PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

Worldviews entail personal set of beliefs and perspectives held by individuals based on diverse factors that impact humanity. These factors include education, religion, and interactions among others. These fundamental bases of reality, shared by culture and comprising of assumptions, values, and practices offer lens through which people, including healthcare providers like nurses so that they can deal with patients from diverse backgrounds (Bogue et al., 2020). The purpose of this paper is to reflect on different aspects that constitutes my worldview. The paper explores these aspects to develop a position that allows healthcare providers to cultivate cultural competence and sensitivity as they deal with diverse patients.

Nature of Spirituality & Ethics in Contrast to Postmodern Relativism within Health Care

People express their spirituality in reference to their values, beliefs, and traditions as well as practices that are linked to their understanding of the meaning and purpose of life and their existence in the world. According to the Christian perspective, spirituality entails one’s focus on the sense and meaning of life and living through their relationship with God and other human beings (Domingo-Osle et al., 2019). Christians believe in a supreme being, God, who controls all aspects of human life and created man for His purpose. Spirituality is derived from God’s teaching and His mission to love human beings by creating them in His image (Imago Dei) (Bogue et al., 2020).  Spirituality and ethics are related as Christians believe that God is the nature of all good. The basis of ethics in Christianity is to help one distinguish good from evil and right from wrong. Christians value spirituality as it allows them to accept God’s interventions when they are sick and require treatment and care from healthcare providers. Living a spiritual and ethical life implies that one has dedicated their life to God and follows His teachings.

Conversely, postmodern relativism advances objective reality and inexistence of truth. Postmodern relativism rejects the idea of objective truth and reality and focuses on subjective perceptions. Proponents of this view considers one’s way of making decisions and not based on certain teachings that advance a particular way of reasoning or application of moral values and ethics. Postmodern relativism rejects the existence of a supreme being who influences people’s actions, including healthcare decisions and provision.

In health care, the Christian perspective on spirituality and ethics influences the decisions that providers and patents make concerning different aspects of care, especially when dealing with chronic and terminal conditions that require palliative care. On its part, the principles of postmodern relativism impacts decisions that providers and patients make concerning treatment interventions as the main focus is a patient’s subjective perspectives and reasoning (Cristiano, 2020). As such, providers leverage these perspectives to make decisions on the kind of care to provide to diverse patients.

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PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment Details:

Based on the required topic study materials, write a reflection about worldview and respond to following:

  • In 250-300 words, explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care.

Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

Christians believe in the saving power of God through the Son, Jesus Christ. According to Christianity, God exists in three forms, God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. God can do different tasks in human life through various forms. God created all beings and placed them on earth. He later gave human beings the power to rule and dominate the world. Therefore, there is no doubt that God can sustain what he created. The Christians believe in the spiritual source of help whenever confronted with an issue.

Similarly, the ethical perspective of an act would be judged based on the will of God. Furthermore, Christians believe that God is the giver of all things, including wisdom. As a result, patients should be handled as living objects and treated with dignity since they are part of God’s creation (McGhee, 2019).

However, the postmodern relativism perspective is grounded on the scientific inquiry on the issues and challenges people face (Cabrero, 2018). The scientific approach dwells so much on research and evidence-based solutions. Post-modern relativism does not hold on any definite truth, and this means that they believe in the invention rather than discovery. Therefore, the perspective would also have different regard to ethics. For example, there are no guideline standards to judge murder as either morally upright or wrong based on the post-modern relativism. Besides, the approach does not give much credit to human life as compared to the lives of other creatures, as evident in the Christian worldview (Orr, 2015). Therefore, it becomes difficult to work in an environment with limited truth and a lack of definite ethical guidelines as a nurse. For a Christian, euthanasia is considered ethically wrong; however, the act may not be morally wrong for the postmodern relativists.

  • In 250-300 words, explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it.
  • In 750-1,000 words, answer each of the worldview questions according to your own personal perspective and worldview: (a) What is ultimate reality? (b) What is the nature of the universe? (c) What is a human being? (d) What is knowledge? (e) What is your basis of ethics? (f) What is the purpose of your existence?

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Remember to support your reflection with the topic study materials.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

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Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory SAMPLE 2

Christianity avails a religious view on the nature of ethics and spirituality. It contends that spirituality is the spiritual prism that explains the notion of God in terms of who, what, and how. God is perceived as the eternal and all-powerful being above everything and everyone (Porter, 2022). While the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics concerns the notion of God, it contrasts with other views. The purpose of this essay is to explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the philosophy of postmodern relativism within health care. Further, it seeks to explain scientism and describe two main arguments against it. Similarly, it determines to respond to worldview questions according to my perspective and worldview.

Christian View of the Nature of Spirituality and Ethics and Postmodern Relativism.

Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality is a way of life that involves beliefs and values related to the ultimate concern (Deng, 2019). For Christians, the utmost respect is God revealed in Jesus Christ, and Christian spirituality requires the fellowship of Christ and living in Christ through the gift of the Holy Spirit. Christian ethics is a virtue ethic that focuses on developing an ethical character. It begins with obedience to a set of rules and laws seen as divine commands reflecting behaviors that are morally required, forbidden, or permitted (Klenk, 2019). The rules are based on divine love, which aims to avail human beings of life, peace, joy, happiness, and tranquility. In nursing, spirituality conforms to God’s expectations without room for ambiguity.

The Christian perspective of spirituality and ethics has implications for health care through guiding decision-making by setting boundaries for accepting choices or options when making decisions. The primary moral and social elements are based on compassion, attention, respect, prayer, and empathy. In addition, most studies have indicated that religious involvement and spirituality are associated with better health outcomes, including greater longevity, coping skills, and health-related quality of life even during chronic illness and less anxiety, depression, and suicide (Gardner et al., 2020).

Postmodernism relativism rejects universal moral and spiritual values and accepts the relativity of all values in all areas. Therefore, it supports no specific value preference. It argues everyone should order their values, value preferences, and approaches. Thus, under the influence of postmodern assumptions, nursing care emphasizes plurality, respect for cultural and individual differences, relativism of truth or reality, constructive discourse, different views to special knowledge, positioning, and listening to other voices (Zardosht, 2020).

Scientism and the main arguments against it.

Scientism believes that science and the scientific method are the best or only objective means by which people should determine normative and epistemological values. It is a hyperbolic trust in the efficacy of natural science methods applied to all investigation areas. In sum, according to scientism, science is the only way of knowing what’s true or accurate. If something hasn’t been verified by science, we’re not justified in saying we know it to be accurate or factual (Peels, 2019).

The two central arguments against scientism are the false dilemma and self-referential incoherence: The concept of false dilemma argument posits that an opinion either misrepresents the results of available options when making a decision or stalls in presenting all the options available. Therefore, the false dilemma argument against scientism argues the theory is fallacious (Peels, 2019). Immaterial things such as the spiritual or divine are beyond the argument and stance of scientism. In relating to nature, scientism doesn’t have the complete answers to its questions. Moreover, studies have shown that scientific studies sometimes contradict other scientific findings. On the other hand, the self-referential incoherence argument claims that when an argument is applied to itself, it refutes itself. Thus, it posits scientism denies itself; it is not valid in self-reference (Peels, 2019).

Ultimate Reality

Ultimate reality is the traditional Christian theistic concept of God. From a Christian perspective, God is the unique source of all reality; besides God, there is nothing tangible. God is the source and essence of all meaning and things: the world in general and human life in particular. Ultimate reality refers to all reality’s supreme, final, and fundamental power. God is the supreme, absolute, and actual power in all reality (Utke, 2021).

The Nature of the Universe

The universe is a concomitant community of beings inseparably connected in space and time. From its start, the universe has had a psychic-spiritual dimension. The universe is a sharing of subjects, not a collection of objects. The Christians believe that God created and made the universe morally good from the beginning. As Christians share in God’s image, they believe they should live according to God’s plan and design. This comprises the care of the earth as well as their own lives and bodies (Gruenler, 2020).

A Human Being

The Christian perspective portrays human beings as self-conscious, willful, innovative entities who, under God, preside over their environment. In other words, they are persons. God made each male and female a person in the likeness of His personhood. Moreover, considered in the meaning of nature, the human person is a physical being, knowledgeable, responsible agent, reasonable and relational being to God, other persons, society, and the purpose of human life (Ware, 2021). In nursing parlance, humans as holistic beings are unique, dynamic, conscious, and multidimensional, capable of abstract reasoning, creativity, aesthetic appreciation, and self-responsibility.


Many theorists have coined their theories about knowledge. For Locke, all knowledge comes exclusively through experience. He argues that at birth, the mind is a blank slate that humans fill with ideas as they experience the world through the five senses (Woozley, 2020). But according to Aristotle, he alludes that all instruction given or received by way of argument proceeds from pre-existent accumulative knowing based upon particular experience.

The theorist though having divergent opinions converges on common ideas about evidence, experience, and acquiring relative to knowledge. So that the worldview about knowledge concerns developing new evidence through experience (either by experiment or observation) and association. Thus, according to the worldview, knowledge is the idea of knowing something with familiarity obtained through experience or association. Further, it is acquainted with or understanding a science or art (Otaka, 2019). In nursing parlance, knowledge is how the whole purpose of caring for patients is achieved; it underpins the entire profession, defines nurses in terms of what they do, and aids in differentiating nurses from lay carers or care support workers.

My Basis of Ethics

My basis of ethics emanates from the realization of being created in the image and likeness of a moral God. It is built on well-founded standards of right and wrong that prescribe what I ought to undertake, usually regarding rights, obligations, benefits to society, fairness, or specific virtues. Ethics guides and directs my life and aids me in role model leadership in my nursing profession.

My Purpose for Existence

The central theme of my existence rotates on the axis of dependence and ownership to the ultimate Reality-God who fulfills his purpose for me. As a Christian, God’s purpose for me is my purpose. This is key to comprehending God’s purpose for my life since He is the essence of my life- the reason for my existence. God has accounted for my days and will fulfill every purpose He has for me. However, my choices and actions also really matter. And as such, my life purpose consists of the central motivating aims of life—the call and reasons for living- to be obedient to God and be a blessing to humanity. The purpose guides my life decisions, influences my behavior, shapes my goals, offers a sense of direction, and creates meaning in my life (Santayana, 2021). Simply put, I am here for the sake of others, and for the good of humanity.


Christianity avails a worldview perspective on the nature of ethics and spirituality. It argues that spirituality explains the notion of God as the ultimate reality understood as the eternal and all-powerful being above everything and everyone. So the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality is a way of life that involves beliefs and values related to the ultimate concern. Similarly, Christian ethics is a virtue aiding in the development of ethical character, beginning with obedience to a set of rules and laws that shapes behaviors morally acceptable and needed in health care to guide relational aspects and decision-making. In addition, spirituality offers people a way to comprehend suffering and illness. Spiritual beliefs can also impact how people cope with illness. Healthcare providers can create more holistic and compassionate care systems by addressing the spiritual issues of patients, loved ones, and themselves. Moreover, on the other hand, postmodernism relativism opposes and abandons universal moral and spiritual values but agrees on the relativism of all values in all areas. Further, scientism is not science but the opinion that places science and scientific procedures as the only objective means to ascertain reality and truth on normative and epistemological values. The view faces criticism from the false dilemma and self-referential incoherence arguments because it is both fallacious and refutes itself.


Deng, G. (2019). The origins of postmodern moral relativism. Filozofia Publiczna i Edukacja Demokratyczna, 8(1), 77-94.

Gardner, F., Tan, H., & Rumbold, B. (2020). What spirituality means for patients and families in health care. Journal of Religion and Health, 59(1), 195-203.

Gruenler, R. G. (2020). The Inexhaustible God: Biblical Faith and the Challenge of Process Theism. Wipf and Stock Publishers.

Klenk, M. (2019). Moral philosophy and the ‘ethical turn’in anthropology. Zeitschrift für Ethik und Moralphilosophie, 2(2), 331-353.

Otaka, K. (2019). Reconsidering the Meaning of Knowledge Based on Experiences of Community‐Based Social Education Practice in Japan. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2019(162), 85-96.

Porter, J. (2022). Trajectories in Christian ethics. Encyclopedia of Religious Ethics, 550-558.

Peels, R. (2019). Should We Accept Scientism? The Argument from Self-Referential Incoherence. In What Is Scientific Knowledge? (pp. 274-287). Routledge.

Santayana, G. (2021). The life of reason: The phases of human progress. Prabhat Prakashan.

Utke, A. R. (2021). Ultimate Reality and Meaning and the Cosmic Information Field. Ultimate Reality and Meaning, 38(1-2), 82-105.

Ware, K. (2021). “In the image and likeness”: The uniqueness of the human person. In Theological Anthropology, 500 Years after Martin Luther (pp. 48-64). Brill.

Woozley, A. D. (2020). Theory of Knowledge: an introduction. Routledge.

Zardosht, R. (2020). Nursing care and postmodernism. Future of Medical Education Journal, 10(2).

PHI-413V Topic 1 Overview

Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics


Welcome to Grand Canyon University’s course on Ethical and Spiritual Decision-Making in health care. Some students may be apprehensive and object to taking this course because they feel such a course is not necessary for their major. Yet Grand Canyon University has a long-standing Christian heritage, meaning that our Christian faith is fundamental to all that we do. We want all students to feel welcome here, regardless of their religion or beliefs, but we also want all students to at least understand the Christian worldview and be challenged to think carefully about the deeper questions of life. PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

In addition, this course serves several key purposes for training in health care. First, it is important to understand that many of the foundational beliefs that the fields of medicine and health care take for granted (such as the intrinsic dignity and value of all human beings, regardless of race, gender, religion, socioeconomic status, etc.) are deeply held Christian values that come from the Christian worldview and have shaped the practice of medicine for almost 2,000 years. Second, all human beings hold beliefs, live, and act in the context of their worldview. All decisions, including health care decisions, that human beings make are informed by their most deeply held values and beliefs which comprise a person’s worldview. Thus, it is important to understand how a patient’s worldview will shape their decision-making and values in health care. Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment

Third, decision-making in health care often times involves ethical decisions about right or wrong, and it is crucial for health care practitioners to have an understanding of the nature of ethical decision-making, as well as some practical training. Fundamentally, this course is about how the Christian worldview approaches various issues and questions in health care. In understanding the Christian worldview, one will also come to learn how different worldviews might approach the same questions.

Some students may be unsure what their worldview is or have a worldview that is very different from Christianity and wonder how they will fit into such a class. Everyone has a mixture of beliefs that make him or her unique. Please be assured that the goal is to help each student feel comfortable interacting with other students and to have a positive experience. The College of Theology and instructors hope to encourage critical thinking about one’s worldview and purpose in life. This is an opportunity to think about what you believe, challenge your assumptions, learn from others, and move forward on your unique life journey.

Throughout this course, you will be seeking wisdom. And from the Christian worldview, all wisdom comes from God. This is why James, the brother of Jesus, wrote in his letter, “If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him” (James 1:5 NIV). Understanding what a worldview is,

and in particular the elements of Christian worldview, will help one understand the foundations of Christian spirituality and ethics.

What Is a Worldview?

The following definitions are helpful:

·         “A set of assumptions or beliefs about reality that affect how we think and how we live” (Cosgrove, 2006, p. 19).

·         “The comprehensive perspective from which we interpret all of reality” (Keller, 2012, p. 157).

Worldview is often described as a set of lenses through which we view the world. As a descriptive lens, our worldview influences our perception of the world. What is true? What is reality? As a prescriptive lens, our worldview influences our evaluation of what is true. What does it mean? How should we live? Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

One may readily see that if one views the nature of the universe as consisting of only physical matter and energy, then that person’s understanding of the meaning of life and how we should live will likely be far different from one whose perception of the universe includes a spiritual realm where life continues after death and goodness is rewarded. PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

While it is true that all people have their own private worldviews with values and beliefs that have been shaped by culture, education, experiences, and relationships, it is also valuable to speak of shared worldviews, those foundational assumptions or beliefs that many people hold in common. For the sake of this course, the course content will be reduced from the many-shared worldviews to three basic worldview families.

What Are the Three Basic Worldview Families?

Though there are many different worldviews, for the purpose of this course they have been simplified into three basic worldview families. There are many variations within these families.

Atheism is the worldview of those who believe only in what their senses can detect— only what may be analyzed and understood in a scientific laboratory. This view believes in no God or spiritual realm. The cosmos consists of only the natural or physical realm of matter and energy. Other names often associated with this worldview family are naturalism and secular humanism. Most whose worldview values and behavior are aligned with atheism prefer to be considered agnostics. These are uncertain of the existence of God, skeptical for the most part, yet open to the possibility. Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment


Pantheism is the worldview of spiritualism, the belief that “all is God” as the word implies. Pantheists believe in a spiritual realm, but no relational God who has revealed

himself to humanity and is actively involved in the lives of those who believe in him. This worldview family consists of the Eastern religions of Hinduism and Buddhism, as well as the more eclectic Western belief known as New Age. Pantheists typically embrace an impersonal oneness of which all humans may become a part, becoming godlike themselves as they reach higher levels of spirituality.


Theism, or monotheism, is the worldview of the three major religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Though these three have huge differences rendering them incompatible with each other, they do nonetheless have some similarities. Theists all believe in a single, personal, and relational God who is the creator and sustainer of all that exists. They all likewise believe in absolute truth and morality, and an afterlife. The focus of this course is Christianity, so the course will be comparing these three worldviews: atheism, pantheism, and Christianity.

Another common worldview name, deism, is somewhat of an enigma—having a basic belief in God, but a God who is not relational or involved in human life. So although falling under the broad category of theism, deists may effectively live as atheists. Many people have complex worldviews that are a mix of various beliefs from the major worldview families.

How Do We Determine Our Worldview?

There are six components that help to determine worldview. The following questions correspond to each component. Answering each of the following questions for yourself will help you begin thinking about your own worldview:

1.  What Is Ultimate Reality?

Does reality consist basically of physical matter and energy, as the atheists believe? Is reality an impersonal spiritual entity that dominates the universe and to which all humans must endeavor to attain unity with, as the pantheists assert, or is there a personal and relational, all-powerful, and sovereign God who exists everywhere, but is separate from the physical world he created, as believed by Christians and other theists?

2.  What Is the Nature of the Universe?

This is similar to the question above but focuses strictly on what one believes about the natural world. Is the universe strictly physical and yet eternal in one form or another? Is it merely an illusion intended as a battleground for us to work toward enlightenment, or was the universe created by God and far more complex than can be detected by scientists, consisting of both a physical and a spiritual realm?

3.  What Is a Human Being?

Is a human basically a biological machine, just a higher level of animal? Is a human a type of god with powers to reach perfection, or is a human an off-the-charts creature

designed in the image of God with an eternal spirit like his and similar abilities to reason, seek moral purity, communicate on a high level, create for beauty, and love even those who cannot love in return? Is death the end of existence, or is there a soul that lives on? Does that soul return in another life, or does it return to God and await judgment?

4.  What Is Knowledge?

Is there such a thing as absolute truth, or is truth relative? Is true knowledge only that which may be acquired and understood through scientific means, or is there also knowledge that only may be acquired by revelation from God? Should you only trust your senses, or should you explore the spiritual realm and seek knowledge from God?

5.  What Is Your Basis of Ethics?

How do you know right from wrong? Is morality learned, or is it designed into our conscience? Is there a set of absolute moral standards given by God, or is morality relative, a matter of culture, and what is acceptable to a society?

6.  What the Purpose of Your Existence?

Is human life as you know it merely the result of some amazing cosmic accident, or is there an underlying meaning to history, a purpose toward which time will culminate? Does life have meaning and purpose for individuals, or is it simply whatever one makes it? Did the Creator design his children with a purpose? If so, what might that be?

How Do We Test Our Worldview?

Everyone (not only religious people) forms his or her worldview on the basis of faith (assumptions and presuppositions) and reason. So we must ask ourselves “how reasonable or consistent is our worldview?” Are there any contradictions that are apparent? Testing a worldview is critical because at the end of the day, most people want to make sure that they have true beliefs about the world. The following tests are just some ways of determining whether or not a particular worldview is true. Consider only three basic tests summarized here: PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

1.      The Coherence Test checks the internal consistency of a worldview to see if one’s specific values and beliefs contradict any other beliefs within the worldview.

2.      The Correspondence Test examines how well a worldview corresponds to reality. It evaluates evidences and experiences to see if the worldview matches with what one perceives in the real world.

3.      The Practical Test evaluates a worldview’s livability. Does the worldview bring satisfaction as one faces life’s challenges, or is it found to be lacking?

Foundations of Christian Spirituality and Ethics

The foundational beliefs of Christianity inform the Christian understanding of the nature of spirituality and the nature of ethics. Thus, the way in which the Christian worldview

answers the six questions above shapes a distinctly Christian spirituality and Christian ethic. The term spirituality has many different definitions in popular culture and in different contexts. One influential definition claims, “spirituality is an aspect of humanity that refers to the way individuals seek and express meaning and purpose, and the way they experience their connectedness to the moment, to self, to others, to nature, and to the significant or sacred” (Puchalski et al., 2009). This definition is broad enough to give a general idea of what spirituality involves, but it does not give a full picture of a person’s spiritual life or spiritual needs. Those details will be filled in by examining a persons specific worldview. Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment

Spirituality in the Christian worldview has its foundations in the reality of a triune God who eternally exists as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. God is one being in three persons and is the creator and sustainer of all that exists. He is all-knowing, all-powerful, and loving to his core, “And so we know and rely on the love God has for us. God is love.

Whoever lives in love lives in God, and God in them” (1 John 4:16). This God has revealed himself in different ways to human beings, including through the natural world. However, he has revealed himself and his will for human beings most authoritatively through the Bible and in the person of Jesus Christ. In this view, whatever it means to be spiritual will in some sense be related directly or indirectly to God, and will come to be known primarily through the teachings of the Bible.

Furthermore, Christian spirituality will refer to the beliefs and practices that are meant to reflect the proper functioning of God’s creation, and which promote right relationship to God and deeper knowledge of him. Many times spirituality is taken to be synonymous with the feeling of deep emotion or of oneness with a transcendent reality, but Christian spirituality is not limited to the experience of mere emotions or feelings.

Feelings and emotions are an important part of being human, and they are even an important part of one’s relationship to God. Yet, spirituality in the Christian worldview is not dictated by the feelings or emotions one might be experiencing in the moment, but by trust in the goodness of God and obedience to him.

In the same way that Christian spirituality finds its foundations in the reality of the triune God of the Bible, ethics also has its foundations in God. Ethics, broadly speaking, is the study of good and bad, right and wrong. Every worldview has to explain the foundations of ethics (in line with worldview question #5 above) such that it explains the basis of what counts as good and bad, right or wrong. In the Christian worldview, there is a God who exists and has created the world with a moral structure and purpose such that what is truly right and good is a reflection of God’s character. God’s own holy, loving and perfect character is the standard of right and wrong. Badness or what is wrong is then defined as anything that is contrary to God’s character, his will, or to his design and purpose for his creation.

The Bible reveals what God’s character is like. Exodus 34:6-7 says,

The LORD, the LORD, the compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger and abounding in love and faithfulness, maintaining love to thousands, and forgiving wickedness, rebellion and sin. Yet he does not leave the guilty unpunished; he

punishes the children and their children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation.

Similarly, 1 John 4:7-9 says,

Dear friends, let us love one another, for love comes from God. Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. Whoever does not love does not know God, because God is love. This is how God showed his love among us: He sent his one and only Son into the world that we might live through him.

Psalm 18:30 declares, “As for God, his way is perfect: The LORD’s word is flawless; he shields all who take refuge in him.” Many more verses could be surveyed, but the Bible makes clear that God is perfectly good and holy. Knowing right and wrong then will mean knowing that which accords to God’s character.

Right or wrong can be discovered in multiple ways. It can be discovered in God’s creation by examining the natural world or by the use of human reason. In this way, one discovers God’s design for the way things are supposed to be by examining what is built into creation; this is often referred to as “natural law.” For example, one can know by means of reason and observation that murder is wrong or that a broken bone is bad and not the way it is supposed to be. Conversely, one might come to know that feeding the homeless is good, and loving one’s spouse is right. One does not need to be religious or even believe in God to be able to know propositions of “natural law.” Nevertheless, the Christian worldview holds that these truths are built into the world by God. Second, right or wrong can be discovered by reading the Bible or looking at the example of Jesus Christ. The Bible reveals God’s commands and principles such as the Ten Commandments or the teachings of Jesus on the sermon on the mount. In addition, the Bible provides us with examples of virtuous people. The perfect man and moral exemplar (though much more than only a man and an exemplar) in the Christian tradition is Jesus Christ himself. The Christian is to not only obey God’s commands, but to be transformed into the kind of person that reflects the character of God. Jesus Christ is the perfect representation of such a life; Christians, thus, ought to embody the virtues and character of Jesus himself. The attaining of these virtues will not only be a matter of intellectual knowledge of right and wrong, but an active surrender and transformation by means of God’s own Holy Spirit. The wisdom to navigate all the complexities of ethical decision-making will be a consequence of a person’s character and the active guidance of the Holy Spirit. Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory assignment

Knowledge of God, Knowledge of Ethics

A key component of the foundations of Christian spirituality and ethics as described above is the view that people can have genuine knowledge of God and knowledge of right and wrong. A few observations about the word knowledge need to be considered. First, by knowledge we mean the opposite of mere opinion. Knowledge is more than just an educated guess; it is being in touch with the real world as it really is. Thus, knowledge in this sense is not merely subjective, but is rather an objective description of reality. For

example, the proposition “the earth is round” is an objectively true description of reality, even if some people happen to subjectively deny that the earth is round. Subjective beliefs may be true or false. What would make subjective beliefs true would be if they matched the real objective world. Fundamentally, knowledge is the possession and awareness of truth.

There are two philosophies, however, that stand in contrast to the Christian belief that one can have knowledge of God and knowledge of right and wrong, namely scientism and postmodernism. These two philosophies are very influential in today’s society, although they are not compatible with the Christian worldview. It is important to understand these philosophies because not only are they not compatible with the Christian worldview, they arguably have negative effects on the practice of medicine and health care.


Although the term scientism has the word science in it, it is crucial to recognize that (1) scientism is not the same thing as (2) science. In the Christian worldview, science is a great and good thing. In fact, the Christian worldview has always encouraged careful investigation of the natural world. In the Christian worldview, medical technology is considered a good gift from God insofar as God has created the kind of world that has a structure that can be discovered and manipulated to bring about the good of human beings (Rae & Cox, 1999). Scientism, however, is not compatible with the Christian worldview. Scientism is the belief that the best or only way to have any knowledge of reality is by means of the sciences (Moreland & Craig, 2003, pp. 346-350). In other words, if something is not known scientifically then it is not known at all, and the only way to hold true beliefs about anything is to know them scientifically. PHI 413 Worldview Analysis And Personal Inventory Assignment

That may sound reasonable and even commonsense, but there are two problems with scientism: (1) scientism is a self-refuting philosophy, and (2) science has clear limits.

First, if the only way to have true beliefs is through science, then the thesis of scientism itself (“the only way to have any knowledge of the world”) could not be true because it cannot be proven scientifically. Thus, the thesis of scientism fails its own truth test.

Scientism’s thesis is, in fact, a philosophical statement. Philosophers call such propositions self-refuting because they invalidate themselves by definition, similarly to someone claiming, “I cannot speak a word of English.”

Second, while science is a powerful way of gaining knowledge of the natural world, science is limited and is not the only way of gaining knowledge. Consider the following two limitations of science (though there are many others); science cannot tell us anything about (1) ethics or (2) how one ought to use the results of science (University of California Museum of Paleontology, n.d.). Science is wonderful and describes the way things are, but it has no authority to tell us what we ought to do morally. Science cannot tell me whether or not I ought to love my spouse, keep my promises, or give to the poor. Even when it comes to ethical issues that involve science, science cannot determine what the right thing to do would be. For example, science might be able to describe the nasty effects of a terminal disease on a person or explain the state of a

person’s brain if that person is in a vegetative state. However, science cannot determine whether euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is good, bad, right, or wrong. Science also cannot determine how scientific data and results ought to be used. Science might enable the discovery of chemical processes or structures, but should the results be used for creating biotechnology to engineer human DNA? Should the results of scientific research be used to create bioweapons for military purposes? Such questions are beyond the bounds of what science can answer. Remember scientism is NOT science; it is a philosophical thesis that claims that science is the only methodology to gain knowledge and that every other claim to knowledge is either mere opinion or false.

However, as Nicholas Rescher remarks, “to take this stance [of scientism] is not to celebrate science but to distort it” (as cited in Moreland & Craig, 2003).

Postmodern Relativism

Postmodernism is a broad philosophical position that claims that there is no such thing as truth or an objective reality that can be known. A common way in which postmodernism is expressed is through a view called relativism. Relativism is the view that there is no such thing as truth in the common sense of that concept. Every claim about the nature of reality is simply relative to either an individual or a society/culture. Another way to put this is to say that truth is invented by people (whether it is individuals or entire societies) instead of being discovered. According to this way of thinking, there is not genuine truth to be had or known, only subjective opinions or beliefs. While certain questions are no doubt matters of subjective opinion, such as “what is the best flavor of ice cream?” or “what is the proper way to shake hands?” not all questions are. This is most clearly seen when we consider moral or ethical propositions about right or wrong. It would be a serious mistake to claim that the propositions “murder is wrong” or “racism is evil” are mere subjective matters of opinion. However, that is what relativism implies. If all truth including morality is simply a human invention, then there is no standard for genuine truth, and it follows that there is no genuine right or wrong. However, this is certainly false. Whether or not the Nazi party, made up of thousands of individuals, believed that killing 6 million Jews was a good thing, we have to say without any hesitation that they were genuinely wrong. But it is not possible to be wrong unless there is genuine objective truth to be known.

Both scientism and postmodern relativism are incompatible with the foundations of Christian spirituality and ethics. The Christian worldview holds science in high regard and accepts it as one of the most powerful communal ways of obtaining knowledge about the world. However, contrary to scientism, the Christian worldview does not accept science as the only way of knowing things about the world. Secondly, contrary to postmodern relativism, the Christian worldview holds that genuine objective knowledge of God and of right and wrong is possible. It follows then that who God is and what is right and wrong are not merely matters of subjective opinion, but genuine truths to be discovered.


The foundations discussed above provide the framework for Christian ways of ethical and spiritual decision-making in health care. It is important to understand therefore that the Christian way of ethical and spiritual decision-making is distinct from other worldviews and is not the same as Buddhist, Muslim, or even atheist ways of ethical and spiritual decision-making. It is not fair or respectful to paint all religions or worldviews with the same brush under the heading of “spirituality” and ignore the differences.

Topic 2 will discuss a foundational principle to the practice of medicine and health care, as well as bioethics namely, the principle of respect for persons. The Christian worldview goes even further and states all human beings are made in the image of God and therefore have intrinsic value and are worthy of dignity and respect.

Topic 3 will discuss the field of bioethics and introduce some of the main methodologies of ethical decision-making in health care. The focus in this section will be on the methodology called principlism which stresses the application of four moral principles to all ethical decisions in health care. Prinipalism will be used and interpreted in light of the Christian worldview and the overarching narrative presented in the Bible.

Topic 4 will briefly introduce issues of death, dying, and grief. The focus will be on ethical issues at the end of life and the Christian worldview regarding death in light of the biblical narrative and the hope of resurrection inaugurated by the person and work of Jesus Christ.

Topic 5 will conclude with discussion about the facilitating of ethical and spiritual decision-making for patients, and the practical application of the principles and tools introduced in this course.


Cosgrove, M. P. (2006). Foundations of Christian thought: Faith, learning, and the Christian worldview. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel.

Keller, T. (2012). Every good endeavor: Connecting your work to God’s work. New York, NY: Dutton.

Moreland, J. P., & Craig, W. L. (2003). Philosophical foundations for a Christian worldview. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic.

Puchalski, C., Ferrell, B., Virani, R., Otis-Green, S., Baird, P., Bull, J., … Sulmasy D. (2009). Improving the quality of spiritual care as a dimension of palliative care: The report of the consensus conference. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 12(10), 885-904.

Rae, Scott B., & Cox, P. M. (1999). Bioethics: A Christian approach in a pluralistic age.

Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

University of California Museum of Paleontology. (n.d.). Science has limits: A few things that science does not do. Retrieved from

PHI-413 Topic 1 DQ 1

Spirituality is a unique and often-overlooked concept that is deeply connected to one’s personal beliefs and worldview (Koenig, 2020). Spirituality has the potential to deeply influence how one interacts with the world around them, and how they approach the care of those in need. From a personal worldview, spirituality is a way to connect with the larger universe and to find purpose and meaning in life. It is an approach to life that is focused on self-reflection, growth, and connection with something greater than oneself. This paper will discuss how my worldview of spirituality would influence the way in which I care for patients.

To me, spirituality is an approach to life that allows for a deeper connection with the universe. It is a way of being that encourages self-reflection, self-discovery, and growth. It is a way to approach life with a sense of openness and curiosity, allowing for the possibility of transformation and change. It is a way to find meaning in the world around us and to connect with something larger than ourselves. It is also a way to make sense of the world, to find a sense of purpose and direction, and to be in tune with one’s innermost being.

My worldview of spirituality would heavily influence the way in which I care for patients. As a healthcare provider, I believe that it is important to approach each patient with an open mind and an understanding of their unique circumstances. By acknowledging and respecting their individual beliefs and worldviews, I am able to provide care that is tailored to their specific needs. Additionally, my worldview of spirituality encourages me to cultivate a sense of compassion and empathy for my patients. By understanding their spiritual beliefs and values, I can provide care that is more meaningful and tailored to their individual needs.

I also believe that my worldview of spirituality can help me to better understand the emotional and physical needs of my patients. By being open and understanding of their personal beliefs and values, I am able to provide care that is based on their individual spiritual needs. Additionally, by being mindful of the spiritual needs of my patients, I am able to offer comfort, reassurance, and support during difficult times.

In conclusion, my worldview of spirituality heavily influences the way in which I care for patients. By understanding and respecting the unique beliefs and values of my patients, I am able to provide care that is tailored to their individual needs. Additionally, my worldview of spirituality encourages me to cultivate a sense of compassion and empathy for my patients. By being mindful of their spiritual needs, I am able to offer comfort, reassurance, and support during difficult times. Ultimately, my worldview of spirituality allows me to provide care that is both meaningful and respectful, ultimately improving the overall quality of care that I provide.


Koenig, H. G. (2020). Spirituality and Health. In S. T. Post (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (2nd ed., pp. 459-469). Elsevier

Death at the Workplace

Having worked as a Triage nurse in ER, In the current covid era, the death experience in the nursing setting has been consistent. After experiencing death at work, my initial reaction resorted to the development of a blame game and the fear of family reactions. However, with the increased contact with death at work, the experiences have changed my view about death. Khalaf et al. (2017) argued that emotions experienced by nurses after the death of a patient raged from the blame game, getting through the grief and fear of the family reaction.

In support of this finding, Chew et al. (2020) noted that the most common feeling related to sadness, anger, and crying after the patient dies. In part, death is part of the developmental process and the occurrence of death even though the loss is significant. It is part of human fate. Hence, over time, rather than falling into depression or fear, the constant death at work has enabled me to develop self-awareness skills and empathy. In this case, one can understand the emotion of the family and those at a loss, whose compassion while maintaining a high level of professionalism. In this case, learning to avoid an emotional relationship with a patient is thus part of the care strategy to avoid an adverse reaction. Hence, over time, constant contact with death in the nursing context has increased my acceptance that death is inevitable and that nurses have a responsibility to undertake a holistic approach to overcome the grief associated with death.


Chew, Y. J. M., Ang, S. L. L., & Shorey, S. (2020). Experiences of new nurses dealing with death in a pediatric setting: A descriptive qualitative study. Journal of Advanced Nursing.

Khalaf, I. A., Al-Dweik, G., Abu-Snieneh, H., Al-Daken, L., Musallam, R. M., BaniYounis, M., AL-Rimawi, R., Khatib, A. H., Habeeb Allah”, A., Atoum, M. H., & Masadeh, A. (2017). Nurses’ experiences of grief following patient death: A qualitative approach. Journal of Holistic Nursing36(3), 228–240.

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