NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion: Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE

NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion: Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE

NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE

RE: Discussion – Week 1


Over the past years even before I started practicing nursing science, some of the problems that the health care system has been facing include affordable healthcare coverage and services, access to quality healthcare, and the evolution of information technology. Moreover, the Triple Aim which is a framework that is established by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement is innovated for addressing the concerns and issues in the health care system. To address these concerns and issues, “The goal was to improve the healthcare issues by improving access to healthcare, improving health outcomes, and decreasing the cost of healthcare delivery” (Laureate Education, 2018). The national healthcare issue/stressor that is selected for analysis and explanation of how the healthcare issue/stressor may impact my work setting is understaffing/shortage of nurses and medical burnout.

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In NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion: Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE, Describe how your health system work setting has responded to the healthcare issue/stressor, including a description of what changes may have been implemented. Be specific and provide examples.

I have worked in various facilities where there is understaffing and a shortage of nurses. The shortage of nurses in the health care system has been a huge problem in the health care system which still remains a major problem today. There should be an equilibrium between nurse staffing and the number of patients. One of the priorities of the health care providers is to have a well-trained nurse to provide adequate quality care. If there is a shortage of nurses, the available ones will be prone to mental and physical fatigue which can also lead to fatigue syndrome. Moreover, nurses that have “burnout

syndrome” can make clinical errors. Medication error for example can cause permanent damage to the health of the patient of eventually leads to death. In addition, nurses are prone to “burnout syndrome” which is described “as a feeling of failure and exhaustion resulting from excessive demands on the energy, personal resources or spiritual strength of workers that prevent them from providing care and assistance to users of organizations in different fields whose primary objective is to help others”( Ruiz-Fernández et al.,2020).

My facility reacts to this issue by writing the American Nursing Association (ANA) on how to identify major elements to achieve optimal staffing which includes: the consumer, interprofessional teams, workplace culture, practice environment, and evaluation (American Nursing Association, n.d). Unfortunately, this has been an ongoing problem of health care systems for years which is still a problem till today. The immediate response was sent to the facility; however, the promises and solutions have not been implemented till today as the facility still suffers a shortage of nurses. However, since there were no forthcoming solutions from the government despite that the American Nursing Association (ANA) promised to get across to the legislators on the issue of shortage of nurses especially in the remote areas, the facilities had to implement an increase of overtime from “ a time and a half to a time and three-quarter” to nurses who are ready to work overtime. Moreover, the available nurses in urban centers were trained with the use of telemedicine so that they can see patients through this information technology in case the number of patients supersedes the available nurses in the remote areas – NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion: Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE.


American Nursing Association. (n.d.). Principles for nurse staffing. Retrieved from American Nursing Association. (n.d.). Principles for nurse staffing. Retrieved from

Griffiths, D. (2017). How low staffing levels intensify risk stressors for nurses. Ohio Nurses Review, 92(2), 11.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2018). The Healthcare Environment [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Ruiz-Fernández, M. D., Pérez-García, E., & Ortega-Galán, Á. M. (2020). Quality of Life in Nursing Professionals: Burnout, Fatigue, and Compassion Satisfaction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(4).

National Healthcare Issue/Stressor

Hi A! I enjoyed reading your discussion post on the nursing shortage and how it has become a

nurs 6053 week 1 discussion review of current healthcare issues sample
NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE

national healthcare issue/stressor.  Nursing shortages have been an issue for sometime and continue to be due to many factors. One factor that effects the nursing shortage in rural areas and primary care settings is due to most nursing schools are located in metropolitan areas and those acute care hospitals tend to attract the newer graduates (Haryanto, 2019). In urban areas, rehabilitation hospitals and skilled nursing facilities tend to have a shortage due to salary expectations.  There is also a demand problem with the number of inpatient, critical and labor-intensive patients that have increased due to the aging population and the advancement of keeping ill patients alive longer (Upenieks, 2003). These patients require increased work hours by nurses to care for them. Lastly, retention of nurses has been an issue. Many hospitals have incentive programs and have increased pay, but money is not the only problem, nurses want to be appreciated and respected.  According to Upenieks,2003, nurses want to be recognized for their expertise and be a part of the decision-making when it comes to patient care. There are many more issues that have contributed to the nursing shortage, these are just a few as required by NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion: Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE.

Impact on my Healthcare Organization and Their Solution

When my hospital found itself in a nursing shortage, the first thing they did was to offer incentive sign-on bonuses and retention bonuses.  At first, this strategy worked, and we were almost fully staffed.  However, the nurses weren’t feeling appreciated and still felt overwhelmed by the acuity of the patients. The hospital never has fully figured out how to fix the acuity issue, but they did come up with an appreciation strategy that has seemed to help some on the retention factor.  The “Yeti Yell” is the name of the appreciation program- NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion: Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE.  Anyone can nominate a nurse for this program.  There are forms all over the hospital that you fill out on why you are giving a “Yeti Yell”.  These forms are duplicate so once you fill it out, one copy goes to the person you are appreciating, and the other goes to administration.  The forms that administration receive are then compiled and put out in an email newsletter for all to read and one person is drawn every month to receive a Yeti Tumbler of their choice. Nurses have felt more appreciated since this program started almost two years ago and many who were thinking of moving on before the program started, have stayed.  You can hear them talk about how someone gave them a “Yeti Yell” and how it makes their day and makes them feel like what they are doing matters and is appreciated. This program is not a complete solution to retention, however it is a start in the right direction.


 Haryanto, Mickey & RN-BC, MBA. (2019). Nursing Shortage: Myth or Fact?. Orthopedic

Nursing, 38, 1-2.

Upenieks V. (2003). Recruitment and retention strategies: a magnet hospital prevention

model. Nursing Economic$21(1), 7–23.


RE: Discussion – Week 1

Description of the National Healthcare Issue

I currently work in a mental health unit where we have patients that with mental illnesses and substance abuse.  In my unit, I see a big turnover with patients struggling with alcohol abuse. Unfortunately, we have been seeing more patients admitted for substance abuse due to the Pandemic.  These are very stressful times, and our staffing department has been struggling to keep our mental health units staffed safely by using a grid for each unit.  Sometimes the grid doesn’t make sense to me because the acuity is high most times in mental health and we need extra staff so we can deliver the best care.

Our patients that are admitted due to alcohol abuse are most times on a CIWA protocol.  A CIWA protocol is a tool used to determine what level of severity of detox the patient is in according to their symptoms.  With the CIWA protocol, we also medicate the patient according to a score used measured by the patients symptoms.  According to the World Health Organization (2018), “Worldwide, 3 million deaths every year result from harmful use of alcohol, this represents 5.3 % of all deaths”. Alcoholism can be triggered by so many factors in people’s lives.  Unfortunately, alcohol can be the only coping skill for some people to get through their daily struggles.  I have seen very sick patients who struggle with alcoholism, one being liver disease.  In 2018 there were 83,517 deaths due to liver disease starting with the age of 12 and older, this included 42.8 % that involved alcohol (National Institute of Alcohol NIH, 2019).

Impact of Registered Nurse Shortage in high acuity settings

Since alcoholism comes with many factors which not only included physical illnesses but also mental illnesses, we as nurses not only have to care for the patient physically but also mentally.  Since these patients are most times very ill, our acuity on the mental health unit is very high.  These patients require a lot of attention and most times are suicidal as well.  Most times we are short staffed due to a grid that was made according to census.  For example, if we have 12 patients one mental health unit (hall), then the grid states we only need 2 nurses and one tech.  To some people this may sound accurate, but unless you have worked on a mental health unit and detox unit, this is short.  We deal with patients yelling, cursing, and threatening us which we have to call security and medicate the patient, then we have the detox patients that we also have to care for and make sure they are not regressing.  In between all these we have to do not hour rounds but Q15 minute rounds for each patient.  Because the treatment for alcoholism and mental illness is different, we as nurses have to know the signs of regression for alcoholism and the signs of escalation for mental illness.  Although alcoholism is considered a mental illness, the protocol of care is very different.  Our units can become very hectic and challenging and sometimes may leave us with tears, but my peers are very skilled, and we never leave anyone drowning in work.  If we can only have one more nurse or tech to help out on the floor, it would make a positive and significant difference on the attention and care we give our patients.  According to the Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurse Association (APNA), 2016, “Acuity. Aligning staffing based on patient needs and acuity is an important consideration for risk mitigation and safety on the unit (Delaney & Johnson, 2006)”.


Alcohol Facts and Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2020, from

Alcohol. (n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2020, from

APNA Position Statement: Staffing Inpatient Psychiatric Units, 2012. (n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2020, from

I too discussed nursing shortages as a healthcare issue. It was interesting to read your views and research on the topic. My initial reaction to nursing shortages was to target the work environment and compensation issues that nurses face which lead to shortages. However, when I dug a bit deeper into researching about this; my eyes were opened to an entire world of reasons why there are shortages. “It is critical to include the systematic issues in education, health delivery systems and the work environment. Further, the impact of reimbursement, legislation, regulation and technological advances must also be considered. Failure to consider the relationships among these aspects limits the full appreciation of the nursing workforce shortage complexity.” (, 2022) Shortages are prevalent in the media amongst bedside nurses but extends to all specialties of practice. I was astounded at how much of a faculty shortage there is as well. How does an aspiring nurse achieve success in the first step of their career without the proper educators and resources? Let’s not forget the mounting stress of how these shortages will impact them upon entering the field as graduate nurses. “The shortage has pros and cons for nursing students. One pro is being able to find a job quickly after graduation. A key disadvantage, though, is that nursing programs have fewer openings. For students, this means acceptance into a program may be more challenging.” (,2022) The issue with the pro here is that graduate nurses will have astronomical ratios, which is unsafe for all involved. Nurses, even of novice status should not have 6-7 patients on a progressive care unit, or 4 ICU patients. Patients come first. That’s what we are taught and that’s how it should stay, but what if a system is put into effect where both patients and providers are #1. Also, these nursing shortages drop patients to last on the list of priorities. That’s another discussion completely.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing: The Voice of Academic Nursing. (n.d.). Retrieved September 1, 2022, from

Writers, S. (2022, August 29). Post-pandemic nursing shortage: What it means for aspiring nurses. NurseJournal. Retrieved September 1, 2022, from

NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion: Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE

NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion: Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE

The perennial nursing shortage is a national healthcare issue of concern. Statistics at national and international levels show that the shortage of healthcare worker (HCWs) is profound and affects effective and quality service delivery. The World Health Organization (WHO) projects that the nursing shortage could hit 12.9 million by 2035 (Marc et al., 2018). Nursing shortage creates unsafe working environment and increases fatigue, high turnover rates, and make nurses susceptible to medication administration errors. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the situation as the demand for healthcare services has increased, leading to more strain and burden on nurses, especially those working in critical care settings and others with elderly patient populations with chronic and terminal conditions.

Nursing shortage has impacted my work setting negatively as we enhance efforts to provide care to a patient diversity coming to the facility. Low staff retention, reduced levels of patient’s satisfaction, and a rise in hospital acquired infections are some of the negative effects of nursing shortage in our facility. When patient workload exceeds the available shift nurses, patients experience low levels of satisfaction. Unsafe staffing ratios contribute to burnout and high turnover rates (Alenezi et al., 2018). Further, increased length of stay happens due to higher nurse-to-patient ratios lead to more complications and a rise of hospital acquired infections.

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Many healthcare settings are struggling in responding to nursing shortage because of the few options available (Marshall & Broome, 2017). Our facility is now leveraging technologies like telehealth to enhance access and quality for patients with chronic conditions like diabetes and hypertension who require constant monitoring. While studies show that nursing supply may exceed demand in the near future, using technologies and innovative models like increased training and flexibility can help organizations mitigate the adverse effects of nursing shortage.


Alenezi, A. M., Aboshaiqah, A., & Baker, O. (2018). Work‐related stress among nursing staff

working in government hospitals and primary health care centers. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 24(5).

Marc, M., Bartosiewicz, A., Burzynska, J., Chmiel, Z., & Januszewicz, P. (2018). A

nursing shortage – a prospect of global and local policies. International Nursing Review, 66(1), 9-16.

Marshall, E. S., & Broome, M. E. (2017). Transformational leadership in nursing: From expert

            clinician to influential leader (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer

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Nurses work in different settings with varying work demands, support mechanisms, and approaches to work. Regardless of these differences, healthcare stressors are part of everyday work. These stressors are usually workplace challenges widespread in the United States that hamper nurses’ ability to deliver timely and effective care (Rose et al., 2021). The nursing shortage is a prevalent national stressor with far-reaching effects on patient care. It is characterized by higher demand for nurses than the current supply.

The effects of the nursing shortage witnessed in other organizations may be experienced in my work setting. As Shah et al. (2021) explained, the nursing shortage is a leading cause of burnout among nurses. It increases the nurse-patient ratio implying that nurses are overworked and may lack time for self-care and other activities that enhance commitment to work. Shah et al. (2021) further observed that nurses experiencing burnout are more likely to commit medical errors than nurses working within the standard nurse-patient ratios. Errors risk patient safety and damage patients’ trust in healthcare providers. Burnout triggers turnover and increases an organization’s management costs since replacing nurses is costly.

nurs 6053 week 1 discussion review of current healthcare issues sample
NURS 6053 Week 1 Discussion Review of Current Healthcare Issues SAMPLE

To avert the damaging effects of the nursing shortage, healthcare organizations should implement robust strategies, both staff-centered and organization-wide. My healthcare setting has responded to the nursing shortage through continuous supervision of staff, motivation programs, and formulating policies that prevent work overload. As Lee and Lee (2022) noted, nurse motivation is critical to creating a positive work atmosphere and retaining nurses. The same perspective guides the management when developing and implementing motivation programs. Regarding the changes that may have been implemented, nurses need mental strength to cope with the increasing workload. As a result, the management should invest more in coping programs and organize appropriate training initiatives to improve nurses’ resilience.


Lee, J. Y., & Lee, M. H. (2022). Structural model of retention intention of nurses in small-and medium-sized hospitals: Based on Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory. Healthcare, 10(3), 502.

Rose, S., Hartnett, J., & Pillai, S. (2021). Healthcare worker’s emotions, perceived stressors and coping mechanisms during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS One16(7), e0254252.

Shah, M. K., Gandrakota, N., Cimiotti, J. P., Ghose, N., Moore, M., & Ali, M. K. (2021). Prevalence of and factors associated with nurse burnout in the US. JAMA Network Open4(2), e2036469-e2036469. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.36469

First response

               Thanks, Tiffany, for this educative post. When I was trying to choose a healthcare stressor for this discussion, the first stressor that came to my mind was the shortage of healthcare providers, as this has been going on since the inception of COVID-19. Since this is a current issue, many other students may want to discuss this topic, so I chose a different stressor. Without any doubt, as you have mentioned, there are many factors influencing and challenging the healthcare industry in today’s world.

                A shortage of healthcare providers is overwhelming the healthcare industry. High demand for healthcare providers’ services has inflicted severe financial pressure on staff shortages, high workloads, and work-related stress (Rodriquez Santana et al., 2020). As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many healthcare providers died, creating a daunting situation for some people thinking of becoming healthcare providers. I know some people that changed their careers from healthcare to information technology just because of the havoc COVID-19 did to healthcare providers,

Impact of Healthcare this healthcare stressor at my workplace

              Healthcare providers play a crucial role in the healthcare industry. Healthcare providers’ strife took much work to ensure their patients received the individualized quality care they deserved. Healthcare providers play a vital role in educating patients, advocating for them, and delivering comprehensive healthcare services and policy guidance ( Canavera et al., 2018). They take up the responsibility for planning and management of care of their patient.

              After the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no doubt that there is a need for an increase in the number of healthcare workers to meet the demand of the future years. Prior to COVID-19, shortages of healthcare providers have been a lingering issue. Because healthcare workers require vast training and special qualification, hence it is not easy to hire new providers off the street.

              Healthcare provider shortages result in high patient caseloads. Healthcare provider shortages placed mental and physical burdens on healthcare workers. Shortages related to burnout and stress made some healthcare providers dump the healthcare field in pursuit of more lucrative jobs, and some healthcare providers exited the field entirely.

Solution Developed by my Workplace

                 A system of creative staffing solutions was developed to combat workforce gaps, and my workplace scrambles by redeploying existing staff to help in areas of high need. Some medical specialists start pitching in to assist HealthCare providers in caring for a patient. My hospital hired more qualified physician assistants and Nurse Practitioners to perform some of the responsibilities of healthcare providers.

                 As a result of shortages of doctors, some health authorities are seeking means to compensate for the shortages without hiring new physicians, and Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants can help to alleviate the burden of healthcare provider shortages ( Owens, 2019).

                 My hospital started to facilitate the promotion of public health and preventative measures by teaching our patients ways to remain healthy. My facility was using nurses to assist in alleviating healthcare provider shortages by rendering primary care to their patient who does not necessarily require physician care.


Canavera, K., Johnson, L.-M., & Harman, J. (2018). Beyond parenting: The responsibility of multidisciplinary health care providers in early intervention policy guidance. The American Journal of Bioethics, 18(11), 58–60.

Links to an external site.

Owens, B. (2019). Roles of nurse practitioners and physician assistants in medicine still under debate. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 191(7), E203–E204.

Links to an external site.

Rodriguez Santana, I., Anaya Montes, M., Chalkley, M., Jacobs, R., Kowalski, T., & Suter, J. (2020). The impact of extending nurse working hours on staff sickness absence: Evidence from a large mental health hospital in england. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 112, 103611.

Links to an external site.

Global healthcare systems are facing unprecedented times and uncertain future based on the current situation of Covid-19 pandemic. This has prompted quick adoption of technology in healthcare systems from booking of appointments to billing. Therefore, I believe one of the major current healthcare issues is on technology disruption. Much questions have been raised on the big data usage, incorporation of telehealth, synchronization of the national health data systems and on the confidentiality and security of the patient’s health records as cases of cybersecurity have soared with increased adoption of information technology in healthcare (Sittig et al., 2018).

Big data in healthcare systems refers to the accumulation of large sets of digital information about the patients’ biodata, medical history, clinical interventions, current and past medical concerns of the patients. This data is accumulated overtime rather than that which is received in small amounts and not stored for future references (Thew, 2016). This prompts the healthcare nurse informatics to employ the use of data analytics and data mining tools so that they can extract meaningful patterns, study the correlation and develop predictions (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018). Use big data has proved to be essential in healthcare management especially when analyzed and used to inform critical decision-making points and even guide future evidence-based change projects (Byrd et al, 2018).  This information is used by managers and administrators to identify patterns and areas of strength and weakness within the system and help plan in resource allocation.

However, big data faces one of the greatest security challenges especially on the confidentiality of the patient’s information. Cases of cyber insecurity have been rising since most healthcare facilities and organizations adopted use of technology to manage the spread of Covid-19 pandemic. The patient’s confidential data may be easily accessed if the systems security checks are not well enforced. In some of the online platforms like Amazon, for online shopping, the systems put in adequate security checks and user authentication and verification steps. The breech of patient’s confidential medical information could have adverse effects on the healthcare facility or organization hence incur a lot of expenses in terms of compensation and in the end the reputation of the organization will also be severely damaged.

Therefore, it is imperative for healthcare organizations and systems that procure any digital platform for managing healthcare records to invest heavily on ensuring the system is safe and secure from cyber security threats and phishing on patient’s data (Bibhuranjan, 2019). Moreover, there is need to improve the software technology to develop systems that are less susceptible to hacking. It is also essential to ensure that patients are well educated on ways of safely using the digital platforms and there should be readily accessible customer care agent to help patient’s carry out proper verification and maintain safety of their data.

Increased usage of digital platforms and information technology poses another safety threat to the patients as they are likely to seek for medical advice from online blogs and unverified media sources that could be misleading to the patients. This information collected on such blogs has no scientifically proven or evidence-based data to support the claims or the medical advice offered. Moreover, the information could be provided by individuals who have no professional training in the areas that they are providing the medical information. There has been rapid increase in blogs from unregistered dietician and fitness coaches whose methods are not scientifically viable to rely on as professional medical procedures. Many patients have fallen prey to such misleading information that even sometimes discourages the use of conventional medication and clinical intervention measures (Young, 2016).

In conclusion, it is imperative for the federal and state government to come up with strict measures, laws and policies that govern the use of information technology in healthcare. The guidelines should be clear and the regulations must be standardized to enhance security of the patients’ data and also safeguard them from unverified and unethical practices and information availed to them on social media platforms. Any digital platforms or media engaging in medical or clinical information must have passed the licensure criteria that would be guided by strict conformity to the ethical issues in healthcare and meets the set standards.


Bibhuranjan. (2019). Big data analytics – How beneficial is it for healthcare? Technofaq.,is%20very%20important%20for%20any%20organization…%20More

Byrd, T.A., Kung, L., & Wang, Y. (2018). Big data analytics: Understanding its capabilities and potential benefits for healthcare organizations. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 126(1), 3-13. doi:10. 1016/j.techfore.2015.12.019

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sittig, D. F., Wright, A., Coiera, E., Magrabi, F., Ratwani, R., Bates, D. W., & Singh, H. (2018). Current challenges in health information technology–related patient safety. Health Informatics Journal, 26(1), 146045821881489.

Thew, J. (2016). Big data means big potential, changes for nurse execs. HealthLeaders.

Young, A. (2016). The pros and cons of big data in the healthcare industry. HealthCareZone.

A national healthcare issue that impacted my work setting is a lack of medical doctors specializing in psychiatric care for people with a dual diagnosis. Within the past few years, psychiatric care started providing a more accessible way for the general population to receive their needed care. Telehealth was a huge help in providing mental health care for people in rural areas or those with a busy schedule, but it’s not a solution for everyone. Psychiatric nurse practitioners were a great resource as well; at my current job, where I work with people with intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD), finding a provider was extremely hard.

     There is an increase in nurse practitioners that do an immense job in protecting the community and helping providers reach more people, but still, it is not enough, even for the general population. According to research done in 2018 by Satiani Et al., “The psychiatrist workforce will contract through 2024 to a projected low of 38,821, which is equal to a shortage of between 14,280 and 31,091 psychiatrists.” Unfortunately, many don’t specialize in care for the mentioned community; therefore, developmentally delayed adults end up without proper care.

     Appropriate interventions can improve immediate and long-term outcomes. Even within the IDD, many mental health practitioners lack the clinical knowledge and training, ending up misdiagnosing or prescribing first-line treatment that might not suit the patient. (Zisman-Ilani, 2022)

     The social determinant that affects this issue is the lack of funds that developmentally delayed adults have. While some people might have better insurance that covers more resources or decide to pay out of pocket for services, most IDD adults are on Medicaid, which pays practitioners from 18$ up to 100$ maximum for a consultation. (TheraThink, 2023) Another cause of the issue is the number of retiring psychiatrists and the lack of new psychiatrists that enter the workforce.

     Unfortunately, there is not much that can be done to provide the necessary support for IDD adults. Therefore, at my job, patients were either referred to a psychiatric hospital where they would get medication changes and refills from primary care providers or go to a nurse practitioner. Due to the low pay, psychiatrists prefer to work with out-of-pocket patients or do not even accept working with the IDD community. To prevent this issue, the government should come up with a solution for Medicaid/Medicare IDD holders where providers are accordingly reimbursed for the services provided. Another solution would be teaching hospitals to introduce their residents to the community and have them work and practice their skills under supervision and specialize in this area.

Satiani, A., Niedermier, J., Satiani, B., & Svendsen, D. P. (2018). Projected workforce of psychiatrists in the United States: A population analysis. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.), 69(6), 710–713.

TheraThink (2023) Insurance reimbursement rates for psychiatrists (2023).

Zisman-Ilani, Y., (2022) The mental health crisis of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

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