but complained about having periods of confusion, Patient was sent to the ED and admitted under his care. The family complained that they felt that the patient their mom was only worsening and requested to see someone else. The nursing staff also complained of the objective data and asked for a consultation with other disciplinaries, neuro, cardiology, and pulmonary.  The specialist refused and stated that this was a result of the patient’s kidney injury and wanted us, the nursing staff to agree to that. This without doubt goes against the standards of care, (2017), therefore we as nurses disagreed and were asked by the family to seek help for their mom elsewhere, I advised the primary nurse to immediately contact the patient advocate and explain the situation we were dealing with. Within an hour the patient had a primary medical doctor, and consults, for neuro, cardiology, and pulmonary. Although there was a delay in patient care, in the end, the patient was able to receive the proper care she deserves. The family even requested that he to be removed as her nephrologist. Once the other doctors came on board, we noticed a significant change in patient status.

Avoiding Liability Blog (2017) Are There Limits to a Nurse’s Duty to Advocate for Patients Retrieved September 2022 from

Haft, J. (2014) What is Advocacy Communication Retrieved September 21, 2022 from

Kolcaba developed the comfort theory after conducting a conceptual analysis of the term in various disciplines such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and psychiatry. The theory is a middle-range theory that focuses on placing patient comfort as the main aspect of nursing care. To Kolcaba, nurses provide comfort to patient when they engage in holistic nursing (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

Holistic comfort refers to the immediate strength that patients experience when their needs are met by nurses who are their caregivers. The comfort theory not only assumes that patients need comfort, but also that nurses have the ability to identify comfort needs and ensure that patients experience holistic comfort (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

Comfort: this is a concept that strengthens patients and is achieved using comforting actions conducted by nurses during healthcare.

Intervening variables: Factors such as social support, finances, and prognosis that do not change during healthcare and healthcare providers have no control over them. They should be considered by nurses when determining interventions that lead to patient comfort.

Healthcare needs: the needs of patients in healthcare settings.

Enhanced comfort: A desirable outcome that occurs after nurses implement appropriate interventions to meet the comfort needs of a patient.

Institutional integrity: the wholeness, values, and financial stability of healthcare organizations at national, state, regional, and local levels. When nurses engage in comfort care, they promote institutional integrity.

Best practices: these are procedures and protocols developed by healthcare institutions for specific patients after assessments. Comfort needs are patient-specific hence best practices should focus on patient-centered care.

Best policies: Overall procedures and protocols developed by healthcare institutions for use in evidence collection. They should facilitate the identification of patients’ comfort needs (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

The comfort theory proves the conceptual model because it encourages the determination of the healthcare needs of a patient and the use of comforting interventions to deal with these needs. In addition, the theory emphasizes on the need of considering intervening variables when providing comfort needs as a way of achieving enhanced comfort.

The comfort theory describes nursing as a process that should involve the identification of the comfort needs of a patient, determining and implementing the most appropriate care plans, and conducting evaluations to determine if the plans meet the comfort needs of the patients. Intervening variables are those that are not controlled by healthcare providers but they affect the patient’s comfort such as availability of social support or finances. It is important to consider these variables before determining effective interventions (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

When patients are comfortable, they become satisfied with the care they receive. Since patient comfort involves taking care of their physical, spiritual, social, and environmental needs, comfort leads to good patient outcomes which is a crucial healthcare outcome. Patient satisfaction with care also leads to good reputations for healthcare organizations (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

Types of comfort

According to the diagram, there are three types of comfort: relief, ease, and transcendence.

Relief: The feeling experienced when an individual’s specific comfort needs are met.

Ease: the state of being contented or calm.

Transcendence: a state where an individual has the ability to rise above pain problems.

Comfort occurs in four contexts: physical, environmental, psychospiritual, and sociocultural.

Physical: Comfort that pertains to bodily functions such as immune function, bodily sensations, and homeostatic mechanisms.

Environmental: Comfort that pertains to the external surrounding of the patient such as sound, light, odor, temperature etc.

Psychospiritual: Comfort that pertains to a patient’s internal self-awareness such as their identity, self-esteem, sexuality, and religion.

Sociocultural: Comfort that pertains to the interpersonal relationships of a patient including relationships with family and friends (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

The four metaparadigm concepts include nursing, patient, environment, and health. in the comfort theory, nursing practice should involve the intentional assessment of patients’ comfort needs as a way of determining the needs and developing strategies to meet these needs. The term patients refers to people in need of healthcare such as families, individuals, and members of the community (Krinsky, Murillo & Johnson, 2014).

Patients are greatly influenced by environmental factors. According to the comfort theory, the environment refers to external factors such as light, sound, and odor that influence the patient’s comfort.

Patients are said to be at god health when they have optimal functioning at physical, mental, and psychological levels. enhanced comfort promotes optimal functioning (Krinsky, Murillo & Johnson, 2014).

The comfort theory considers nurses as very important aspects of patient care, hence it supports nursing practice. the theory explains that nurses are in charge of assessing, identifying, and meeting the care needs of patients in any healthcare setting. The theory also encourages holistic comfort among nurses which implies that the theory views nurses as important professionals (Wensley, Botti, McKillop & Merry, 2017).

The comfort theory also supports patient-centered care which is a critical component of nursing practice. the theory encourages nurses to assess each patient individually and to determine the individual needs and interventions for the patients (Wensley, Botti, McKillop & Merry, 2017).

To successfully determine a patient’s comfort needs, nurses must develop a therapeutic relationship with their patients. nurse-patient relationships are critical in nursing practice because they transform patient experiences and ensure that the nurse, who is part of the patient’s environment, interacts well with the patient (Kornhaber, Walsh, Duff & Walker, 2016).

NRS 430 Topic 3 CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation references

  • Coelho, A., Parola, V., Escobar-Bravo, M., & Apóstolo, J. (2016). Comfort experience in palliative care: a phenomenological study. BMC Palliative Care15(1). doi: 10.1186/s12904-016-0145-0
  • Kornhaber, R., Walsh, K., Duff, J., & Walker, K. (2016). Enhancing adult therapeutic interpersonal relationships in the acute health care setting: an integrative review. Journal Of Multidisciplinary Healthcare9, 537-546. doi: 10.2147/jmdh.s116957
  • Krinsky, R., Murillo, I., & Johnson, J. (2014). A practical application of Katharine Kolcaba’s comfort theory to cardiac patients. Applied Nursing Research27(2), 147-150. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2014.02.004
  • Wensley, C., Botti, M., McKillop, A., & Merry, A. (2017). A framework of comfort for practice: An integrative review identifying the multiple influences on patients’ experience of comfort in healthcare settings. International Journal For Quality In Health Care29(2), 151-162. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzw158

Health care delivery in the past wasn’t an occupation practiced under the guidance of professionals who had to undertake an oath to uphold certain ethical standards for, the safety of a patient to be guaranteed. Instead, it was practiced at home just like midwifery, with little to no knowledge of how to go about what we see as ‘basic’ procedures now, from around 300 A.D (Cohen, 2022). Nursing to be precise, is an old art that has been documented for over 200 years. Nursing has been evolving over time, and this is owed to the contributions of legendary pioneers. Florence Nightingale is one of the most recognized and celebrated pioneers of nursing. Although a descendant of a wealthy family, Florence took interest in public health during a time when health reforms were being debated. According to Donahue (2011), her sanitation campaign saw her make major strides that advocated for nursing as a practice- it is worth noting that she did this at a time nursing wasn’t yet a misconception that was accorded to women. It was considered contrary to social norms for a woman to engage in nursing practices, architecture, and epidemiology. She impacted the Crimean War in 1854, rendering her services to the British Government, reducing the rate of soldier mortality significantly. This went on to birth nursing as a recognized profession: one that would be adopted and emulated globally by governing bodies. This paved way for recognized individuals in nursing like Mary Ann Bickerdyke- during the American Civil War, thousands of miles away.

Furthermore, similarly to the Hippocratic oath taken by health physicians, nurses acknowledged the advancements and strides made in nursing by swearing the Florence Nightingale Pledge which was composed in 1893 by Lystra Gretta and Detroit’s Farrand Training School for Nurses. The date May 12, was even set aside for the recognition of Florence Nightingale’s anniversary. Many liken the 200 years of capitalism to the acknowledgment of Florence Nightingale’s contribution to the health care profession. With a cause supported and championed by other pioneers like Phoebe Levy Pember and Linda Richards, nursing was acknowledged as a profession under ‘mutation’ and has since then undergone several phases of transformation to make it the respectable profession it is today.

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