NHS-FPX 4000 Assessment 1 Applying Ethical Principles

NHS-FPX 4000 Assessment 1 Applying Ethical Principles

NHS-FPX 4000 Assessment 1 Applying Ethical Principles

Applying Ethical Principles

Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, commented that nursing is a reputable and ethical profession. Therefore, operating within the set ethical framework limits nurses from facing legal cases that have been on the rise in healthcare setting. Healthcare professionals often face ethical issues in their line of duty, requiring them to use moral decisions and values to solve these ethical problems (Rainer et al., 2018). Failure to apply ethical principles in solving ethical issues might result in adverse consequences for the healthcare worker. The consequences include license revocation, loss of public trust, and legal cases. These ethical principles have been significant in the past and are also accepted in the care field. Healthcare professionals use these principles when faced with complex decisions involving patients. Therefore, the purpose of this assignment is to address the ethical issue facing Dr. Kerr on the stand of Jenna and Chris Smith concerning immunizing their 5-day-old daughter.

Overview of the Case Study

The case presented is about Jenna and Chris Smith, who are the biological parents, Ana. Ana is a 5-day-old baby who was born in the community hospital without presenting any complications at birth. The family was happy to receive the newborn, and they had a good time bonding with Ana. In their mind, they would do anything possible to make their baby safe because she was the only reason they could smile as family. For this reason, they believed that approaching the safety of Ana through the natural method would reduce the risk of infection in their baby. Therefore, the parents were against vaccinating Ana, citing the increased risk of autism arising from these vaccines. The natural choice selected the Smiths included breastfeeding the baby for the first six months and making their own food out of pureed organic foods for the baby.

The Smiths are intellects who had carried out research on vaccines. Their findings prove that these vaccines increase risk of autism, and they do not see the value that the vaccines would have on their baby; instead, the vaccines would cause potential harm. Ana’s parents have used the increase in autism rates as proof of the unanticipated risks of these vaccines. Their pediatrician, Dr. Angela Kerr, listened to their argument and the reason why they would not want their child to be vaccinated. In her experience and professionalism in healthcare, Dr. Kerr starts by agreeing about the controversies of these vaccines in recent years. However, she further explains that the vaccines have saved millions of children and reduced the mortality rate over the past century. The doctor iterated that the decreased rate of infection caused by the deadly Haemophilus influenza type B, is an outcome of the frequent immunization against the bacterium. Again, the increased cases of measles are also linked to unvaccinated individuals.

Dr. Kerr further clears the controversy linking autism and immunization by explaining that the safety profiles of all vaccines are regularly monitored. The federal government has a system called Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) that is responsible for constant updates of the vaccine data. This system also conducts a nationwide safety surveillance program sponsored by the FDA and the CDC through a special link available to the public. This system allows transparency for vaccine safety and encourages the public and healthcare providers to report adverse reactions to vaccines. No vaccines have proven to be causing autism spectrum disorder or any other developmental disorder. Again, in many studies, vaccines containing thimerasol were thought to cause autism, but it was later confirmed that it does not increase the risk of autism.

Dr. Kerr also reminds the Smiths of the risks of exposure they would be bringing to the unvaccinated children. Some children in the general population have weak immunity arising from genetic conditions or cancer treatments. It is not advisable to vaccinate these children because of their condition. Other children are too young to receive certain vaccines. However, these children are protected because all other children and adults have been vaccinated, reducing exposure to the vaccine preventable-illness (VPIs). An increase in the number of parents refusing immunization for their healthy children would increase the rate of VPIs, putting vulnerable children at risk of infection. Despite this elaborate explanation, Jenna and Chris only confirmed that they understood the doctor’s explanation but still restated that they did not want Ana to be vaccinated at that time. Dr. Kerr is short of additional explanations that might convince this couple to vaccinate their child. She is out of options and wonders how she would handle the case.

Write a 4-6-page analysis of a current problem or issue in health care, including a proposed solution and possible ethical implications.

Introduction

In your health care career, you will be confronted with many problems that demand a solution. By using research skills, you can learn what others are doing and saying about similar problems. Then you can analyze the problem and the people and systems it affects. You can examine potential solutions and their ramifications. This assessment allows you to practice this approach with a real-world problem.

Demonstration of Proficiency

By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the course competencies through the following assessment scoring guide criteria:

Competency 1: Apply information literacy and library research skills to obtain scholarly information in the field of health care.

Use scholarly information to describe and explain a health care problem or issue and identify possible causes for it.

Competency 2: Apply scholarly information through critical thinking to solve problems in the field of health care.

Analyze a health care problem or issue by describing the context, explaining why it is important and identifying populations affected by it.

Discuss potential solutions for a health care problem or issue and describe what would be required to implement a solution.

Competency 3: Apply ethical principles and academic standards to the study of health care.

Analyze the ethical implications if a potential solution to a health care problem or issue was implemented.

Competency 4: Write for a specific audience, in appropriate tone and style, in accordance with Capella’s writing standards.

Write clearly and logically, with correct use of spelling, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics.

Write following APA style for in-text citations, quotes, and references.

Instructions

Note: The requirements outlined below correspond to the grading criteria in the scoring guide. At a minimum, be sure to address each point. In addition, you are encouraged to review the performance-level descriptions for each criterion to see how your work will be assessed.

Describe the health care problem or issue you selected for use in Assessment 2 (from the Assessment Topic Areas | Transcript media piece) and provide details about it.

Explore your chosen topic. For this, you should use the first four steps of the Socratic Problem-Solving Approach to aid your critical thinking. This approach was introduced in Assessment 2.

Identify possible causes for the problem or issue.

Use scholarly information to describe and explain the health care problem or issue and identify possible causes for it.

Identify at least three scholarly or academic peer-reviewed journal articles about the topic.

You may find the How Do I Find Peer-Reviewed Articles? library guide helpful in locating appropriate references.

You may use articles you found while working on Assessment 2 or you may search the Capella library for other articles.

You may find the applicable Undergraduate Library Research Guide helpful in your search.

Review the Think Critically About Source Quality to help you complete the following:

Assess the credibility of the information sources.

Assess the relevance of the information sources.

Analyze the health care problem or issue.

Describe the setting or context for the problems or issues.

Describe why the problem or issue is important to you.

Identify groups of people affected by the problem or issue.

Provide examples that support your analysis of the problem or issue.

Discuss potential solutions for the health care problem or issue.

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Read Also: NHS-FPX 4000 Assessment 3 Analyzing a Current Health Care Problem or Issue

Describe what would be required to implement a solution.

Describe potential consequences of ignoring the problem or issue class=”ice-no-decoration” data-ice-class=”848587″>.

Provide the pros and cons for one of the solutions you are proposing.

Analyze the ethical implications if the potential solution (the one for which you provide pros and cons) were to be implemented.

Provide examples from the literature to support the points you are making.

Discuss the pros and cons of implementing the proposed solution from an ethical principle point of view.

Describe what would be required to implement the proposed solution.

Example Assessment: You may use the following to give you an idea of what a Proficient or higher rating on the scoring guide would look like:

Ethical quandaries are common in health care. Because of the young mama’s age and the fact that she had just given birth to her fifth child, the ethical quandary in your post sounds horribly sad. In my area, the most common ethical quandaries in the adult ICU are related to elderly patients who are subjected to painful lifesaving procedures (intubation, CPR, continuous dialysis, etc.) because their families do not know what their wishes are and do not want to be the ones to make the fateful decision. It creates an ethical quandary for the nurse, who is responsible for carrying out all of the physician’s orders and subjecting the elderly patient to treatments they may not have wanted. Because of those sad situations, I’ve discovered that I ask the difficult questions like “would you like us to do compressions on you if your heart stops?” “Would you like a breathing tube if you can’t breathe properly on your own?” If they respond that they do not want any artificial, life-saving measures, I notify the physician and have them second that important conversation before any action is taken. The state of Arizona has a packet called “Life Care Planning Packet” that contains information on all of the important documents that the patient and their family must complete (Attorney General AZ, n.d.).

Nursing research advances knowledge about health and the promotion of health throughout the lifespan, as well as the care of people with health problems and disabilities, and nursing actions to improve individuals’ ability to respond effectively to actual or potential health problems (Institute of Medicine, 1983). In hospital settings, fall risk is and will always be a concern. “30-50% of falls result in some physical injury, and fractures occur in 1-3% of cases,” according to the National Library of Medicine. There is no such thing as a harmless fall, with psychological consequences leading to loss of confidence, delays in functional recovery, and prolonged hospitalization. However, falls are not true accidents, and there is evidence that a multidisciplinary clinical team approach can reduce their occurrence (Morris, 2017). My facility currently uses the “WAR” strategy, which stands for “within arm’s reach.” If a patient meets the fall risk criteria, we educate them that we must always be within arm’s reach of them when they are out of bed. Patients frequently express their dissatisfaction. However, we always explain that it is for their safety and benefit. If they have any intravenous lines, oxygen tubing, or connections that connect them to their bed. For example, they must contact continuous pulse oximetry before falling. Staff must supervise or stand by to ensure that they arrive at their destination safely. When patients get out of bed, they should wear double-sided skid-proof socks. Bed alarms are required. Patients can, of course, refuse to have better alarms installed, but this is documented. Since the WAR initiative was implemented last year, our fall rates have decreased. We had 16 falls on day and night shifts combined last year. We’re halfway through 2022 and have only had 5 so far. So far, so good!

Resources: Research and Annotated Bibliographies

Content

How do you approach a problem or issue within your organization? How often do you need credible information to solve a personal or professional problem? Credible information is information that is trustworthy. One of the best sources for credible information is the professional literature of the field you are studying; in your case, it will be health care. Professional literature is research that has been written and reviewed by other people in your field.

The following resources can help you as you complete your research and seek out professional literature on a health care topic:

Each of the following research guides is written with a specific program in mind. The one for your program can provide insights about researching topics related to your field:

The following resources provide specific information about annotated bibliographies:

Activity: Credible Evidence

Content

Click the linked Credible Evidence title above to practice evaluating whether particular pieces of evidence are credible and/or peer-reviewed. This activity is designed to support your learning as you evaluate sources of evidence.

Review the twelve resources listed below. For each of the resources, click the level of validity.

Here are two videos from the Capella University Library to help with definitions and understanding about this topic of identifying scholarly and peer-reviewed sources:

What are Peer-reviewed Articles and How do I Find Them?
http://media.capella.edu/interactivemedia/informationLiteracy/PeerReviewedArticles/wrapper.asp

Basics of Peer Review
https://campus.capella.edu/web/library/library-research-skills/identifying-scholarly-resources/what-is-scholarly

Question 1 of 12
Wikipedia
Select one answer
Correct
Feedback
Your answer is correct.

Many people use Wikipedia as a beginning step to get a basic understanding of a person, issue or opportunity. We do not allow Wikipedia to be cited as an academic source at Capella (because anyone can add anything they choose to a Wikipedia posting). 1 point
Question 2 of 12
Journal article peer-reviewed
Select one answer

Correct

Feedback
Your answer is correct.

Primary sources are often published in peer-reviewed journals and are valuable because they report a research study on a topic that may not have been studied before. Peer review includes independent reviews by subject-matter experts. 1 point
Question 3 of 12
Book
Select one answer

Correct

Feedback
Your answer is correct.

Books are generally considered secondary sources. While they are edited, they do not use the rigorous peer-review process that academic journals do. Books can still be useful in your research even if they aren’t peer-reviewed.

  • They can give context to a topic. They can offer a nice gateway to an area.
  • They can steer you in the right direction.
  • Because they are much bigger resources, books often have broad subject coverage at a more basic level. They can be more readable than journal articles.
  • They can offer references to scholarly articles.
  • Try using books to find the names of important authors or founding theorists in a subject area, or to find names of theories or branches within a discipline.

1 point

Question 4 of 12
Trade journal
Select one answer

Correct

Feedback
Your answer is correct.

A periodical containing items of interest about a particular trade for professionals in a trade. 1 point
Question 5 of 12
Government reports
Select one answer

Correct

Feedback
Your answer is correct.

Does the website end in .org, .edu or .gov.? These are non-profit, educational, or government websites. Check to validate the author or authoring agency of the government report. 1 point
Question 6 of 12
Professional organization document
Select one answer

Correct

Feedback
Your answer is correct.

A professional association is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further and support a particular profession. Core documents define the fundamental tenets of the association. 1 point
Question 7 of 12
.com website
Select one answer
Correct
Feedback
Your answer is correct.

As a rule, try to avoid websites ending in .com, as these websites represent commercial, which conveys the type of content that’s being published. 1 point
Question 8 of 12
Doctoral dissertation published
Select one answer

Correct

Feedback
Your answer is correct.

This type of publication is considered scholarly. Peer review occurs through the designated University attended and includes reviews by faculty who are subject-matter experts. 1 point
Question 9 of 12
Newspaper article
Select one answer
Correct
Feedback
Your answer is correct.

Non-scholarly articles written by reporters. 1 point
Question 10 of 12
Magazine article
Select one answer
Correct
Feedback
Your answer is correct.

Non-scholarly articles written by reporters. 1 point
Question 11 of 12
Journal editorial
Select one answer

CorrectIncorrect

Feedback
Your answer is incorrect. The correct answer is b.

Introductions to the current issue from the editor(s) or a discussion of an important issue or policy. 0 points
Question 12 of 12
Blog
Select one answer
Correct
Feedback
Your answer is correct.

A website on which one person or group puts new information regularly. Non-scholarly articles written by one person or a group. 1 point
Congratulations!
You have finished this activity!
You scored:
11 / 12

Applying Research Skills Scoring Guide

Criteria Non-performance Basic Proficient Distinguished
Apply academic peer reviewed journal articles relevant to the health care problem or issue being researched. Does not describe academic peer reviewed journal articles related to the health care problem or issue being researched. Describes academic peer reviewed journal articles related to the health care problem or issue being researched. Applies academic peer reviewed journal articles relevant to the health care problem or issue being researched. Applies academic peer reviewed journal articles relevant to the health care problem or issue being researched, including why the chosen articles are relevant to the topic.
Assess the credibility of information and explain the relevance of the information sources. Does not describe origin of information or relevant aspects of the information sources. Describes a few of the origins of the information and relevant aspects of the information sources. Assess the credibility of information and explain the relevance of the information sources. Assesses the credibility of information, explaining the process used for determining the sources’ credibility, and explains the relevance of the information sources, providing the reasons for considering the sources relevant to the topic.
Analyze academic peer-reviewed journal articles using the annotated bibliography organizational format. Does not analyze academic peer-reviewed journal articles using the annotated bibliography organizational format. Analyzes academic peer-reviewed journal articles but fails to use the annotated bibliography format effectively. Analyzes academic peer-reviewed journal articles using the annotated bibliography organizational format. Analyzes academic peer-reviewed journal articles using the annotated bibliography organizational format, and provides rationale for inclusion of each selected article.
Summarize what was learned from developing an annotated bibliography. Does not describe what was learned from developing the annotated bibliography. Describes a portion of what was learned from developing the annotated bibliography. Summarizes what was learned from developing an annotated bibliography. Summarizes what was learned from developing the annotated bibliography, including examples.
Produce text with minimal grammatical, usage, spelling, and mechanical errors. Produces text with significant grammatical, usage, spelling, and mechanical errors, making text difficult to follow. Produces text with some grammatical, usage, spelling, and mechanical errors, making text difficult to follow at times. Produces text with minimal grammatical, usage, spelling, and mechanical errors. Produces text free of grammatical, usage, spelling, and mechanical errors.
Integrate into text appropriate use of scholarly sources, evidence, and citation style. Does not integrate into text appropriate use of scholarly sources, evidence, and citation style. Integrates into text mostly appropriate use of scholarly sources, evidence, and citation style, but there are lapses in style use. Integrates into text appropriate use of scholarly sources, evidence, and citation style. Integrates into text appropriate use of scholarly sources, evidence, and citation style without errors and uses current reference sources.