Rough Draft Quantitative Research Critique And Ethical Considerations
Nursing shortage, as previously stated, is a critical issue affecting patient safety and quality of care (Bittner & Bechtel, 2017). Nursing shortages affect the majority of healthcare organizations in the United States today. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) predicts that a nurse shortage in the United States will worsen over the next decade due to the aging of the Baby Boomers. The aging of the Baby Boomers will also result in an increase in care demands, putting additional strain on the already overburdened healthcare system due to a nursing shortage (Mar et al., 2019). The United States’ nursing shortage is also attributed to nursing schools’ low capacity, which does not produce new graduates.
In their studies, the authors looked into the issue of nurse shortages. The study conducted by was one of those that looked into the issue of nursing shortages (Halter, Boiko, et al., 2017). Halter et al. (2017) discovered in their study that nursing turnover is a critical factor contributing to the current nurse shortage in America. As a result, the goal of their study was to look into the causes and consequences of staff turnover among adult nurses. What are the determinants and consequences of adult nursing staff turnover? was the research question that guided their investigation. Halter, Pelone, and colleagues (2017) conducted another study to investigate evidence-based interventions that can be used to address the issue of nursing shortage by reducing adult nursing turnover. The authors acknowledged that nursing shortages are avoidable by implementing practical interventions that target the factors that contribute to them. As a result, the authors’ research question was: what interventions can be implemented to reduce adult nursing turnover?
How do these two articles support the nurse practice issue you chose?
The articles by Halter, Pelone, et al. (2017) and Halter, Boiko, et al. (2017) answers the PICOT question for my project in a number of ways. Firstly, the article by Halter, Boiko, et al., (2017) answers the PICOT question by providing insights into the determinants of factors that contribute to shortage of nurses and its consequences. The information obtained from the article provides information about the severity and magnitude of the problem of nursing shortage, hence, increasing the need for the exploration of interventions to address the problem. The article by Halter, Pelone, et al., (2017) answers the PICOT question by providing evidence-based interventions that can be adopted to address the issue of nursing shortage. The article examines broad interventions that are applicable to health organizations in addressing the issue of nursing shortage. The article by Halter, Pelone, et al., (2017) provided interventions that are similar to those proposed in my PICOT question. The interventions include the adoption of teamwork approaches in nursing, effective leadership styles, preceptor-based programs, needs-based orientation programs, use of residency programs and expanding the training capacity of nursing education institutions. The two articles used previous studies with a mix of comparison groups comprising of nurses, nursing students, and healthcare leaders and managers. As a result, the comparison groups vary from those in my PICOT question.
Method of Study:
Halter, Pelone, et al., (2017) conducted quantitative systematic reviews, as did Halter, Boiko, et al., (2017). The authors examined
evidence from previous quantitative studies that investigated the factors contributing to nursing shortages, such as adult nurse turnover. The quantitative systematic reviews conducted by the authors have a number of advantages and disadvantages. The benefits include providing highly reliable and accurate data, addressing specific questions or hypotheses, and guiding the identification of best nursing practices. However, the method has limitations such as the lack of human subjects, the use of biased studies, and the presentation of findings that may not be generalizable to a larger population.
Results of Study
The study Halter, Boiko, et al., (2017) found that the determinants of turnover in adult nursing that contribute to nursing shortage include nurse stress and job dissatisfaction, managerial style, and factors that relate to the supervision methods that organizations utilize. The study further showed that that the consequences of nursing turnover and shortage include significant economic costs incurred by health organizations and patients alongside the decline in safety and quality of care. The study by Halter, Pelone, et al., (2017) showed that a number of interventions can be embraced in practice to increase retention of adult nurses as a way of addressing the issue of nursing shortage. The authors found that some of the effective interventions that can be embraced include the adoption of effective leadership styles, teamwork approaches, transformational nursing models, preceptor programs, and residency and new gradate internship programs, and establishment of need-based programs for the nurses.
The findings presented in the selected articles have considerable implications to nursing practice. The findings translate into the need for health organizations to identify effective practices that can be adopted to minimize turnover among nurses. The findings also translate into the need for the adoption of effective leadership styles that promote the development of the employees. The findings in the articles also raise the need for the creation of effective organizational cultures. The organizational culture should strengthen teamwork, use of effective leadership styles and the recognition of the diverse needs of the staffs in the organization. Overall, the findings increase the need for the adoption of transformational practices in nursing practice to promote the needs of nurses, hence, reducing nursing turnover and shortage.
One of the anticipated outcomes of my PICOT question is the identification of factors that contribute to nursing shortage in the US. It is anticipated that through the analysis of the various sources of data and intervention outcomes, nurses will be able to identify and understand the factors that contribute to shortage of nurses in the state. The other anticipated outcome of the PICOT question is the determination of the effectiveness of the intervention in addressing the issue of nursing shortage. The intervention will be examined to determine whether it minimized the factors contributing to nursing shortage or not. The outcomes of the selected articles compare to my anticipated outcomes. Firstly, the outcomes of the selected articles identified individual and organizational determinants of nursing shortage and turnover that may relate to the anticipated outcomes of the PICOT question. Secondly, the outcomes of the chosen articles showed that transformation of organizational processes contribute to improved retention of nurses, hence, reduction of nursing shortage. The anticipated outcome of the project is to increase the retention of nurses in health organizations, hence, the similarity with the outcomes of the selected articles.
Overall, nursing shortage is a critical issue that threatens the safety and quality of nursing care. Nursing shortage is attributed to a number of factors such as high rate of adult nurses’ turnover, limited training capacity of nursing institutions, and elderly nurses that are retiring. Nurse leaders and managers have a role to play in addressing the issue of nursing shortage in the US. Therefore, the consideration of evidence-based interventions is recommended to promote the effective management of the issue in practice.
Bittner, N. P., & Bechtel, C. F. (2017). Identifying and Describing Nurse Faculty Workload Issues: A Looming Faculty Shortage. Nursing Education Perspectives, 38(4), 171–176. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000178
Halter, M., Boiko, O., Pelone, F., Beighton, C., Harris, R., Gale, J., Gourlay, S., & Drennan, V. (2017). The determinants and consequences of adult nursing staff turnover: A systematic review of systematic reviews. BMC Health Services Research, 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2707-0
Halter, M., Pelone, F., Boiko, O., Beighton, C., Harris, R., Gale, J., Gourlay, S., & Drennan, V. (2017). Interventions to Reduce Adult Nursing Turnover: A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews. The Open Nursing Journal, 11, 108–123. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874434601711010108
Marć, M., Bartosiewicz, A., Burzyńska, J., Chmiel, Z., & Januszewicz, P. (2019). A nursing shortage – a prospect of global and local policies. International Nursing Review, 66(1), 9–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/inr.12473
Sokhanvar, M., Kakemam, E., Chegini, Z., & Sarbakhsh, P. (2018). Hospital nurses’ job security and turnover intention and factors contributing to their turnover intention: A cross-Sectional study. Nursing and Midwifery Studies, 7(3), 133. https://doi.org/10.4103/2322-1488.235640