NURS 6521 Discussion Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders 

NURS 6521 Discussion Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders 

NURS 6521 Discussion Women’s and Men’s Health, Infectious Disease, and Hematologic Disorders 

Case Study

A 46-year-old, 230lb woman with a family history of breast cancer. She is up to date on yearly mammograms. She has a history of HTN. She complains of hot flushing, night sweats, and genitourinary symptoms. She had felt well until 1 month ago and presented to her gynecologist for her annual GYN examination and to discuss her symptoms. She has a history of ASCUS about 5 years ago on her pap; other than that, Pap smears have been normal. Home medications are Norvasc 10mg QD and HCTZ 25mg QD. Her BP today is 150/90. She has regular monthly menstrual cycles. Her LMP was one month ago.

Treatment Regimen

            After analyzing the symptoms, I concluded that the patient is experiencing peri-menopausal symptoms. For many people, menopause begins around age 45 though the onset of symptoms varies across different people. She is undergoing the early stages of menopause which is a stage that begins with experiencing changes in the uterus, breasts, increased fat deposit, and the urogenital tract undergoing several changes such as a shrinking cervix, and reduced muscle tone in the pelvic area. At that age, the level of estrogen production is low hence, leading to hot flashes and night sweats. Therefore, her treatment regime will focus on taking into consideration the patient has Hypertension already. Hormone therapy will be eliminated and prescribe vaginal cream that would help her manage genitourinary symptoms such as vaginal dryness and dyspareunia (Yoo et al., 2020). Mood changes and hot flashes are common symptoms of menopause hence the patient will be prescribed low-dose antidepressants such as venlafaxine and sertraline. Besides, herbal treatment has been proven to be effective in managing vasomotor symptoms hence the patient can be prescribed black cohosh which helps in reducing many menopausal symptoms (Mahady, et al., 2002).

As people continue to age, their bones become weak and this increases their chances of suffering born fractures. Therefore, the patient will be given vitamin D supplements to the increase production of estrogen which reduces with age and reduces cases of bone fractures.

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During the clinical interview, I realized that the patient is taking Norvasc 10 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg. I would advise her to discontinue taking Norvasc since the drug acts as a calcium blocker hence leading to hypertension and besides, its side effects increase menopause symptoms. Since she has hypertension, I would recommend that she takes lisinopril 20 mg daily. This should help alleviate the flushing that the patient has been experiencing (Li et al., 2016). Additionally, the patient has a history of ASCUS, hence I will advise her to continue with her PAP smear exams. With her blood pressure being high currently, and the fact that she is taking Norvasc, she will be encouraged to stop Norvasc but increase the HTCZ dosage to 50mg daily. The patient is expected to come regularly for assessment and examination of the drugs and symptoms.

Patient Education Strategies

Patient education has become an effective strategy to influence patients’ behavior to start living a quality life. The patient will be educated on ways to maintain weight through diet modification, become physically active, and practice relaxation as one way to reduce the severity of menopause symptoms and chances of getting breast cancer (Paterick et al., 2017). The patient will be educated about things she needs to avoid such as the use of exogenous hormones to reduce getting breast cancer going to her family history (Stuenkel et al., 2015). All this information will be passed to the patient through her patient portal which is deemed the best instructional method for her as she can access the information from the comfort of her home.


Li, R. X., Ma, M., Xiao, X. R., Xu, Y., Chen, X. Y., & Li, B. (2016). Perimenopausal syndrome and mood disorders in perimenopause: prevalence, severity, relationships, and risk factors. Medicine95(32).

Mahady, G. B., Fabricant, D., Chadwick, L. R., & Dietz, B. (2002). Black cohosh: an alternative therapy for menopause?. Nutrition in Clinical Care5(6), 283-289.

Paterick, T. E., Patel, N., Tajik, A. J., &Chandrasekaran, K. (2017, January). Improving health outcomes through patient education and partnerships with patients. In Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings (Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 112-113). Taylor & Francis.

Manson, J. E., &Kaunitz, A. M. (2016). Menopause management—getting clinical care back on track. N Engl J Med374(9), 803-6.

Stuenkel, C. A., Davis, S. R., Gompel, A., Lumsden, M. A., Murad, M. H., Pinkerton, J. V., & Santen, R. J. (2015). Treatment of symptoms of the menopause: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism100(11), 3975-4011.

Yoo, T. K., Han, K. D., Kim, D., Ahn, J., Park, W. C., &Chae, B. J. (2020). Hormone replacement therapy, breast cancer risk factors, and breast cancer risk: a nationwide population-based cohort. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention29(7), 1341-1347.

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This is an in-depth and exceptional post about the case study. I agree with you that the patient is experiencing peri-menopausal symptoms. There are myriad treatment options for patients experiencing menopause, which usually depend on the seriousness of the symptoms. One of the treatment options that can be applied in this case is hormone replacement therapy to assist in replacing the lost estrogen and managing the symptoms of menopause (Cagnacci & Venier, 2019). Hormone replacement therapy is crucial in averting osteoporosis, lowering vasomotor symptoms, and preventing bone degeneration. It is important for the healthcare provider to collect a host of information before starting this treatment including data on BP, cardiovascular and breast screening, lipid panel, TSH, and HR. Reduction in estrogen is associated with bone degeneration and an increase in cardiovascular issues (Biglia et al., 2019). Therefore, the patient should be educated on the benefits of reducing weight, intake of sufficient calcium and Vitamin D, and avoidance of alcohol. The patient should also be educated on the benefits of consistently receiving mammograms due to her family history of breast cancer.


Biglia, N., Bounous, V. E., De Seta, F., Lello, S., Nappi, R. E., & Paoletti, A. M. (2019). Non-hormonal strategies for managing menopausal symptoms in cancer survivors: an update. ecancermedicalscience13. Doi: 10.3332/ecancer.2019.909

Cagnacci, A., & Venier, M. (2019). The controversial history of hormone replacement therapy. Medicina55(9), 602.

What antibiotics have dietary precautions?


Links to an external site.are a type of medication used to treat bacterial infections. They work by stopping the infection or preventing it from spreading. There are many different types of antibiotics. Some are broad-spectrum, meaning they act on various disease-causing bacteria. Others are designed to kill certain species of bacteria. While many foods are beneficial during and after antibiotics, some should be avoided. Some antibiotics require specific dietary precautions to ensure their effectiveness and prevent interactions or side effects(Huizen, 2021). The following are some common antibiotics and their dietary precautions.

   Tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline, minocycline): These antibiotics should not be taken with dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt) or antacids containing calcium, magnesium, aluminum, or iron. These substances can bind to tetracyclines, reducing their absorption and effectiveness. Take tetracyclines at least 1-2 hours before or 4-6 hours after consuming dairy products or antacids.

    Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin): Avoid taking fluoroquinolones with dairy products, calcium-fortified foods, or mineral supplements (calcium, magnesium, zinc) as they can reduce the absorption of the antibiotic. Take these medications at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after consuming such products.

   Macrolides (e.g., erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin): Macrolides should generally be taken on an empty stomach, about 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. However, some forms of macrolides, such as azithromycin, can be taken with or without food.

 Linezolid: Avoid foods rich in tyramine while taking linezolid. Tyramine-rich foods include aged cheeses, cured meats, fermented, or pickled foods, soy products, and alcoholic beverages. Linezolid can interact with tyramine and lead to a potentially dangerous increase in blood pressure.

 Metronidazole: Alcohol should be avoided while taking metronidazole and for at least 72 hours after completing the course of the antibiotic. Combining alcohol and metronidazole can cause severe nausea, vomiting, and flushing.

Sulfonamides (e.g., sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim): The patient needs to drink plenty of fluids while taking sulfonamide antibiotics to prevent crystal formation in the urine, which can lead to kidney problems.

Cephalosporins: Cephalosporins generally are not associated with significant dietary restrictions, but it’s always best to follow the specific instructions your healthcare provider or pharmacist gives.

Patients should always read the medication label and follow the instructions provided by their healthcare provider or pharmacist.

What antibiotics cause photosensitivity? 

Certain antibiotics can cause photosensitivity, a condition in which the skin becomes more sensitive to sunlight and may result in an exaggerated sunburn-like reaction. Exposure to sunlight while taking these antibiotics can lead to skin rash, redness, itching, and even blistering. The following antibiotics are known to cause photosensitivity:   

Tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline, minocycline):

 Tetracyclines are well-known for causing photosensitivity reactions. If you are prescribed a tetracycline antibiotic, taking precautions and avoiding excessive sun exposure is essential. Wearing protective clothing, using sunscreen with high SPF, and staying out of direct sunlight during peak hours can help reduce the risk of photosensitivity reactions.

   Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin): Some fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been associated with photosensitivity reactions. Protecting your skin from excessive sunlight is essential when taking antibiotics like tetracyclines.

   Sulfonamides (e.g., sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim): Sulfonamides, especially sulfamethoxazole, can cause photosensitivity in some individuals. Take necessary precautions and avoid direct sunlight as much as possible when on this medication.

 Macrolides (e.g., erythromycin, clarithromycin): While macrolides are not as strongly associated with photosensitivity as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, some cases of photosensitivity have been reported with these antibiotics.

  Doxycycline and Retinoids Combination: It’s worth noting that taking doxycycline along with certain retinoids used for acne treatment can increase the risk of photosensitivity.

 Use sunscreen with a high sun protection factor (SPF), wear protective clothing like hats and long sleeves, and seek shade to minimize the risk of photosensitivity reactions. Educate patients to Contact healthcare providers for guidance if they experience skin changes or reactions while on antibiotics (Kowalska et al., 2021)

What patient counseling would you provide?

Doctors provide patient counseling when prescribing antibiotics to ensure safe and effective medication use. Here are some common points that a doctor may cover during antibiotic counseling:

Indication: Explain the reason for prescribing the antibiotic. Discuss the specific infection or condition it is meant to treat.

 Dosage and Schedule: Provide clear instructions on how and when to take the antibiotic. Emphasize the importance of taking the medication as prescribed and completing the full course, even if the patient feels better before finishing.

 Administration: Instruct the patient on whether to take the antibiotic with or without food and if any specific dietary restrictions or precautions are necessary.

 Potential Side Effects: Discuss common side effects of the antibiotic and what to do if they occur. Also, inform the patient about severe or rare side effects requiring immediate medical attention.

Allergies and Adverse Reactions: Ask the patient about known allergies to antibiotics or other medications. Inform them of possible allergic reactions and what to do in case of an adverse reaction.

Drug Interactions: Inform the patient about any potential drug interactions with the prescribed antibiotic and other medications they may be taking. This includes over-the-counter medications, herbal supplements, and recreational drugs.

Photosensitivity (if applicable): If the antibiotic is known to cause photosensitivity, advise the patient to protect their skin from sunlight and ultraviolet (UV) light exposure.

 Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: If the patient is pregnant or breastfeeding, discuss the safety of the antibiotic and whether there are any potential risks.

 Storage: Provide instructions on how to store the antibiotic properly, including temperature requirements and keeping it out of reach of children.

 Missed Doses: Advise the patient on what to do if they miss a dose. It’s essential to avoid doubling up on doses but to take the next scheduled dose and continue the course as prescribed.

Follow-Up: Schedule a follow-up appointment to assess the patient’s progress and ensure the treatment works effectively.


Huizen, J. (2021, December 17). What are the side effects of antibiotics?

Kowalska, J., Rok, J., Rzepka, Z., & Wrześniok, D. (2021). Drug-Induced Photosensitivity—From light and chemistry to biological reactions and clinical symptoms. Pharmaceuticals14(8), 723.

NYSDOH NY. (2016, October 28). Educating patients about antibiotic use [Video]. YouTube.

Case study description

Based on the patient case study, the 46-year-old, 230lb woman with a family history of breast cancer and a history of HTN presents with symptoms of hot flushing, night sweats, and genitourinary symptoms. She is up to date on yearly mammograms but has a history of ASCUS on her pap smear about 5 years ago. She is currently taking Norvasc 10mg qd and HCTZ 25mg qd for her hypertension.

The patient’s health needs include further evaluation and management of her menopausal symptoms, which may be related to hormonal changes. It is essential to assess the severity and impact of these symptoms on her quality of life, as well as any associated genitourinary symptoms that might require specific treatment. Additionally, since she has a family history of breast cancer, it would be prudent to discuss her risk assessment for breast cancer and consider any necessary screening or genetic counseling.

In terms of her hypertension, the patient’s blood pressure of 150/90 indicates uncontrolled hypertension. Therefore, her antihypertensive regimen might need adjustment or additional medications to achieve better blood pressure control. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight management and dietary changes, should also be discussed to improve her overall cardiovascular health.

Treatment regimen recommended.

Based the patient’s symptoms and medical history, it appears that she is experiencing menopausal transition symptoms, commonly known as perimenopause. The hot flushing, night sweats, and genitourinary symptoms reported by the patient are classic signs of hormonal changes associated with this stage of life. Additionally, her age of 46 is within the typical range for perimenopause onset.

Considering the patient’s family history of breast cancer and hypertension, it is important to choose a treatment regimen that takes these factors into account. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a commonly recommended treatment for menopausal symptoms; however, it may not be the best choice for this patient due to her increased risk of breast cancer.

Non-hormonal pharmacotherapeutic options should be considered for symptom relief in this case. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have been shown to effectively manage hot flashes and night sweats in menopausal women with contraindications to hormone therapy. These medications, such as venlafaxine or paroxetine, modulate serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the brain, reducing the frequency and severity of vasomotor symptoms.

Additionally, for the patient’s genitourinary symptoms, a topical vaginal estrogen cream can be considered. Vaginal estrogen is absorbed locally and has minimal systemic absorption, making it a safer alternative for patients with a higher risk of breast cancer or cardiovascular disease. It can help alleviate vaginal dryness, discomfort, and urinary symptoms associated with perimenopause.

Furthermore, it is crucial to address the patient’s hypertension. The current medications she is taking, Norvasc (amlodipine) and HCTZ (hydrochlorothiazide), should be continued unless contraindicated. However, it is essential to monitor her blood pressure regularly, as hormonal changes during perimenopause can affect blood pressure control.

Patient Education Strategy: Managing Menopausal Symptoms and Hypertension

As a healthcare provider, it is crucial to provide comprehensive patient education to empower individuals to actively participate in managing their health needs. In the case of our 46-year-old patient with a family history of breast cancer, complaints of menopausal symptoms, and a history of hypertension, a tailored education strategy is required. This strategy will focus on educating the patient about managing menopausal symptoms and optimizing hypertension control. The following recommendations aim to provide the patient with the necessary knowledge and tools to make informed decisions about her health.

  1. Understanding Menopausal Symptoms:
  1. Provide an explanation of menopause: Educate the patient about the natural aging process that leads to menopause, including the decline in estrogen levels and its associated symptoms.
  1. Discuss common menopausal symptoms: Explain that hot flushing, night sweats, and genitourinary symptoms (such as vaginal dryness and urinary frequency) are typical symptoms experienced during menopause.
  1. Offer coping strategies: Suggest lifestyle modifications such as wearing layered clothing, using a fan, keeping a cool environment, and avoiding triggers like spicy foods and caffeine. Additionally, recommend using over-the-counter water-based lubricants to alleviate vaginal dryness.
  1. Discuss hormone therapy: Explain the potential benefits and risks of hormone therapy, including the increased risk of breast cancer. Provide up-to-date information on alternative therapies like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) for managing menopausal symptoms.
  1. Hypertension Management:
  2. Define hypertension: Educate the patient about hypertension as a chronic condition characterized by persistently elevated blood pressure, emphasizing the importance of controlling blood pressure to prevent complications.
  1. Explain the lifestyle modifications for blood pressure control: Discuss the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, which promotes a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products. Encourage the patient to reduce sodium intake, limit alcohol consumption, engage in regular physical activity, and maintain a healthy weight.
  1. Discuss medication adherence: Emphasize the significance of taking medications as prescribed and explain the mechanism of action and potential side effects of antihypertensive medications like Norvasc (amlodipine) and HCTZ (hydrochlorothiazide).
  2. Encourage regular blood pressure monitoring: Teach the patient how to accurately measure blood pressure at home using a validated blood pressure monitor. Recommend regular monitoring and encourage her to keep a record of her readings to share with her healthcare provider.


for this patient with perimenopausal symptoms and a family history of breast cancer, a non-hormonal approach to treatment is recommended. This includes considering the use of SSRIs/SNRIs for hot flushing and night sweats and topical vaginal estrogen for genitourinary symptoms. Close monitoring of blood pressure is also advised. By implementing this patient education strategy, our aim is to empower the patient with knowledge and understanding of managing menopausal symptoms and optimizing hypertension control. This will enable her to actively participate in her healthcare decisions, improve her overall well-being, and potentially reduce the risk of complications. It is crucial to provide information using a professional tone, ensuring that the patient feels supported and informed throughout the educational process.

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