CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

NRS 430V CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation

Both Nursing theory and conceptual nursing models are critical in formulating strategies to ensure the delivery of quality care. The two approaches are interrelated; both can be used to develop policies and treatment processes for different patients. Nursing theory and conceptual framework play significant roles in the formulation of different nursing disciplines.

Conceptual Models and Nursing Theory

Nursing theory refers to the collection of statements that describe the connection or association between two or more ideas in nursing practices. Nursing theories play significant roles in the formulation of different nursing disciplines. Nursing theories are commonly applied to enhance the delivery of quality healthcare services (Grand Canyon University, 2018). All nurses apply nursing theories in their daily practices without knowing. Nursing theory can also be perceived as organized and knowledge-based concepts that fundamentally define the scope of nursing practices; it involves creative and restructuring concepts and ideas that project a purposeful, systematic, and tentative perception of a given phenomenon. Through systematic inquiries, both in nursing practices and research, nursing professionals are able to develop new knowledge relevant to the provision of care to all patients.

Conceptual models in nursing often describe a certain way of thinking or ideas of how given nursing theories can fit together according to the theorist (Brandão et al., 2019). A conceptual model can be perceived as the organizing structure that describes the theory. The conceptual model of nursing provides a framework for observation, reflection, as well as the interpretation of a given phenomenon. In particular, it provides guidance and guidelines for different aspects of clinical practices.

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Jean Watson’s Philosophy and Science of Caring Theory

The theory expresses how nurses provide care to all patients. From the theory, quality care is the cornerstone of nursing practice. According to this theory, caring is fundamental to nursing practices since it encourages health to be better than the simple medical cure. Jean Watson believes in the holistic approaches to healthcare processes (Jean Watson Nursing Theory, n.d). Watson’s theory has ten major concepts of factors; the first three factors are based on the philosophical foundation for the art or science of care. On the other hand, the last seven concepts arise from the above foundation. One of the main advantages of Watson’s theory is that it provides a common or universal framework that can be used in different scenarios and the management of different patients. The theory also puts patients in the context of the community, family, and culture.

Watson’s theory can be applied under different circumstances. For instance, it can be applied in the below situation.

A 52-year old has been diagnosed with lung cancer. It is her first afternoon in the treatment process; she is scheduled for therapy the following morning. The woman is divorced, her family lives out of the country, and is unable to travel to keep her company.

The three concepts of Watson’s theory that can be applied in the above scenario include the creation of a humanistic-altruistic value system, creating the connection with the patient by instilling hope or faith, and humanizing sensitivity for self and others. The woman is likely to undergo a life-changing medical procedure that requires sensitive approaches from the scenario given. Also, it is necessary to give hope through creating the connection between the patient and nurses/healthcare professionals involved in the surgical process.

CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation


Nursing theory refers to the collection of statements that describe the connection or association between two or more ideas in nursing practices. According to the theorist, conceptual models in nursing often describe a certain way of thinking or ideas of how given nursing theories can fit together. According to Jean Watson’s theory, caring is fundamental to nursing practices since it encourages health to be better than the simple medical cure.


Brandão, M. A. G., Barros, A. L. B. L. D., Caniçali, C., Bispo, G. S., & Lopes, R. O. P. (2019). Nursing theories in the conceptual expansion of good practices in nursing. Revista brasileira de enfermagem72, 577-581.

Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Dynamics in nursing: Art & science of professional practice. Retrieved from

Jean Watson Nursing Theory. (n.d.). Nursing theorist. Retrieved from

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Topic 3 DQ 2

Nurses use theories and conceptual models to determine patient plans and delivery of care. A nursing theory entails a set of approaches or statement that explains the relationship between or among diverse aspects in care delivery. Theories present defined concepts that offer systematic explanations concerning one or more ideas (Catalano, 2019). On its part, conceptual model provide structure for a phenomenon and direct thinking, observations, and interpretations (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Conceptual models broadly explain phenomenon of interest, expresses the associated assumptions and mirrors the philosophical position.

Dorothea Orem’s self-care deficit theory is one of the most prevalent grand nursing theories that guide patient care. At the core of this model is that individuals are capable of self-care and only nurses help them to attain better outcomes where they have deficits or shortcomings. Orem’s self-care model is emphatic that patients can recover well when they attain certain levels of independence over themselves (Hartweg et al., 2022). The model processes that effective functionality of an individual depends on their abilities to integrate best interventions based on their autonomous decisions. Orem’s self-care model comprises of four concepts that include self-care, self-care deficit, nursing systems, and nursing. Therefore, Orem is categorical that maintenance of one’s health, wellness and autonomy indicate their level of self-care.

The self-care model can be effective when managing patient care based on their condition and healthcare status. For instance, a patient presenting in emergency department with breathing difficulty requires a comprehensive assessment and getting information from him or her. In case the breathing issue emanates from being obese or overweight, it is essential for the providers to recommend evidence-based practice (EBP) interventions to address the issue (Khademian et al., 2020). These may include recommending non-pharmacological interventions like physical activities. The providers will also work with the client to ensure that he gets the right body mass index (BMI). As such, the self-care theory is essential in this case since it allows the providers to recommend measures that the individual can integrate to attain the right weight.


Catalano, J. T. (2019). Nursing now: today’s issues, tomorrows trends. FA Davis.

Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Dynamics in nursing: Art & science of professional


Hartweg, D. L., & Metcalfe, S. A. (2022). Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory: relevance and

need for refinement. Nursing science quarterly, 35(1), 70-76.

Khademian, Z., Ara, F. K., & Gholamzadeh, S. (2020). The effect of self-care education based

on Orem’s nursing theory on quality of life and self-efficacy in patients with hypertension: a quasi-experimental study. International journal of community based nursing and midwifery, 8(2), 140. DOI: 10.30476/IJCBNM.2020.81690.0

Sep 5-9, 2022

Discuss the difference between a nursing conceptual model and a nursing theory. Select a nursing theory used in health care and provide a concise summary of it. Provide an example of how this nursing theory would be effective in managing client care.

A nursing conceptual model is a set of abstract concepts with no specifics. A conceptual model provides a particular and distinct frame of reference through which people, their environment, and their health are perceived. Its main function is to provide a framework for reflection, observation, and interpretation of phenomena and, specifically, it provides guidelines and guidance for aspects of clinical practice. Nursing theories are organized, knowledge-based concepts that essentially define the scope of nursing practice. These theories enable nurses explain what they do for the patients and why. Nursing theories allows nurses to influence their patient in a positive way beyond the bedside. Florence Nightingale’s Environmental theory teaches personal hygiene, lighting, diet and good ventilation which improves patient’s health and promotes healing.

Fawcett J., Cariello F. P., David D. A., et al. Conceptual models of nursing: application to critical care nursing practice. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 1987

What is Nursing theory: Regis College October 28, 2021:

Shelby Young

Sep 9, 2022, 8:32 AM

  • A theory is defined as “a belief, policy, or procedure proposed or followed as the basis of action. It refers to a logical group of general propositions used as principles of explanation” (Wayne,G. 2021). With that stated, a nursing theory would be described as a belief based on nursing, what we do as nurses, and why nurses do what they do. A conceptual model just shows many theories, ideas and thoughts that have been brought up through time. It will show us how these theories could be introduced into our practices. These theories through time are experimented and are what influences our way of practicing. “In 1952, Hildegard Peplau introduced her Theory of Interpersonal Relations that emphasizes the nurse-client relationship as the foundation of nursing practice” (Wayne, G. 2021). Everyone is different, we are not all expected to react the same way to treatment or even how we treat one another. It is up to nurses to be able to put everything aside and the initial patient-nurse interaction to get to know one another and for us to build onto that relationship for our patients health. It not only builds a relationship but it also gives the patient a sense of trust .


Wayne, G. (2021). Nursing theories and theorists: An ultimate guide for nurses. Nurseslabs.

As you rightly stated, the theory of interpersonal relations by Hildegard Peplau plays a great role in the way nurses provide care to patients and the way patients receive the care provided. As nurses, the relationship we create with our patients, the way we communicate with them either through our body language or verbally and the tone of our voice makes a whole difference in how they will perceive the quality of care that is been provided to them. This why we find ourselves in situations where a patient will refuse treatment from some nurses or will ask for another nurse because they don’t like the way nurse X or Y talked to them but will gladly accept treatment from another nurse. I believe a nurse’s initial contact with a patient or client is where the nurse should clearly explain the expectations from the patient and set boundaries for their nurse-patient relationship. And when this is done, conflict will be hopefully minimized with this nurse-patient interaction.

In the field of health care, the development of nursing theories is done with the purpose of providing the nursing profession with information and pointing them in the appropriate way. Indeed, Because of the rising prevalence of chronic diseases in today’s society, the Theory of Health Promotion has emerged as a crucial component of modern nursing practice. Through the application of this theory in practice, nurses are able to identify influencing factors that can assist individuals in implementing health-promoting behaviors to prevent or reduce the risk of conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and a wide variety of other chronic diseases.. I chose to cast light on Florence nightingale. Many people believe that Florence Nightingale, who is renowned all over the globe as the person who invented modern nursing, was the pioneering nurse who first put the environmental theory into reality. This view is supported by the fact that she was named after the person who founded modern nursing. In the middle of the 1800s, she was the first to propose this model of nursing, and a significant part of the reason she did so was that she believed the environment to be a primary cause of disease, which is caused by the air. She acted in this manner because she was under the impression that environmental factors played a significant role in the development of sickness. It has been established that a patient’s health would suffer if they did not have access to certain environmental factors that have an effect on this, and it is possible that these environmental factors are responsible for this effect.

Kolcaba developed the comfort theory after conducting a conceptual analysis of the term in various disciplines such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and psychiatry. The theory is a middle-range theory that focuses on placing patient comfort as the main aspect of nursing care. To Kolcaba, nurses provide comfort to patient when they engage in holistic nursing (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

Holistic comfort refers to the immediate strength that patients experience when their needs are met by nurses who are their caregivers. The comfort theory not only assumes that patients need comfort, but also that nurses have the ability to identify comfort needs and ensure that patients experience holistic comfort (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

Comfort: this is a concept that strengthens patients and is achieved using comforting actions conducted by nurses during healthcare.

Intervening variables: Factors such as social support, finances, and prognosis that do not change during healthcare and healthcare providers have no control over them. They should be considered by nurses when determining interventions that lead to patient comfort.

Healthcare needs: the needs of patients in healthcare settings.

Enhanced comfort: A desirable outcome that occurs after nurses implement appropriate interventions to meet the comfort needs of a patient.

Institutional integrity: the wholeness, values, and financial stability of healthcare organizations at national, state, regional, and local levels. When nurses engage in comfort care, they promote institutional integrity.

Best practices: these are procedures and protocols developed by healthcare institutions for specific patients after assessments. Comfort needs are patient-specific hence best practices should focus on patient-centered care.

Best policies: Overall procedures and protocols developed by healthcare institutions for use in evidence collection. They should facilitate the identification of patients’ comfort needs (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

The comfort theory proves the conceptual model because it encourages the determination of the healthcare needs of a patient and the use of comforting interventions to deal with these needs. In addition, the theory emphasizes on the need of considering intervening variables when providing comfort needs as a way of achieving enhanced comfort.

The comfort theory describes nursing as a process that should involve the identification of the comfort needs of a patient, determining and implementing the most appropriate care plans, and conducting evaluations to determine if the plans meet the comfort needs of the patients. Intervening variables are those that are not controlled by healthcare providers but they affect the patient’s comfort such as availability of social support or finances. It is important to consider these variables before determining effective interventions (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

When patients are comfortable, they become satisfied with the care they receive. Since patient comfort involves taking care of their physical, spiritual, social, and environmental needs, comfort leads to good patient outcomes which is a crucial healthcare outcome. Patient satisfaction with care also leads to good reputations for healthcare organizations (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

Types of comfort

According to the diagram, there are three types of comfort: relief, ease, and transcendence.

Relief: The feeling experienced when an individual’s specific comfort needs are met.

Ease: the state of being contented or calm.

Transcendence: a state where an individual has the ability to rise above pain problems.

Comfort occurs in four contexts: physical, environmental, psychospiritual, and sociocultural.

Physical: Comfort that pertains to bodily functions such as immune function, bodily sensations, and homeostatic mechanisms.

Environmental: Comfort that pertains to the external surrounding of the patient such as sound, light, odor, temperature etc.

Psychospiritual: Comfort that pertains to a patient’s internal self-awareness such as their identity, self-esteem, sexuality, and religion.

Sociocultural: Comfort that pertains to the interpersonal relationships of a patient including relationships with family and friends (Coelho, Parola, Escobar-Bravo & Apóstolo, 2016).

The four metaparadigm concepts include nursing, patient, environment, and health. in the comfort theory, nursing practice should involve the intentional assessment of patients’ comfort needs as a way of determining the needs and developing strategies to meet these needs. The term patients refers to people in need of healthcare such as families, individuals, and members of the community (Krinsky, Murillo & Johnson, 2014).

Patients are greatly influenced by environmental factors. According to the comfort theory, the environment refers to external factors such as light, sound, and odor that influence the patient’s comfort.

Patients are said to be at god health when they have optimal functioning at physical, mental, and psychological levels. enhanced comfort promotes optimal functioning (Krinsky, Murillo & Johnson, 2014).

The comfort theory considers nurses as very important aspects of patient care, hence it supports nursing practice. the theory explains that nurses are in charge of assessing, identifying, and meeting the care needs of patients in any healthcare setting. The theory also encourages holistic comfort among nurses which implies that the theory views nurses as important professionals (Wensley, Botti, McKillop & Merry, 2017).

The comfort theory also supports patient-centered care which is a critical component of nursing practice. the theory encourages nurses to assess each patient individually and to determine the individual needs and interventions for the patients (Wensley, Botti, McKillop & Merry, 2017).

To successfully determine a patient’s comfort needs, nurses must develop a therapeutic relationship with their patients. nurse-patient relationships are critical in nursing practice because they transform patient experiences and ensure that the nurse, who is part of the patient’s environment, interacts well with the patient (Kornhaber, Walsh, Duff & Walker, 2016).


  • Coelho, A., Parola, V., Escobar-Bravo, M., & Apóstolo, J. (2016). Comfort experience in palliative care: a phenomenological study. BMC Palliative Care15(1). doi: 10.1186/s12904-016-0145-0
  • Kornhaber, R., Walsh, K., Duff, J., & Walker, K. (2016). Enhancing adult therapeutic interpersonal relationships in the acute health care setting: an integrative review. Journal Of Multidisciplinary Healthcare9, 537-546. doi: 10.2147/jmdh.s116957
  • Krinsky, R., Murillo, I., & Johnson, J. (2014). A practical application of Katharine Kolcaba’s comfort theory to cardiac patients. Applied Nursing Research27(2), 147-150. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2014.02.004
  • Wensley, C., Botti, M., McKillop, A., & Merry, A. (2017). A framework of comfort for practice: An integrative review identifying the multiple influences on patients’ experience of comfort in healthcare settings. International Journal For Quality In Health Care29(2), 151-162. doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzw158

Topic 3 DQ 2

Discuss the difference between a nursing conceptual model and a nursing theory. Select a nursing theory used in health care and provide a concise summary of it. Provide an example of how this nursing theory would be effective in managing client care.

The ability to achieve an end goal with little to no waste, effort, or energy in nursing practice is expressly correlated with the theoretical foundation that defines the nurses’ potential course of action. However, the approaches to the research framework differ in terms of the data available and the desired outcome. Researchers primarily differentiate between a nursing conceptual model and a nursing theory as some of the most widespread in the arena. Hence, it is of crucial importance to define both these conceptions to identify the difference.

According to (Mastal,2018), nursing theory, on the other hand, stands for the process of justifying an abstract phenomenon correlated with nursing concepts. Hence, the nursing theory may be perceived as a more systematic representation of a phenomenon, whereas the connection between the concepts represented in a conceptual model remains primarily qualitative. The major idea of a conceptual framework in nursing is closely associated with the process of defining the patterns of the concept operating to justify the use of a certain theory. Researchers define the conceptual model as a qualitative tool that develops a blueprint for interaction between chosen variables and concepts leading to the expected outcome.

A prime example of a nursing theory is Dorothea Orem’s self-care deficit theory.  Orem states that patients require nursing assistance because they are incapable of providing themselves with self-care to an exhaustive extent. Furthermore, it means that the nurse’s primary responsibility is to evaluate the basic conditioning factors of a patient such as age, gender, sociocultural peculiarities, and health condition to define a proper intervention means. For example, in the context of palliative care, patients are unable to satisfy some of the basic human needs such as nutrition while requiring pain management, medical surveillance, and medication administration. Hence, the self-care deficit theory justifies the nurses’ actions in terms of patient care aimed at creating a satisfying environment (Grigor & Demario, 2020).


Mastal, M. (2018). Evolution of a conceptual model: Ambulatory care nursing. Nursing Economics, 36(6), 296-303.

Grigor, L., & Demario, C. D. (2020). Patient care approach using nursing theories-comparative analysis of Orem’s self-care deficit theory and Henderson’s model. Acta Medica Transylvania, 25(2), 11-14. Web.

Theories are a collection of concepts relating two or more concepts. In terms of patient care and how nurses think, these are the methods and concepts that nurses utilize every day in practice. A nursing theory, on the other hand, is a collection of ideas, explanations, connections, and presumptions that describe a phenomenon or procedure in nursing. It provides a thorough explanation of a single area of nursing, such as patient outcomes, behavior, or communication. It is a more specialized and narrowly focused framework. (Whitney, 2022). It essentially explains how the theory is thought of by the theorists themselves. Nursing another important distinction Typically more abstract, nursing conceptual models offer a comprehensive view of nursing practice. They may not be explicitly observable or testable, but they serve to orient nursing practice, study and instruction. Nursing theories, on the other hand, tend to be testable and measurable and have a more narrow emphasis. Several times, nursing theories are utilized to create hypotheses, test interventions, and assess results. In The Self-Care Deficit Hypothesis, created by Dorothea Orem, is one nursing theory that is extensively applied in healthcare. According to this view, people have a natural tendency to take care of themselves and that nursing interventions are only required when people are unable to care for themselves. Three interconnected ideas make up the Self-Care Deficit Theory: Self-Care theory, Self-Care theory, and Nursing Systems theory (Hartweg & Metcalfe, 2021). The Theory of Self-Care outlines actions people take to preserve their health, such as taking a shower, getting dressed, and eating.  According to the Theory of Nursing Systems, nursing interventions including education, support, and assistance are needed to encourage self-care. For instance, a nurse can utilize the Self-Care Deficit Theory to create a care plan that encourages self-care activities for a patient who has just received a diabetes diagnosis. In addition to encouraging patients to actively manage their illness, the nurse can instruct patients on adequate nutrition, blood glucose monitoring, and medication administration. When necessary, the nurse can also offer support and assistance, such as giving insulin shots or setting up a program for diabetes education.


Hartweg, D. L., & Metcalfe, S. A. (2021). Orem’s self-care deficit nursing theory: Relevance and need for refinement. Nursing Science Quarterly35(1), 70-76.

Whitney, S. (2018). History of professional nursing. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), Dynamics in Nursing: Art and Science of Professional Practice.

I’m in consensus with you on the contribution Nightingale made to the nursing profession in the 19th century, herself with other nurses did research during the Crimean war, the research revealed that mortality rate was high from preventable causes, and in six months they implemented changes like hand washing, clean water environmental hygiene, and the mortality rate reduced from 42.7% to 2.2% and represented the data and analysis report to the British Military, and this led to major changes in hospitals.

In contemporary nursing, with advancement in education and the embracing of technology, nursing research has become part and parcel of the nursing profession. Results from nursing research provide basis for Evidence based practices, improve on current practices for quality and efficient care to patients and clients.

“Nursing research also can be used to evaluate policies many nurse researchers have examined nurse staffing (Lake & Cheung, 2006Staggs & Dunton, 2014). Since 2004, when California implemented the first comprehensive legislation to establish minimum staffing ratio for hospitals, researchers have completed empirical studies to determine the effect of this much debated and controversial legislation”

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