GCU Benchmark – Human Experience Across the Health-Illness Continuum

GCU Benchmark – Human Experience Across the Health-Illness Continuum

GCU Benchmark – Human Experience Across the Health-Illness Continuum

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Aside from basic disease prevention, achieving balanced wellbeing is an ongoing process. Many people misunderstand the term “wellness.” Many people associate wellness with physical health, nutrition, and body weight, but it is much more than that. Well-being, according to Paladino and Fromme (2019), should be viewed as a holistic integration of physical, mental, and spiritual well-being that engages the mind, fuels the body, and nurtures the spirit. Historically, wellness has been defined within a disease framework, which means lowering health risks and preventing illnesses. Understanding the health-illness continuum can help promote patient wellness. In light of this, the paper discusses the health-illness continuum and its application to patient care.

Health-Illness Continuum and its Relation to Healthcare

The health-illness continuum depicts a change process in which people experience various states of health and illnesses, ranging from extremely good health to death, that fluctuate throughout their lives. According to Paladino and Fromme (2019), wellness is a dynamic goal and a continuous process; thus, daily decision making in health-related areas is required. The wellness paradigm encompasses the entire spectrum. This is the path that all patients must take in order to achieve a high level of wellness. According to Owen and elik (2018), the health-illness continuum describes health and illness as a spectrum with a high level of wellness at one end and a high level of illness and poor health at the other.

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The middle of the continuum is a neutral point where there is no discernible wellness or illness. People more either side (to and forth) of the continuum daily from the neutral point. A high level of wellness is on the right end of the continuum while illness or death is on the left end. On the left side of the neutral point is the treatment paradigm and this is where the relevance of the health-illness continuum to healthcare becomes more visible (Corrigan et al., 2017). For instance, as one moves to the left end of the continuum, healthcare and medical interventions take over until the person returns to the neutral point. Once the individual returns to the neutral point, it is his responsibility to take measures that can enable him to attain a high level of health (wellbeing).

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Importance of Understanding the Health-Illness Continuum to a Health Care Provider

Understanding the health-illness continuum is very important for a nurse to provide quality and optimum care to their patients. It enables health providers to ensure that patients continue to move towards the right direction along the continuum. A better understanding of the health-illness continuum, health care providers can visualize, plan, and accomplish goals for a healthier lifestyle (Corrigan et al., 2017). For instance, once the treatment paradigm is achieved and the patient has returned to the neutral point, a healthcare provider who understands the health-illness continuum does not stop at that point. He/she may educate the patient regarding strategies to achieve a higher level of wellbeing.  For instance, home health nurses extend this continuum by visiting patients at home to carry out follow-ups as well as provide essential services (Corrigan et al., 2017). They perform this because they have a good understanding of the health-illness continuum.

Reflection on My Overall State of Health

I am well educated and fully aware of the health-illness continuum. Therefore, I understand what should be done and avoided to achieve high levels of wellness. Some of the behaviors that contribute to my wellness include healthy eating habits, regular daily moderate exercise, positive attitude towards achieving wellness, and regular screening of diabetes, high blood pressure, and diabetes which have records in my family (Perugini, Iglesia, Solano, & Keyes, 2017). Other qualities I poses include commitment and perseverance to achieve a high level of webbing.  I tend to ignore things that could lead to mental distress and I attend church for spiritual nourishment. Based on these behaviors, I believe that I have achieved a high level of wellness on the continuum.

Options and Resources Available To Help Me Achieve Wellness

To stay safe, physical options include eating healthy, exercising regularly, and avoiding dangerous or abusive environments, among others. Having a positive relationship with good people while attempting to manage stress and emotions is one of the social options. Reading consciously about good ways to achieve wellness is one intellectual option (Payton, 2017). Attending church to receive spiritual nourishment, which is part of wellness, is a spiritual option. Counseling programs, healthcare facilities, friends, family, books, church, and community resources such as free fields for physical exercise are all available.

Assessment Description

Research the health-illness continuum and its relevance to patient care. In a 750-1,000 word paper, discuss the relevance of the continuum to patient care and present a perspective of your current state of health in relation to the wellness spectrum. Include the following:

Examine the health-illness continuum and discuss why this perspective is important to consider in relation to health and the human experience when caring for patients.

Explain how understanding the health-illness continuum enables you, as a health care provider, to better promote the value and dignity of individuals or groups and to serve others in ways that promote human flourishing.

Understanding the Health-Illness Continuum to Promote Value and Dignity & Human Flourishing

Value, dignity and human flourishing contribute to individual prosperity and a thriving society. Human flourishing comprises of a host of elements that include mental and physical health and encompasses emotions like happiness and life satisfaction, purpose, characters and virtue as well as close social interactions. Dignity is closely associated with esteem and status such that patients thrive and live based on their standards and values. Imperatively, healthcare and provider can influence these components when they concentrate on treating patients and not treating the symptoms and illnesses.

The health-illness continuum model concentrates on mental and physical state of patients. Therefore, it can be deployed as an effective way to enhance value, dignity, and patient flourishment. The concept of wellness that provides the foundation of the health-illness continuum focuses on all facets of an individual (Xiao et al., 2019). These include psychological, cultural, spiritual and intellectual components. Consequently, by accepting this approach, healthcare providers make a critical contribution to the wellbeing of persons and society.

Taking care of a mental health patients and respecting their values allows providers to maintain or restore their health as well as respect their dignity while prioritizing their human flourishment. This approach is essential in treatment of individuals with chronic conditions or those who require palliative care. For other cadres of patients, this approach can create significant changes in their everyday living and offer valuable lessons on improving wellbeing beyond the healthcare situations. The health-illness continuum helps providers to direct patients to attain optimal wellness and health based on health promotion across lifespan.

Reflection on Overall State of Health & Behaviors

Concerning my overall state of health, I believe that it is good and favorable because I currently do not have any kind of chronic disease of illness, physical problems or prognosis that can necessitate a critical evaluation by the health care continuum model. Beyond my physical dimension, my ability to execute duties and body functions is good and I am adjustable to situations. Besides, I always develop a positive attitude to varied things in life despite prevailing circumstances. Furthermore, I have developed healthy factors and behaviors that support my health and wellness beyond the physical wellness. These include healthy and nutritious diets, engaging in regular moderate exercises, having yoga and mindfulness sessions, massage therapies at regular intervals, and being open-minded to evidence-based options and resources to enhance health (Kishan, 2020). These include education and informational materials to enhance my understanding of different aspects of health.

Reflect on your overall state of health. Discuss what behaviors support or detract from your health and well-being. Explain where you currently fall on the health-illness continuum.

Discuss the options and resources available to you to help you move toward wellness on the health-illness spectrum. Describe how these would assist in moving you toward wellness (managing a chronic disease, recovering from an illness, self-actualization, etc.).

You are required to cite a minimum of three peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years, appropriate for the assignment criteria, and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assesses the following competency:

RN-BSN

5.1. Understand the human experience across the health-illness continuum.

Attachments
NRS-434VN-R-IndividualHealthHistoryandExaminationAssignment-Student.docxNRS-434VN-R-Functional-Health-Pattern-Ass
Benchmark – Human Experience Across the Health-Illness Continuum – Rubric
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Health-Illness Importance to Health and Patient Care (C5.1)

20 points

Criteria Description

Health-Illness Importance to Health and Patient Care (C5.1)

5. Excellent

20 points

A discussion on the importance of the health-illness continuum in relation to health and the human experience in patient care is presented. The discussion demonstrates that the health-illness continuum is important to patient care. Strong rationale is offered for support.

4. Good

17.8 points

A discussion on the importance of the health-illness in relation to health and the human experience in patient care is presented. The discussion demonstrates that the health-illness continuum is important to patient care. Some rationale is needed for clarity.

3. Satisfactory

15.8 points

A general discussion on the importance of the health-illness in relation to health and the human experience in patient care is presented. The discussion generally establishes that the health-illness continuum is important to patient care. There are some inaccuracies. More information or rationale is needed.

2. Less than Satisfactory

15 points

A partial summary on the importance of the health-illness continuum is presented. The summary does not fully include the relation of the continuum to health and the human experience in patient care. There are significant inaccuracies. More evidence or information is needed.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

A discussion on the importance of the health-illness continuum is not presented.

Relation of Human-Illness Continuum to Value, Dignity, and Promotion of Human Flourishing

20 points

Criteria Description

Relation of Human-Illness Continuum to Value, Dignity, and Promotion of Human Flourishing

5. Excellent

20 points

A thorough explanation of the relationship between the health-illness continuum and the ability of a health care provider to promote the value, dignity, and flourishing of patients is logically and convincingly presented. The explanation draws clear connections between the role of the health care provider and the promotion of human flourishing. Strong rationale is offered for support.

4. Good

17.8 points

An explanation of the relationship between the health-illness continuum and the ability of a health care provider to promote the value, dignity, and flourishing of patients is presented. The explanation demonstrates that the health care provider does play a role in promoting human flourishing, but some additional rationale is needed for clarity.

3. Satisfactory

15.8 points

A general explanation of the relationship between the health-illness continuum and the ability of a health care provider to promote the value, dignity, and flourishing of patients is presented. There are some inaccuracies, and more information or rationale is needed to support the response.

2. Less than Satisfactory

15 points

A partial explanation of the relationship between the health-illness continuum and the ability of a health care provider to promote the value, dignity, and flourishing of patients is presented, but the connection is tenuous and key elements are omitted, incomplete, or left unexplained.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

An explanation of the relationship between the health-illness continuum and the ability of a health care provider to promote the value, dignity, and flourishing of patients is not presented.

Refection on Personal State of Health and the Health Illness Continuum

20 points

Criteria Description

Refection on Personal State of Health and the Health Illness Continuum

5. Excellent

20 points

A well-developed discussion of personal state of health is included. The discussion demonstrates strong personal insight into behaviors supporting or detracting from health and well-being. The author clearly establishes where personal health falls on the health-illness continuum.

4. Good

17.8 points

A discussion of personal state of health is included. The discussion demonstrates personal insight into overall behaviors supporting or detracting from health and well-being. The author establishes where personal health falls on the health-illness continuum.

3. Satisfactory

15.8 points

A general discussion of personal overall state of health is included. Overall the discussion demonstrates some insight into some behaviors supporting or detracting from health and well-being. The author does not clearly establish where personal health falls on the health-illness continuum.

2. Less than Satisfactory

15 points

A partial summary of personal overall state of health is included. The summary is not informative. Behaviors supporting or detracting from health and well-being are omitted or incomplete.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Reflection on personal overall state of health is omitted.

Resources Supporting Wellness

20 points

Criteria Description

Resources Supporting Wellness

5. Excellent

20 points

Options and resources available that would be extremely helpful to help the author move toward wellness on the health-illness continuum are presented. The author clearly establishes how these will assist in moving toward wellness. Insight into wellness as it pertains to the health illness continuum is demonstrated.

4. Good

17.8 points

Options and resources available that would reasonably help the author move toward wellness on the health-illness continuum are presented. The author establishes how these resources will assist in moving toward wellness.

3. Satisfactory

15.8 points

General options and resources available that would help the author move toward wellness on the health-illness continuum are presented. More information is needed to establish how this will assist in moving the author toward wellness.

2. Less than Satisfactory

15 points

Partial options and resources available that would help the author move toward wellness on the health-illness continuum are presented. It is unclear how this will assist in moving the author toward wellness.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Options and resources available to help the author move toward wellness on the health-illness continuum are omitted.

Thesis Development and Purpose

5 points

Criteria Description

Thesis Development and Purpose

5. Excellent

5 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

4. Good

4.45 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

3. Satisfactory

3.95 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

2. Less than Satisfactory

3.75 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

Argument Logic and Construction

5 points

Criteria Description

Argument Logic and Construction

5. Excellent

5 points

Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

4. Good

4.45 points

Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.

3. Satisfactory

3.95 points

Argument is orderly but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.

2. Less than Satisfactory

3.75 points

Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

5 points

Criteria Description

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

5. Excellent

5 points

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

4. Good

4.45 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.

3. Satisfactory

3.95 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.

2. Less than Satisfactory

3.75 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

2 points

Criteria Description

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

5. Excellent

2 points

All format elements are correct.

4. Good

1.78 points

Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

3. Satisfactory

1.58 points

Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

2. Less than Satisfactory

1.5 points

Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

Documentation of Sources

3 points

Criteria Description

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

5. Excellent

3 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

4. Good

2.67 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

3. Satisfactory

2.37 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

2. Less than Satisfactory

2.25 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Sources are not documented.

Total 100 points

The health-illness continuum is a diagrammatic illustration of a well-being concept that was proposed by John Travis in 1972. It explains the process of change whereby an individual undergoes different states of health and illness, which range from good health and fluctuate across the lifespan to death (Stará, 2017). Health is a process of recurrent change, and individuals must continuously adapt to the changes in their lives to uphold good health and well-being. It is the response and adaptation to health changes and not the change itself that affects one’s health (Dahlberg, 2019). A state of wellness can exist in the presence of chronic diseases when there is an adaptation and effective functioning. This essay will examine the health-illness continuum and discuss why it is essential to consider the continuum’s perspective when caring for patients. I will also reflect on my overall state of health and explore the resources available that can help me move towards wellness on the health-illness spectrum.

Importance of the Health-Illness Continuum When Caring For Patients

The health-illness continuum explains how well-being is more than just the absence of illness as it incorporates a person’s emotional and mental health (Hastings, 2019). The continuum consists of two directions, one that leads to a high level of wellness and another that leads to premature death (Stará, 2017). A high-level of wellness is attained in three steps, namely, awareness, education, and growth, while premature death occurs when there are signs, symptoms, and disability (Khorashadizadeh, 2016). The continuum also has a neutral point that is characterized by a state of no discernable wellness or illness. The continuum further explains that individuals in the direction of high-level wellness are genuinely optimistic and often have a positive outlook regardless of their health status (Khorashadizadeh, 2016). On the other hand, individuals heading towards premature death are genuinely pessimistic and have a negative outlook on their health status.

It is essential to consider the health-illness continuum perspective when caring for patients to help them move past the neutral point to the direction of high-level wellness. Health providers must understand that health is not merely the absence of disease; hence they should assess the state of psychological and mental well-being of patients (Hastings, 2019). Patients may be in the direction of premature death as a result of having psychological distress, which makes them have a negative perception of their health (Dahlberg, 2019). Consequently, health providers should promote the emotional and mental well-being of patients to improve the physical health and overall well-being.

Reflection on My Overall State of Health

I am 25-years old with a good general condition. My BMI is 23.5, and I have no history of chronic illnesses. Nonetheless, there is a positive family history of diabetes and hypertension in my close family members, which keeps me at risk of developing the same conditions if I do not practice a healthy lifestyle. I have an ineffective exercise program that involves walking for about 20 minutes a day, but I hardly engage in moderate-intensity exercises or attend gym sessions. I have a mobile application that counts my daily steps, but I have not been keen on achieving my daily steps target of 10000 steps. I try to take a balanced diet and take about six glasses of water daily, but I hardly eat fruits. Besides, I frequently take junk foods in the form of snacks, which may have contributed to the recent weight gain. Since I joined nursing school, I rarely seek consultation form healthcare providers, but I tend to diagnose and treat myself based on my symptoms. Poor lifestyle choices and self-prescription detract me from good health and well-being.

After learning the effects of diabetes and hypertension on morbidity and quality of life, I have resulted in taking a balanced diet, increasing the intensity of physical activities, and having regular blood pressure and blood glucose monitoring. I have information on what I should do to prevent chronic diseases, and I have taken responsibility for my health to avoid premature death. On the health-illness continuum, I fall under the direction toward greater health and well-being on the step of education. I am aware of the health conditions that I am at risk of, and I am learning on how to prevent the diseases through modification of lifestyle. Besides, I am optimistic about my health status and have a positive perception of my health and overall well-being.

Options and Resources Available To Help Move toward Wellness

Resources that are available include a nutrition clinic in the University’s hospital where I can be counseled and guided on the appropriate diet to prevent lifestyle diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiac diseases. There is also a Diabetic clinic where I can get regular blood glucose monitoring and health education on the prevention of diabetes. Besides, the University has a gymnasium with professional trainers who can help me in developing an exercise routine and help me in keeping fit to avoid being overweight, which increases the risk of chronic diseases. Other resources include books and online information on how to maintain a healthy lifestyle and prevent common chronic conditions.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, a person’s state of health undergoes repeated change as one moves from good health to illness and back to health, and the condition is hardly constant. The illness-wellness continuum is a graphic illustration with two directions, one that directs to a high-level of wellness and another that leads to premature death. The continuum proposes that an individual’s well-being also entails emotional and mental health, and it is not just the absence of disease. The steps to achieving wellness include awareness, education, and growth, while the steps to premature death include signs, symptoms, and disability.

References

Dahlberg, H. (2019). Beyond the absent body—A phenomenological contribution to the understanding of body awareness in health and illness. Nursing Philosophy20(2), e12235.

Hastings, A. C. (2019). Health for the whole person: The complete guide to holistic medicine. Routledge.

Khorashadizadeh, F. (2016). Creation of illness meaning: A central concept of spiritual health. Evidence Based Care6(2), 75-76.

Stará, J. (2017). Health and wellness–conceptual grounding. Acta Salus Vitae5(2), 4-25.

Leila, I like those reasons you shared about why people choose to die at home. Those are as good of reasons as any! It’s absolutely insufferable to not be able to sleep through the night without loud machinery beeping or nurses making rounds, checking vitals. For some reason what you wrote and the experience my family endured as my mom’s father-in-law was dying at home last month, made me recall this story about two sisters who scheduled their deaths at a popular suicide clinic in Switzerland. When the story broke, I was intrigued and looked the place up. They have lavish, cozy suites and patients get a few hours in there before taking a lethal cocktail that puts them to sleep.

Contrasting that with how our relative died last month gets me thinking. He was 92. Of course, his obituary obituary says he died peacefully at home surrounded by family, but the truth is he was ailing for months and on hospice for about 5 weeks. The last 10 days were agonizing. He needed help moving, but he hurt when anyone would touch him. He was mostly disoriented with moments of lucidity. Once he was actively dying, the death rattle started and there was exudate from his mouth when he coughed. It wasn’t pretty, but what’s more, that long, drawn out death from natural causes was exhausting for the family. And that was with the assistance of a Hospice nurse providing “palliative care” in the home.

I don’t want to open a can of worms with regards to physician-assisted suicide. It’s a polemic that people will not agree on for decades to come and even the ANA doesn’t really want to go there. Plus, it’s odd how these sisters did it at such a young age when they seemed well, for all intents and purposes. Yet, a part of me understands their choice because I would like to go on my own terms in a way that is hygienic, comfortable, discreet and without stress on others. Anyway, this was one of those weird stories that really got my goat when it hit the internet so I thought I’d share.

PS. Thanks everyone for all your posts and engagement on these forums this summer. See you all at BC or in the next class here at GCU!

Course Code Class Code Assignment Title Total Points
NRS-434VN NRS-434VN-O504 Benchmark – Human Experience Across the Health-Illness Continuum 130.0
Criteria Percentage Unsatisfactory (0.00%) Less than Satisfactory (75.00%) Satisfactory (79.00%)
Content 80.0%
Health-Illness Importance to Health and Patient Care (C5.1) 20.0% A discussion on the importance of the health-illness continuum is not presented. A partial summary on the importance of the health-illness continuum is presented. The summary does not fully include the relation of the continuum to health and the human experience in patient care. There are significant inaccuracies. More evidence or information is needed. A general discussion on the importance of the health-illness in relation to health and the human experience in patient care is presented. The discussion generally establishes that the health-illness continuum is important to patient care. There are some inaccuracies. More information or rationale is needed.
Relation of Human-Illness Continuum to Value, Dignity, and Promotion of Human Flourishing 20.0% An explanation of the relationship between the health-illness continuum and the ability of a health care provider to promote the value, dignity, and flourishing of patients is not presented. A partial explanation of the relationship between the health-illness continuum and the ability of a health care provider to promote the value, dignity, and flourishing of patients is presented, but the connection is tenuous and key elements are omitted, incomplete, or left unexplained. A general explanation of the relationship between the health-illness continuum and the ability of a health care provider to promote the value, dignity, and flourishing of patients is presented. There are some inaccuracies, and more information or rationale is needed to support the response.
Refection on Personal State of Health and the Health Illness Continuum 20.0% Reflection on personal overall state of health is omitted. A partial summary of personal overall state of health is included. The summary is not informative. Behaviors supporting or detracting from health and well-being are omitted or incomplete. A general discussion of personal overall state of health is included. Overall the discussion demonstrates some insight into some behaviors supporting or detracting from health and well-being. The author does not clearly establish where personal health falls on the health-illness continuum.
Resources Supporting Wellness 20.0% Options and resources available to help the author move toward wellness on the health-illness continuum are omitted. Partial options and resources available that would help the author move toward wellness on the health-illness continuum are presented. It is unclear how this will assist in moving the author toward wellness. General options and resources available that would help the author move toward wellness on the health-illness continuum are presented. More information is needed to establish how this will assist in moving the author toward wellness.
Organization and Effectiveness 15.0%
Thesis Development and Purpose 5.0% Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear. Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.
Argument Logic and Construction 5.0% Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.
Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) 5.0% Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.
Format 5.0%
Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) 2.0% Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent. Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.
Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) 3.0% Sources are not documented. Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

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