NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Sample Answer for NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research Included After Question

Identify the different levels of translational research. Explain how translational research is different from evidence-based practice and discuss application to population health management.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Translational research is a new concept in my view of the world, it is a fairly new concept, as nurses we hear the term evidence-based practice (EBP) and research. Translational research is often thought of as EPB, Translational research is the research of EBP studies as well as the study and translation of EBP interventions into practice (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019) Translational research is as stated it translates how EBP “translates” into practice, evidence-based practice is a guide to practice, translation science is the translation to implement the evidence-based research into practice. (Tilter, 2018). Translation research has different components to implementation of preclinical studies, phase one small clinical trials, phase 2&3 larger clinical trials, outcomes from the clinical trials, them phase 5 population outcomes research- these phases offer a “bench to bedside” continuum (Tilter, 2018).

Gaps between the availability of evidence and the placing evidence into practice has shown to partner with poor outcomes by not enabling caregivers to place the evidence into practice. (Tilter, 2018)Transitional research has shown to be beneficial in-patient outcomes and health care management by translating the evidence into practice which improves patient outcomes by the utilization of the evidence. In my field of Labor and delivery I have seen this similar process in the abundance availability of research and evidence of the increased risk of hypertension in pregnancy. Yet the physicians I practice with implement in very many ways through lack of translation causing early inductions and higher risk to the infants. When implementing a new technology, evidence or practice it is important to understand the research and evidence behind it as well as how best to safely implement into practice. (Sung et al., 2020) Translation research is an exciting and has multiple opportunities to advance patient outcomes, as an upcoming APRN in a magnet hospital, utilizing this process with EBP will strongly improve patient care as well as nursing practice.

NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research References

Melnyk, B. M., PhD, RN. APRN-CNP, FAANP, FNAP, FAAN, & Fineout-Overholt, E., PhD, RN, FNAP, FAAN. (2019). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing& Healthcare A Guide to Best Practice (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

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Sung, V. W., MD MPH, Tulikangas, P., MD, Bradley, C. S., MD, MSCE, & Rideway, B., MD. (2020). Assessing and adopting New medical devices for Obstetric and Gynecologic care. ACOG135(4), 160–166. Retrieved May 26, 2021, from

Tilter, M. G. (2018). Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing23(2). Retrieved June 16, 2021, from

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Re: Topic 1 DQ 1

Translational research is form of clinical research that was first seen around 1993 (Rubio et al, 2010). So as far as research goes this is a fairly new was to look into things. There is also no clear definition of translational research, but essentially it encompasses two areas of translation one being the information obtained in pre-clinical studies, lab research and the other being the adaptation of best practices in the community with their cost effectiveness (Rubio et al, 2010). There are three levels of translational research, starting with T1, which involves the beginning research or development of an intervention, including the lab research, observational research and phase I and II clinical trials (Translational Research, n.d.). The second level is T2 the translation to patients, testing these interventions and their efficacy on the patient populace, including phase III clinical trials, studying how these new interventions work with disease processes and creating new guidelines with up-to-date information (Translational Research, n.d.). The third level is T3 disseminating and implementation of all the research into daily practice, creating the research evidence found into evidence-based practices across the profession (Translational Research, n.d.).

From this information there isn’t a difference between evidence-based practice and translational research, it is just a way to get to evidence based practice. By following the ‘three T’s’, the final step is to put all of this research into practice, as evidence-based practice. For public health this means the most up to date care and information as the natural progression of translational practice ends with practice. If there is no research being done in the area however, this has a negative impact on the population, as there is not up to date EPB related to that disease process and/or its co morbidities.

Rubio, D. M., Schoenbaum, E. E., Lee, L. S., Schteingart, D. E., Marantz, P. R., Anderson, K. E., Platt, L. D., Baez, A., & Esposito, K. (2010). Defining translational research: implications for training. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges85(3), 470–475. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181ccd618

Translational Research – Defining the “T’s” | Translational Cancer Research Network. (n.d.). Www.Tcrn.Unsw.Edu. Retrieved June 18, 2021, from http://www.tcrn.unsw.edu.au/translational-research-definitions

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

This is insightful Sarah, translational research is form of clinical research that was first seen around 1993. So as far as research goes this is a fairly new was to look into things. Translational research refers to a form of study that seeks to produce more applicable, meaningful and valid outcomes that can directly impact human health. The main objective or purpose of the translational research is to translate essential science discoveries more quickly and efficiently into practices (Eske, 2020). Translational research has been applied frequently by different researchers to enhance research processes geared towards achieving quality treatment processes and effective patient outcomes. There are three major level of translational research including T1, T2, and T3. These levels need to be incorporated into the research processes to ensure accuracy and effective outcomes in the research processes (Woolf, 2018). Level I or T1 often involves development of interventions to ensure that the entire research processes is done effectively in line with the set objectives.

NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research References

Woolf, S. H. (2018). The meaning of translational research and why it matters. Jama299(2), 211-213. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/1149350

Eske, J. (2020, August 31). In vivo vs. in vitro: What is the difference? Medical News Today. Retrieved June 17, 2021, from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/in-vivo-vs-in-vitro

A Sample Answer 4 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Re: Topic 1 DQ 1

Translational research is a new concept in my view of the world, it is a fairly new concept, as nurses we hear the term evidence-based practice (EBP) and research. Translational research is often thought of as EPB, Translational research is the research of EBP studies as well as the study and translation of EBP interventions into practice (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2019) Translational research is as stated it translates how EBP “translates” into practice, evidence-based practice is a guide to practice, translation science is the translation to implement the evidence-based research into practice. (Tilter, 2018). Translation research has different components to implementation of preclinical studies, phase one small clinical trials, phase 2&3 larger clinical trials, outcomes from the clinical trials, them phase 5 population outcomes research- these phases offer a “bench to bedside” continuum (Tilter, 2018).

Gaps between the availability of evidence and the placing evidence into practice has shown to partner with poor outcomes by not enabling caregivers to place the evidence into practice. (Tilter, 2018)Transitional research has shown to be beneficial in-patient

outcomes and health care management by translating the evidence into practice which improves patient outcomes by the utilization of the evidence. In my field of Labor and delivery I have seen this similar process in the abundance availability of research and evidence of the increased risk of hypertension in pregnancy. Yet the physicians I practice with implement in very many ways through lack of translation causing early inductions and higher risk to the infants. When implementing a new technology, evidence or practice it is important to understand the research and evidence behind it as well as how best to safely implement into practice. (Sung et al., 2020) Translation research is an exciting and has multiple opportunities to advance patient outcomes, as an upcoming APRN in a magnet hospital, utilizing this process with EBP will strongly improve patient care as well as nursing practice.

NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research References

Melnyk, B. M., PhD, RN. APRN-CNP, FAANP, FNAP, FAAN, & Fineout-Overholt, E., PhD, RN, FNAP, FAAN. (2019). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing& Healthcare A Guide to Best Practice (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer.

Sung, V. W., MD MPH, Tulikangas, P., MD, Bradley, C. S., MD, MSCE, & Rideway, B., MD. (2020). Assessing and adopting New medical devices for Obstetric and Gynecologic care. ACOG135(4), 160–166. Retrieved May 26, 2021, from

Also Check Out:  NURS 4455 Module 4 Assignment 1  Organizational Analysis – Part 2 (Overview of Nurse Leader)

Tilter, M. G. (2018). Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing23(2). Retrieved June 16, 2021, from

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A Sample Answer 5 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

This is insightful Deanna, translational research is a new concept in my view of the world, it is a fairly new concept, as nurses we hear the term evidence-based practice (EBP) and research Translational research has been applied by most researchers to influence study processes and to ensure quality outcomes in different studies (Tilter, 2018). Translational research mainly involves the production of more meaningful, and applicable results in the research process that directly benefit human health. Most researchers prefers translational research because in can be applied to enhance methodologies and general research outcomes. The application of different levels of research processes T1, T2, and T3 depend on the methodologies that have been applied as well as the research objectives (Woolf, 2018). Translation research has different components to implementation of preclinical studies, phase one small clinical trials, phase 2&3 larger clinical trials, outcomes from the clinical trials, them phase 5 population outcomes research- these phases offer a “bench to bedside” continuum.

NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research References

Tilter, M. G. (2018). Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing23(2). Retrieved June 16, 2021, from

Woolf, S. H. (2018). The meaning of translational research and why it matters. Jama299(2), 211-213. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/1149350

A Sample Answer 6 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

As nurses, we all have heard about evidence-based practice and Florence Nightingale. Although back then, the term evidence-based practice was not a common phrase, that is exactly what Florence Nightingale was doing back then. She would examine and experiment with the sanitary conditions of the facilities and look at how it affected the patient’s outcomes (Mackey & Bassendowski, 2017). Translational research is more of a newer terminology. Although it can be confused with evidence-based practice, there is a key distinction. Evidence-based practice is the act of applying the evidence into everyday practice, whereas translational research is more the act of conducting the studies to find the best evidence (Titler, 2018).

There are strict guidelines when conducting translational research or what many of us know as clinical trials. There is phase process where in order to progress to the next phase of clinical trials, they must meet certain criteria. New drugs must undergo in vitro preclinical trials where they are testing it in a laboratory setting instead of human trials. Then they can proceed to in vivo studies where they are studying it in animals and small sample size of human trials (Eske, 2020). Once it has proven to be safe, then they can progress to a phase two or three trial increasing the sample size and comparing it to common treatments or sometimes placebos. Once it has shown safety and efficacy in a phase two or three trial, it can then go for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. There are also phase four and five trials that help with translating the evidence into practice and community settings (Titler, 2018).

In my specialty area of oncology, we are constantly hearing about clinical trials and new therapies coming to market. It is critical to have a good understanding of what each phase of the trial consists of and what the outcomes really mean to the patient.

NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research References

Eske, J. (2020, August 31). In vivo vs. in vitro: What is the difference? Medical News Today. Retrieved June 17, 2021, from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/in-vivo-vs-in-vitro

Mackey, A., & Bassendowski, S. (2017). The history of evidence-based practice in nursing education and practice. Journal of Professional Nursing33(1), 51–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2016.05.009

Titler, M. G. (2018). Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing23(2). https://doi.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol23No02Man01

A Sample Answer 7 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

This is insightful Kelli, translational research is a new concept in my view of the world, it is a fairly new concept, as nurses we hear the term evidence-based practice (EBP) and research. Translational research is critical in the research processes as they involve translation of what have been found in other studies (Eske, 2020). Most researcher prefer to apply translational research processes to influence different study outcomes. The application of different levels of research processes T1, T2, and T3 depend on the methodologies that have been applied as well as the research objectives. Translational research is a new concept in my view of the world, it is a fairly new concept, as nurses we hear the term evidence-based practice (EBP) and research (Woolf, 2018). There are three major components of translation research including T1, T2, and T3. These translational research are important in ensuring that every study outcomes are done in line with the research objectives.

Translational research is a type of biomedical research that focuses on applying scientific discoveries to improve the health of individuals and populations. This research can be divided into three levels: bench-to-bedside, bedside-to-population, and population-to-bench. At the bench-to-bedside level, findings are applied to humans in clinical trials, while bedside-to-population focuses on understanding how interventions can be used in practice. Finally, the population-to-bench level uses findings from study populations to suggest new hypotheses. This helps scientists identify potential new targets for drug development or preventive measures against the disease.

Translational research takes findings from the laboratory and applies them to people in real-life settings. It helps make treatments that can help people’s health. Evidence-based practice is when healthcare providers use research and evidence to make decisions about patient care. It helps healthcare providers make decisions with the best possible outcomes for patients. Thus, while translational research focuses on translating findings from lab studies to clinical applications, the evidence-based practice focuses on helping practitioners make patient care decisions. Both are essential components of biomedical research and healthcare delivery, and they work together to help improve health outcomes. Translational research helps develop treatments that can be used in a clinical setting, whereas evidence-based practice provides guidelines for how these treatments should be used (Weiss et al., 2018). Together, both contribute to improving human health by providing healthcare providers with the best information to make informed patient care decisions.

The application of translational research to population health management involves a multi-pronged approach to address the needs of patients and communities. Firstly, it includes developing and evaluating innovative treatments based on laboratory or bench studies that have been tested in clinical trials to ensure safety and efficacy. Secondly, it involves developing protocols for translating these findings into real-world healthcare by examining factors such as cost-effectiveness, and adoption rates among healthcare providers and patients, so that interventions can be made widely available to population groups. Finally, it involves using data from extensive population studies such as cohort studies or randomized controlled trials to inform new hypotheses (Cheetham et al., 2018), which can then be tested in laboratory or animal models to identify potential new targets for drug development or preventive measures that could benefit population groups.

Consequently, translational research is a vital tool for improving population health outcomes by combining the knowledge and expertise of laboratory scientists and clinical practitioners. This type of research enables healthcare providers to make decisions about patient care based on evidence from real-world data, ensuring that treatments are safe and effective for specific diseases. Moreover, translational research strategies can be used to develop tailored interventions for specific populations, allowing for equitable access to healthcare services.

References:

Cheetham, M., Wiseman, A., Khazaeli, B., Gibson, E., Gray, P., Van der Graaf, P., & Rushmer, R. (2018). Embedded research: A promising way to create evidence-informed impact in public health? Journal of Public Health, 40(suppl_1), i64–i70.

 Weiss, M. E., Bobay, K. L., Johantgen, M., & Shirey, M. R. (2018). Aligning evidence-based practice with translational research: Opportunities for clinical practice research. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 48(9), 425–431.

A Sample Answer 8 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Population health management requires health care providers, people, and communities to apply up-to-date and relevant approaches to respond to current and emerging health problems. Amid this, discoveries of new approaches to health and strategies of enhancing health outcomes are vital. Translational research’s primary purpose is to produce more meaningful, applicable results that benefit human health directly (Titler, 2018). It comes in different levels whose purposes and outcomes vary. As Fort et al. (2017) explained, phase T1 involves testing findings from basic research for clinical applicability, T2 tests new interventions in controlled environments, and T3 explores ways of applying guidelines in general practice. T4 research examines factors and interventions influencing population health.

From a health perspective, translational research differs from evidence-based practice in meaning and application. To a considerable extent, translational research involves discovering new knowledge. Titler (2018) described it as a process for yielding knowledge and the potential for intervention. If differently stated, translational research generates knowledge to form the basis for clinical application. In health practice, evidence-based practice involves utilizing the most current research to improve patients’ health and safety (Chien, 2019). It is generally a problem-solving approach that combines best practices from research with clinical experience and patients’ preferences to enhance outcomes. In this case, translational research is the foundation of evidence-based practice.

Concerning application to population health management, population health improvement relies heavily on knowledge. Illnesses emerge over time, and illnesses’ dynamics change according to people’s age, gender, blood group, and living environments, among other factors. Such variations complicate public health, and optimal health cannot be achieved if health care providers rely on a general approach or primarily the present knowledge. Solution-driven discoveries must be made as time advances to respond to the emerging health challenges. Translational research generates new knowledge critical in managing population health.

According to Titler (2018), translational research “is a dynamic continuum from basic research through application of research findings in practice, communities and public health settings to improve health and health outcomes.” Translational research has five phases: 

  •       T0: Preclinical and animal studies (T0/Basic Science Research)
  •       T1: Proof of concept, phase 1 clinical trials (T1/testing efficacy and safety with small groups of humans)
  •       T2 & T3: Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials (T3/testing and efficacy and safety with larger group of humans; compare to common treatments)
  •       T4: Phase 4 clinical trials and clinical outcomes research (T4/translation to practice)
  •       T5: Phase 5 population-level outcomes research (T5/translation to community)

Evidence-based practice “is the conscientious and judicious use of current best evidence in conjunction with clinical expertise and patient values to guide healthcare decisions (Titler, 2018).”  Translational research is research that studies how evidence-based interventions are translated to real-world clinical settings (Melnyk, 2019).  Evidence-based practice is the hands-on performing of the work whereas translational research is the study of implementing evidence-based practice.  Population health management benefits from both evidence-based practice and translational research in many ways, including improvement in care delivery and patient outcomes.   

 References 

 Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. ISBN-13: 9781496384539 

 Titler, M. G. (2018). Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(2), 1. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol23No02Man01 

A Sample Answer 9 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Can you give a specific, concrete example of what would be the specific focus of translational research T3 or T4?  

Translational research starts at T0 or preclinical research.  Phases T1 and T2 bring the research findings out of the laboratory but not fully into the real world (Vukotich, 2016).  T3 brings the research into the community to see if the new treatments or interventions work in a less controlled environment.  T4 moved the process forward through appropriate public health policies and programs.   

 One example of translational research is vaccine development.  At phase T1 basic research must be done to see if a vaccine can be created, this is done in a laboratory with animals and limited human trials.  In phase T2 extremely controlled trials are performed to determine the safety and efficacy of the vaccine on a larger number of human trials.  Phase T3 would involve authorization of general use of the vaccine by a government agency (Vukotich, 2016).  T4 involves multiple agencies monitoring the effectiveness of the vaccine in addition to any side effects.   

 References 

 Vukotich, C. (2016). Challenges of T3 and T4 Translational Research.  Journal of Research Practice.  https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1121185.pdf 

A Sample Answer 10 For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Translational research is a growing research and implementation effort used in order to improve patient outcomes. This form of science is meant to close the gap between the availability of evidence-based practice and the application in improving the public health’s well-being. In addition, this field of science helps in clarifying which strategies work to promote evidence-based practice the best, in which settings, the mechanisms behind why they do. Although translation research and evidence-based practice both focus on nursing care application and research, the two terms are not exactly interchangeable. According to Titler (2018), evidence-based practice is “the conscientious and judicious use of current best evidence in conjunction with clinical expertise and patient values to guide healthcare decisions”. Evidence-based practice is the consistent use of evidence received from research in order to back safe and efficient nursing practice. Using evidence-based research in clinical practice is imperative to the evolving of healthcare, and public health management. 

Translation research is defined by Titler (2018) as “dynamic continuum from basic research through application of research findings in practice, communities and public health settings to improve health and health outcomes”. Translational research focuses on moving scientific research findings into physical application to the clinical and public health environment. There are five phases to this research to include: 

  • Preclinical and animal studies (T-0) – identifies healthcare problem approaches and conducts basic science research 
  • Proof of concept/Phase 1 clinical trials (T1) – tests efficacy and safety with small group of humans and translates health application EBP guidelines 
  • Phase 2 and Phase 3 clinical trials (T3) – tests efficacy and safety with larger group of humans; compare to common treatments 
  • Phase 4 clinical trials and clinical outcomes research (T4) – Translation to Practice 
  • Phase 5 Population-level outcomes research (T5) – Translation to Community 

Resource 

Titler, M. G. (2018). Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(2), 1. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol23No02Man01 

Can you give a specific, concrete example of what would be the specific focus of translational research T3 or T4?  

Thank you for your reply, Professor Gallagher. T3 research, in simple terms, in translation to practice. A concrete example of T3 is research of clinical outcomes following implementation of new practice. The goal of this research is to identify shortfalls in practice but also to develop strategies to improve care and ultimately prevent disease or mitigate its impact. (Jefford et al., 2003) 

Resource 

Jefford, M., Stockler, M. R., & Tattersall, M. H. (2003). Outcomes research: what is it and why does it matter?. Internal medicine journal, 33(3), 110–118. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1445-5994.2003.00302.x 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Thanks for your post and you make great statements on what EBP is and what translational research it. I had to take some time to dive in to better understand what each one meant. I was not sure myself, but it is more clear to me now. Evidence base practice is defining what the problem is that needs to be addressed. While translation research is doing the research on the problem to determine if a certain intervention should be implemented into current practice which would reach T4 in the Transistional phases. Many of the things we do in healthcare have gone through the phases but as nurses we do not think about the research that was done behind an intervention.  

For example, the last couple years we have been struggling with COVID and what the long-term effects will be. Many have heard it as long COVID. A systemic review was completed to determine what the effects would be if proper warning signs and management were identified right away (Akbarialiabad, 2021). This review is still in the beginning phases of T2 and is being translated to patients until a defiant intervention can be implemented to roll out to the population.  

 Reference. 

 Akbarialiabad, H., Taghrir, M. H., Abdollahi, A., Ghahramani, N., Kumar, M., Paydar, S., Razani, B., Mwangi, J., Asadi-Pooya, A. A., Malekmakan, L., & Bastani, B. (2021). Long COVID, a comprehensive systematic scoping review. Infection, 49(6), 1163–1186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-021-01666-x:https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-021-01666-x 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

According to Titler (2018), translational research is described as a continuum of “basic research through application of research findings in practice, communities and public health settings to improve health and health outcomes”. Another definition of translational research is the development of clinical trials and studies in humans by the application of lab research and preclinical studies (Grand Canyon University Library, n.d.). The different levels of translational research include five phases. These are identified as T0-T5. T0 is the preclinical and animal studies phase that is based on basic research. T1 is the proof-of-concept phase or phase 1 clinical trials that test small groups of humans for efficacy and safety. T2 and T3 are the phase 2 &3 of clinical trials that also test the safety and efficacy but with a larger group of humans (Titler, 2018). T4 is phase 4 of clinical trials and outcomes in the research. This is where translation to practice is identified. Lastly, T5 is the research outcome that is related to the population. This is also known as the translation to the community (Titler, 2018). 

Evidence-Based Practice is the practice in nursing that allows the nurse to make clinical decisions according to the more favorable current research available, clinical expertise, and the needs of the patient being cared for (Grand Canyon University Library, n.d.). The difference in the two seems to take place at the point of applications and how they are applied. Translational research is based more on the development and application of the research in the research setting to improve patient outcomes. While evidence-based practice is the application of research that has been proven to be effective along with the healthcare professional’s expertise and evaluation of patient needs.

According to Melnyk and Fine-Overholt (2019), research is the use of scientific processes to get the evidence and evidence-based practice is the appraisal and critique of the research for application. Both aim to create optimal patient outcomes, but one is the applications of the research and the other is the there to help in decision making. In conclusion, translational research is applied in population health management by collecting data that can prove findings that are used for better outcomes in practice. Evidence-based practice is used in population health management by using already proven research to improve patient outcomes. 

References: 

 Grand Canyon University Library (n.d.). Nursing &health sciences. Retrieved from https://libguides.gcu.edu/Nursing 

 Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2019). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice (4th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. ISBN-13: 9781496384539 

 Titler, M. G. (2018). Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 23(2), 1. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.3912/OJIN.Vol23No02Man01 

can you give a specific, concrete example of what has been a specific focus outcome of translational research at T3 or T4?  

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

As you have stated in a previous post, translational research is the study of implemented interventions to be used for evidence based practice. Translational research goes through steps in order to reach a point where interventions can be used to prove evidence based practice. In these phases research is able to build on itself in a way that facilitates interventions that can be implemented effectively. 

According to Zarbin (2020), Phase T3 is referring to work that puts focus on implementing and spreading the research that was gathered in the T2 phase. A concrete example of this would be the integration or implementation of a new drug on the market to help treat a disease such as diabetes or cancer. There would have been clinical trials performed and guidelines set in the T1 and T2 phase to prove its effectiveness in order to move into the practice setting. Now in the T3 phase it is about introducing and spreading the knowledge of the drug and implementing it into the existing practice programs and settings (Zarbin, 2020).

Once that is in place, the T4 phase can be initiated. In this phase, a concrete example would be assessing the outcomes that the drug produced in the patient population that used the treatment. It also would assess the benefits it can have on a wider scale in communities (Zarbin, 2020). This includes “cost-benefit analyses, surveillance studies, and program evaluations” as examples of the T4 phase in translational research (Zarbin, 2020). In conclusion, the specific focus outcome of translational research at the T3 and T4 phases are to take the research and implement or diffuse it into evidence-based practice. Thank you for your response and question. 

Reference: 

Zarbin M. (2020). What Constitutes Translational Research? Implications for the Scope of Translational Vision Science and Technology. Translational vision science & technology, 9(8), 22. https://doi.org/10.1167/tvst.9.8.22 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

 I enjoyed reading your post. I appreciate the way you explained the translational research and evidence-based practices through the continuum of care. I agree that both are crucial for optimal care delivery. It is imperative that we take advantage of the new discoveries, like the cause of diseases, and care treatment guidelines and push these into patient care delivery systems rapidly. This would assist in developing diagnostic and preventative care approaches where we are doing poorly.   

According to Titler (2018), there are various theories and models in translational science. In a quantitative review of implementation process, the 3 organizing aims are – to describe the process of translating research into practice; to understand and/or explain what influences implementation outcomes; and to evaluate implementation.   

Under the first step, the model shares the steps of promoting the use of research in practice, also known as models of evidence-based practice (EBP). In the second step, it specifies the framework of implementation, sharing the factors that impact implementation outcomes i.e., alignment of practice behaviors with EB. And the third step provides a structure for evaluating implementation efforts.  

Multiple implementation strategies have been tested to promote adoption of EBPs. Roger’s seminal work on diffusion of innovations provides guidance in implementation strategies selection. This adoption model influences four key areas including the nature of the innovation, the manner in which the innovation is communicated, to members, and in the social system (Titler, 2018). The theory influences early adopters and places a spotlight on them as decision makers to make a change, Roger’s model helps with communicating innovation through certain channels over time among the members of the team and or a system. Finally, along with these tools and education, other important components for change or adoption include policy or law changes like in helping people quit smoking, this requires not only education but changing the tax laws, marketing and FDA approval.   

 References  

Titler, M.G., (May 31, 2018) “Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction” OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 23, No. 2, Manuscript 1.  

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

The levels of translational research are Dissemination research; implementation research; diffusion research, and Phase IV clinical trials. 

Although evidence-based healthcare is gaining popularity all over the world, it is difficult, misunderstood, and even ridiculed. Irrespective of the type of evidence available by practitioners—numerical, qualitative, or anecdotal—or the focus—feasibility, suitability, relevance, or effectiveness—it has an impact on healthcare practice across the board. Research data that is methodically designed, regardless of design, requires careful review before being used in the therapeutic setting. Clinical trials, epidemiology, observational studies, qualitative studies, and action-oriented research all contribute to meeting the information and evidence requirements of individuals and communities, as well as clinical and policy decision-makers. 

The JBI model of evidence-based healthcare emphasizes the importance of creating, synthesizing, transferring, and utilizing evidence derived from a variety of research approaches; it was created to facilitate reasoning and critique about evidence-based healthcare and its role in refining global health within a logical conceptual framework. 

Translation science (or translational research) is as complicated as evidence-based medicine and is sometimes misinterpreted. The mainstream concept of translation science overemphasizes the translation of discoveries from “basic,” “bench,” or “discovery” research into a clinical application through clinical trials, which are now well-established in most industrialized nations. We believe that translation entails much more than running clinical trials to test new ideas. It starts with interpreting questions arising from a need for knowledge in the “real world” into discovery research (bridging gap 1), then interpreting the findings of discovery research into clinical or policy application through clinical or policy research (bridging gap 2), and finally interpreting the findings of clinical or policy research into action at the governmental level (bridging gap 3). (Addressing what we describe as gap 3). Integrating these three translation gaps into an evidence-based health model appears to us to clarify and conceptualize the complexity of interpreting information into action to improve health outcomes. 

 Reference 

Gardner, K., Banfield, M., McRae, I., Gillespie, J., & Yen, L. (2014). Improving coordination through information continuity: a framework for translational research. BMC health services research, 14(1), 1-5. 

  Lopes-Júnior, L. C., Olson, K., de Omena Bomfim, E., Pereira-da-Silva, G., Nascimento, L. C., & de Lima, R. A. G. (2016). Translational research and symptom management in oncology nursing. British Journal of Nursing, 25(10), S12-S21. 

 Translational science and evidence-based healthcare: A clarification and reconceptualization of how knowledge is generated and used in healthcare. (2012, February 14). Publishing Open Access research journals & papers | Hindawi. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2012/792519/ 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Title: NUR 550 Topic 1 DQ 1 Identify the different levels of translational research

Translational research is “a dynamic continuum from basic research through application of research findings in practice, communities and public health settings to improve health and health outcomes” (Titler, 2018).It is different from evidence-based practice in three main ways: “conduct of research”, “a sufficient research base may not be available”, and research which “focuses on testing implementation interventions to improve uptake and use of evidence to improve patient outcomes and population health” (Titler, 2018). “Conduct of research” refers to “the systematic investigation of a phenomenon that addresses research questions or hypotheses to create generalizable knowledge and advance the state of the science”, whereas evidence-based practice uses the best evidence already available to make changes to practice (Titler, 2018). Evidence-based practice also retrieves its evidence from randomized controlled trials. But for translational research, there may not be enough evidence obtained so healthcare decisions are made based on other sources like quality improvement data (Titler, 2018). Evidence-based practice “is the actual application f evidence in practice (the “doing of” EBP), whereas translation science is the study of implementation interventions, factors, and contextual variables that effect knowledge uptake and use in practices and communities” (Titler, 2018).

There are four different levels of translational research. The first level is T0, which are clinical trials on animals to see if a new drug is safe for human intervention.The second level is T1, which is translation to humans such as testing a new drug “in a specific population/sample, for example, African American male CHF patients between 40 and 50 years of age in one clinic in a large suburban primary care practice” (White, 2017). T2 is research being translated to broader patient populations like, for example, taking this new drug and now testing it in “all CHF patients in that practice and several other practices around that city who admit their patients to a similar hospital” (White, 2017). T3 focuses on implementing research based on clinical outcomes. This is illustrated when “the inclusion of this new drug or treatment in CHF guidelines of care could be sustained and become a nationwide standard of care for all CHF patients” (White, 2017). Lastly, T4 and T5 synthesize the evidence within the trials to make practice standards that extend out into the community and different populations (Titler, 2018).

Titler, M. G. (2018). Translation Research in Practice: An Introduction. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 23(2), 1–1. https://web-p-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=7b5a7bf5-0d3a-48c7-b3a7-c4d1176381d1%40redis&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=130158156&db=cul

White, K. M. (2017). Translational research. In J. Fitzpatrick (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. Springer Publishing Company. https://search.credoreference.com/articles/Qm9va0FydGljbGU6NDY3Nzk4NQ==?q=translational+research&aid=96349

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