NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU

The American healthcare system is faced with the great challenge of inequality which displays a disproportionate impact on marginalized communities, including people of color (Boyd et al., 2020). Such inequalities are the reason behind the gaps in the acquisition of health insurance coverage, leading to uneven access to care services and poor health outcomes among the minority populations. Additionally, studies show that African Americans are significantly impacted by these inequalities contributing to the high prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, in addition to the increased mortality rates among this minority population. This discussion provides an analysis of the health status of African Americans, as part of the minority population, in comparison to the national average.

Health Status of African Americans

African Americans make up approximately 13.4% of the United States population. The current health status of black Americans displays an increased prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sexually transmitted infections, and diabetes as compared to whites. Increased morbidity and mortality rates among African Americans have been associated with several economic and social factors. For instance, studies show that African Americans have a more likelihood of not seeing a doctor when they are sick, as a result of high healthcare costs (Yearby, 2018).

Despite the significant advances in the current healthcare system in the U.S., there is still evidence reporting that racial and ethnic minorities such as black Americans still receive a lower quality of care services leading to poor health outcomes as compared to the whites. As of 2019 August, it was reported that approximately 68 million people had been covered by the Medicaid program, with black Americans accounting for 20%. Given that most black Americans have lower social and economic status, they tend to be poorer than other demographic groups, hence making it harder for them to enroll in health insurance programs like Medicaid.

Health Disparities

The death rate among African Americans has declined by about 25% over the past 17 years precisely for populations above the age of 65 years, as reported by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, studies also show that young African Americans have a higher probability of dying at an early age as a result of increased risks for stroke, heart disease, cancer, pneumonia, diabetes, and HIV/AIDs among other conditions, as compared to their white counterparts. Social factors common among this minority group contributing to the above-mentioned health disparities include unemployment, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and poverty among others (Bell et al., 2020).

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Consequently, this group of individuals is also faced with nutritional challenges such as unfavorable nutritional environments, food deserts, food swamps, and food insecurities. For instance, black Americans are associated with poverty and a low level of education, which makes it hard for them to access quality and healthy foods as compared to the economically rich racial majorities. They end up consuming fast foods, among other unhealthy foods, which increases their risk of cardiovascular conditions and obesity.

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Barriers to Health

            Various barriers to the accessibility of quality health care services have been identified for the

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU
NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU

African American population. Predominating barriers include decreased understanding of care plans, inability to pay for care services, lack of transportation to care facility, and the inability of incorporating the recommended health care plans into their routine daily living pattern. These barriers are associated with several cultural, educational, socio-political, and socioeconomic factors.

For instance, cultural beliefs among African Americans promoting unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle, in addition to failure to follow up on routine screening, negatively affects their overall health and utilization of healthcare services irrespective of their social or financial status (Lewis & Dyke, 2018). Consequently, the low socio-economic status among African Americans in terms of low income, unemployment, low education level, and occupation status is also a significant inhibitory factor towards accessibility to quality healthcare services. Lastly, as part of the minorities, blacks in the U.S have limited political influence towards the development of appropriate policies such as the “Obama Care,” to promote their access to quality care services.

Health Promotion Activities

With regard to the numerous health disparities affecting African Americans, several health promotion activities have been proposed over the years to help promote the health and well-being of this minority group. The self-help initiative was introduced among African Americans to promote taking personal responsibility for their health and improving their quality of life. Self-help health promotion practices among black Americans include routine screening for predominating health conditions, physical exercise, healthy diet plans, adoption of recommended care plans, and disease prevention practices at home (Fletcher et al., 2018). Consequently, for the religious members of the community, faith-based organizations like churches have promoted structural health promotion activities including education, health fairs, and smoking cessation among others.

Approach for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

            One of the most effective approaches that can be utilized by African Americans in promoting their health as part of the care plan is the adoption of Pender’s health promotion model. According to the CDC, black Americans are at high risk of chronic diseases, with cardiovascular diseases being the leading cause of death among this group of individuals. Health promotion practices focusing on lifestyle modification have displayed great significance in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.

Pender’s health promotion model, on the other hand, provides a foundation promoting the examination of the background influences of this minority population, in line with the health promotion practices that can lead to a healthy lifestyle (Fletcher et al., 2018). At the primary level, this model encourages regular exercise and a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and promote healthy living. At the secondary level, the model promotes routing screening for hypertension, diabetes, and cancer among other common diseases. Lastly, at the tertiary level, the model promotes education programs and rehabilitation among the affected individuals.

Cultural Beliefs and Practices

Other than social and economic factors, several cultural factors among black Americans must be considered when developing the most effective care plan. Some of such cultural beliefs include lack of trust in complementary medicine, misconceptions about immunization, and strong religious beliefs against organ donation among other medical procedures. With the theory of cultural humility, clinicians can now come up with flexible care plans, while still upholding the patients’ cultural values and beliefs (Boyd et al., 2020). This theory is based on the importance of preventing cultural discrimination and promoting the equal provision of care to the culturally diverse population.

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU Conclusion

Health promotion practices are crucial among the general population in disease prevention and improved quality of life. Minority populations such as African Americans, are faced with numerous health disparities as compared to the whites, hence the need for more health promotion activities. However, when coming up with a care plan for this minority population, it is necessary to identify and respect their cultural values and beliefs to promote positive outcomes.

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU References

Bell, C. N., Sacks, T. K., Tobin, C. S. T., & Thorpe Jr, R. J. (2020). Racial non-equivalence of socioeconomic status and self-rated health among African Americans and Whites. SSM-population health10, 100561.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100561

Boyd, R. W., Lindo, E. G., Weeks, L. D., & McLemore, M. R. (2020). On racism: a new standard for publishing on racial health inequities. Health Affairs Blog10(10.1377). https://doi.org/10.1377/hblog20200630.939347

Fletcher, G. F., Landolfo, C., Niebauer, J., Ozemek, C., Arena, R., & Lavie, C. J. (2018). Promoting physical activity and exercise: JACC health promotion series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology72(14), 1622-1639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.2141

Lewis, T. T., & Van Dyke, M. E. (2018). Discrimination and the health of African Americans: The potential importance of intersectionalities. Current Directions in Psychological Science27(3), 176-182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721418770442

Yearby, R. (2018). Racial disparities in health status and access to healthcare: the continuation of inequality in the United States due to structural racism. American Journal of Economics and Sociology77(3-4), 1113-1152. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajes.12230

NRS 429V Week 1 Discussion 2

In the assigned reading, “How to Write Learning Objectives That Meet Demanding Behavioral Criteria,” Kizlik explained that “objectives that are used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of observable behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning.” How do health providers design educational programs to clearly articulate objectives to engage both patients as well as families?

According to the family systems theory, a member of a family has to change its behaviors and influence everyone in the family to follow along and change to promote health and wellness. An example is a family member with a history of obesity decides to lose weight and creates a diet plan and exercise regimen and encourages the rest of the family to join him in the journey of losing weight. Behavioral changes when an individual decides to change for the better and act on it.

The family systems theory helps in teaching behavioral changes because once a family member is involved in the plan of care and already decides to take part in the process of helping to live a better lifestyle, it is much easier to influence the rest of the family.

According to the ebookHealth Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum, variables that affect the ability to learn are race, ethnicity, immigration status, disabilities, sex/gender/sexual orientation, environmental threats, poverty, access to health care, and lack of education can be barriers that affect a patient’s ability to learn and move forward with the behavioral changes.

A patient’s readiness to learn to change their lifestyle for a better life improves the learning outcomes because once a patient understands the reasoning behind the need for the change, it is easier to change its bad habits to new habits and live a healthy lifestyle.

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU References

Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/

Response

This is an outstanding response Ronald. I agree with it. Health conditions tend to emanate from intricate factors such as those advanced by social, economic, and political determinants. Health is determined by the manner in which societies are structured and how health policy agendas are influenced by the political nature in the society (Laverack, 2017). Health promotion interventions that address behavioral risks are capable of supporting policies to enhance health or uphold inequalities in a society.

This is attributed to the fact that behavioral change models have insignificant impact on wider conditions that result in poor health. Therefore, any health promotion model intended to initiate behavioral changes should be adopted as a component of a winder, inclusive policy framework. Ensuring a comprehensive and multi-component health promotion model is appropriate in changing bad behaviors that can cause negative health effects (Laverack, 2017). Advancing health promotion model through a strong policy framework is crucial in giving people greater control over their lives instead of instructing them on what to do.

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU References

Laverack, G. (2017). The challenge of behaviour change and health promotion. Challenges8(2), 25.

Developing health promotion programs that helps to set up healthy lifestyle behavior requires comprehensive planning. Theories and Models both include concepts and constructs. Health theories and behavior models helps to explain why individuals and communities behave the way they do.

Theories and models both include concepts and constructs. Concepts are the primary components of a model or theory. Constructs are components that have been created for use in specific model or theory. These terms are important to understand when discussing models and theories (Glanz, Rimer, &Lewis,2002).

Theories and models helps to understand the nature and understanding of the patients. In Tran theoretical model describes the process of how the behavior of individual changes, there are various factors that influence the behavior of patient.

These model includes five stages (Glanz, Rimer, &Lewis,2002;NCI, 2005)

Pre contemplation– In this stage the individual has no intention to change behavior within the next six months.

Contemplation- In this stage, an individual is considering a behavior change within the next six months.

Preparation– In this stage the individual takes some steps towards making a change doing so within the next 30 days.

Action– An individual reaches this stage once he/she has made a apparent behavior change and doing within next 30 days.

Maintenance– If behavior change last more than 6 months then moves in the final stage of maintenance.

Barriers that affect the patient’s ability to learn can be language, culture, beliefs, educational level of the patients, before set up the the plan for educating the patients nurse should assess the patient’s ability to learn and obstacles in the patient learning that can be face by the nurse.

Readiness to learn refers how patients in participating in the behavior change, patient should be ready physically, psychologically and cognitively engage in learning. Health status of the patient really affect the readiness to learn, in this patient is in pain or feeling weakness or fatigue may affect the readiness to learn. Nurse should always assess the learning style of the patient, patient’s environment such as loud noises, educational level, Nurse should always use the words as a Layman can understand, should avoid medical terms as much as possible.

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU Reference

Glanz, K., B. Rimer, ,& F. Lewis. (2002). Health behavior and health education. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. National Cancer Institute (2005). Theory at a glance guide for health promotion practice.

Falkner (2018) defines cultural competence as “being aware of differences related to culture and adjusting plans of care accordingly as well as remaining sensitive and respectful of choices patients may make based on their culture.” Cultural competence is a continuous process because nurses work with others with different cultural views daily, and cultural practices can change over time. Competence in one’s culture and values provides a holistic approach to psychosocial and psychological health care needs. Nurses must utilize traditional and nontraditional care systems to offer adequate care.

Traditional care systems are healthcare methods and treatments based on western medicine that involves medical attention from a licensed medical professional. Nontraditional care systems base their treatments on herbs and home remedies without seeking attention from a licensed medical professional. Nurses should be aware of a new-coming care system called complementary alternative medicine (CAM). CAM combines traditional care systems with alternative therapies such as acupuncture, massage, meditation, yoga, and aromatherapy. Healthcare professionals incorporate a patient’s culture with these systems and understand cultural norms for that culture to offer optimal patient care.

Cultural competency is demonstrated in nursing practice by obtaining information regarding one’s beliefs and culture. Nurses and healthcare professionals can use a culture assessment tool or questionnaire to get information. A cultural assessment involves asking questions about the family dynamics, communication methods, and each person’s role in the family. Some cultures consider it disrespectful to discuss essential information without the presence of a specific family member who makes the decisions for a loved one. (Ogbuagu, 2022). This assessment aids in finding ways to communicate in place of a language barrier. Once the evaluation is complete, the nurse can implement accommodations and interventions to help further the individual indulges in their cultural beliefs about their health. These tasks demonstrate a nurse’s ability to implement cultural competency into one’s care.

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU References

Falkner, A. (2018). Cultural Awareness. Health Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum. (Chapter 3). Grand Canyon University. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/#/chapter/3

Ogbuagu, P. (2022 May 20). Cultural Competence in Nursing. Nursing CE Central. https://nursingcecentral.com/cultural-competence-in-nursing/#:~:text=The%20method%20that%20a%20nurse,culture%20assessment%20tool%20or%20questionnaire.

The U.S. is a land of diverse cultural backgrounds and heritage with many different types of people based on their racial composition, beliefs, social statuses and views. The minority races are projected to become the majority in the next twenty years based on figures from federal agencies. As such, the increased diversity implies that healthcare providers and organizations must develop strategies focused on health promotion to reduce the overall healthcare cost in the country (Velasco-Mondragon et al., 2017). The diverse minorities have different cultural perspectives that affect accessibility, affordability, and quality of care provided. Therefore, health promotion can help minority populations lower cost of care and increase accessibility. As such, the paper compares and contrasts the health status of the Hispanic American population to the national average by looking at different components that define health and related services.

Description of the Ethnic Minority & Current Health Status

The Hispanic population comprises of individuals that have ancestry or origin in Cuba, Mexico, South and Central America, Puerto Rico and other Spanish cultures and background. The Census Bureau estimates that there are close to 60 million Hispanic or Latino people in the country. Imperatively, Hispanic is the largest racial minority group in the country as it constitutes about 19% of the general population. Again, it is projected that by 2060, Hispanics living in the U.S. will account for about 28.6% of the total population (Census Bureau, 2019). The Latino population is concentrated in ten states with most of them having over one million people of this minority group. These ten states include California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Georgia, Florida, Illinois, Texas, New Jersey and New York. Hispanics have a rich cultural background in food and value family life and are fluent Spanish speakers (HHS, 2020). Their cultural practices are heavily influenced by the Spanish culture.

Health Status

The health status of this population can be evaluated through different aspects that include uptake of medical or health insurance, access to health services and prevalence of lifestyle conditions among other socioeconomic determinants of health. Hispanics have limited insurance coverage compared to the general population. Hispanics constitute the highest number of uninsured individuals in the country. Figures from the Census Bureau show that in 2017, only 49% of Latino Americans had private insurance compared to the white Americans where close to 75% had medical covers. The Bureau also shows that more Hispanics depend on public health coverage than their non-Hispanic white counterparts (Census Bureau, 2019). About 17.8% of Hispanics did not have health insurance compared to about 6% of the non-Hispanic whites. These figures show that a majority of Hispanics struggle to access health services, especially preventive care.

Studies show that Hispanics are likely to suffer from, and die of, lifestyle conditions like diabetes and heart diseases as well as cancer compared to the general population (Velasco-Mondragon, 2017; Suarez-Balcazar et al., 2018).  The health of Latino Americans is impacted by different factors that include limited or lack of access to preventive care services, language barrier, and cultural issues. As indicated, a majority of this population do not have health insurance coverage. The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) asserts that Hispanics are susceptible to diabetes due to cultural factors (CDC, 2020). They are also susceptible to stroke, asthma, obesity, liver disease, and suicide as well as HIV/AIDS. These factors lead to increased health disparities between the Hispanic population and the general population.

Health Disparities and Nutritional Challenges of the Hispanic Ethnic Group

Health disparities are the variations and variables that contribute to inequalities or unequal distribution of healthcare resources among various demographics and population. Disparities also include preventable differences in disease burden, injury and violence or chances to attain optimal health which disadvantaged groups encounter. Specifically, disparities are associated with socioeconomic and environmental conditions of certain populations, especially among groups in racial and ethnic minorities. The Hispanic population faces income disparities leading to high rates of uninsured individuals compared to the general population (Suarez-Balcazar et al., 2018).

Hispanics have increased health risk because of limited access to health care services and are 35% more likely to have heart diseases, 50% more likely to have diabetes, and 49% likely to suffer from cancer than the non-Hispanic white counterparts. The Hispanics are 23% more likely to have obesity and 23% less likely to go for colorectal cancer screening (Velasco-Mondragon et al., 2016). These statistics imply that the Hispanic population faces nutritional challenges. The nutritional challenge that exposes the population to a host of lifestyle conditions include having a diet with less recommended amounts of vegetable, whole grains and fruits and high amounts of sodium, sugar and saturated fats way beyond the recommended amounts.

Barriers to Health for Hispanic Population

Hispanic population faces significant barriers to health stemming from culture, socioeconomics, education and sociopolitical aspects. Hispanics are more unlikely to afford the cost of care and access healthcare services due to cultural issues like language barrier. Nurses can only offer effective care if a patient understand the language used by these healthcare providers. For instance, a good number of Hispanics do not understand English and many do not complete their high school education. Hispanic cultural beliefs are diverse as each group among this racial diversity has different cultural cues that nurses and other healthcare providers must understand.

Socioeconomic barriers among the Hispanics entail poor living conditions, low income and high poverty levels than the national average. For instance, one in every four Hispanics does not have a high school certificate (Velasco-Mondragon et al, 2016). The unhealthy lifestyles of the Hispanics increase the risk for developing chronic conditions. Low educational attainment means that an individual cannot be employed in a better workplace environment. Besides not being insured, they face barriers that impact their ability to access better health care services as they cannot afford to pay hospital bills out of pocket.

The sociopolitical factors affecting Hispanics entail changing immigration laws. Recent suggestions by the Trump administration to deport millions of illegal Hispanic migrants may have made many to fear accessing health care services or taking medical insurance (Velasco-Mondragon et al., 2016). The hundreds of undocumented Hispanics in the country increases barriers to better healthcare access as they have to give false information which makes it difficult for health care providers to monitor them closely. The Hispanics fail to return for reviews, making it difficult to provide effective services to them.

Health Promotion Activities Practiced by Hispanics

Health promotion activities are essential in preventing disease conditions in populations. Improving access to affordable services is critical to this population that does not seem to practice effective health promotion activities. Health promotion among the Hispanic should focus on reducing the high disease risk that include hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. Among the activities the population practices to promote health is creation of awareness about the effects of lifestyle conditions like diabetes and obesity. The population also focuses on movement strategy that aims at promotion of physical activity among the people (Avilés-Santa et al., 2017). These health promotions demonstrate the need for the population to increase the drive for more individuals to get medical insurance coverage.

Approach in Health Promotion

An effective health promotion model would be a focus on family and educating members about the need to prevent diabetes and obesity. The nurse should include the patient’s entire family into the plan of care. Diabetes is prevalent in the Hispanic culture and the primary level would entail giving basic information to patients on diet and blood sugar control. The nurse should provide an explanation to the patient about a healthy diet, especially one with low sodium, low sugar and low levels of saturated fats. The provider can teach the family how to check for blood sugar levels to ensure that it is at the normal rate. A secondary level model would entail teaching Hispanics with diabetes how and where to be screened for the condition. The healthcare provider should discuss the symptoms and signs of the condition (Avilés-Santa et al., 2017). At the tertiary level, the patients should be taught that untreated hypo and hyperglycemia leads to increased complications and possible hospitalization. The provider should ensure that patients understand the working of their medications to maintain their blood sugars to the appropriate range.

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU Conclusion

Health promotion is essential, especially among minority populations that experience increased health disparities and barriers. As demonstrated, health care providers and organizations in the country should ensure that they have cultural competencies to develop effective strategic models to promote quality care outcomes among the minority populations.

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU References

Avilés-Santa, M. L., Heintzman, J., Lindberg, N. M., Guerrero-Preston, R., Ramos, K., Abraído-

Lanza, A. L., … & Papanicolaou, G. (2017, October). Personalized medicine and Hispanic health: improving health outcomes and reducing health disparities–a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop report. Biomedical Central, 11(11): 1-12. doi: 10.1186/s12919-017-0079-4

Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) (2020). Health of Hispanic or Latino

Population. Retrieved on December 4, 2020 from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/hispanic-health.htm

Health and Human Services (HHS) (2020). Profile: Hispanic/Latino Americans. Retrieved on

December 4, 2020 from https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=3&lvlid=64

Suarez-Balcazar, Y., Mirza, M. P., & Garcia-Ramirez, M. (2018). Health disparities:

Understanding and promoting healthy communities. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 46(1): 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2018.1386761

Velasco-Mondragon, E., Jimenez, A., Palladino-Davis, A. G. Davis, D. & Escamilla-Cejudo, J.

  1. (2016). Hispanic health in the USA: a scoping review of the literature. Public Health Reviews, 37(31). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40985-016-0043-2

U.S. Census Bureau (2019 August 20). Hispanic Heritage Month 2019. Retrieved on December

4, 2020 from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2019/hispanic-heritage-month.html

A cultural assessment in nursing is a systematic way that the nurse identifies the values, beliefs, meanings, and behaviors of patients while taking into consideration a patient’s history, life experiences, and physical and social environments. A nurse can obtain cultural information from the patient by asking them about their religious preference, ethnic background, family patterns, eating patterns, food preferences, and cultural-related health practices (Lee et al., 2020). In addition, nurses can employ cultural assessment questionnaires like the Four Cs of Culture model. The questionnaire inquires from patients about what they Consider to be an issue, the Cause of the issue, Coping mechanisms, and level of Concern about the problem.

Cultural competence is associated with better patient care. This is because culturally competent care tailors care to the patient’s cultural needs and preferences and start with a cultural assessment that creates the basis of the care plan. Therefore, nurses who assess their patients’ cultural values, beliefs, and practices are better capable of individualizing care and achieving positive health outcomes (Jongen et al., 2018). Furthermore, cultural competence contributes to increased patient participation and engagement, which promotes respect and improves awareness of their conditions and management interventions. This contributes to increased patient safety, decreased healthcare disparities, reduced inefficiencies, and decreased healthcare costs (Jongen et al., 2018). In addition, cultural competence enhances communication between patients and providers, which enables providers to obtain accurate medical information.

A nurse exhibits cultural competency in nursing practice by identifying their beliefs and building an awareness of their culture. This gives the nurse a foundation to improve their cross-cultural awareness (Henderson et al., 2018). Besides, the nurse demonstrates cultural competency by learning about the culture of the populations they serve. For instance, the nurse can collect and analyze demographic data and send targeted surveys to certain communities to build essential knowledge about the local communities (Henderson et al., 2018). This puts them in a better position to meet patient needs and promote accessibility.

NRS 429 Topic 4 Health Promotion in Minority Populations GCU References

Henderson, S., Horne, M., Hills, R., & Kendall, E. (2018). Cultural competence in healthcare in the community: A concept analysis. Health & Social Care in the Community26(4), 590-603. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12556

Jongen, C., McCalman, J., & Bainbridge, R. (2018). Health workforce cultural competency interventions: a systematic scoping review. BMC health services research18(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3001-5

Lee, S. E., Lee, M. H., Peters, A. B., & Gwon, S. H. (2020). Assessment of Patient Safety and Cultural Competencies among Senior Baccalaureate Nursing Students. International journal of environmental research and public health17(12), 4225. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124225

Effective health promotion strategies tailored to the specific needs and cultural considerations of the Hispanic/Latino minority populations are essential for improving overall health outcomes and reducing health disparities within this community. This paper will investigate the health disparities and nutritional challenges of this group. Barriers to health, health promotion activities and cultural competent care will also be discussed.

Description of Minority Group (Hispanic/Latino)

Within the borders of the United States resides a vibrant tapestry of individuals belonging to the Hispanic/Latino community, hailing from many countries and cultural lineages. As revealed by the esteemed U.S. Census Bureau, 2020 witnessed approximately 62.1 million Hispanic/Latino residents, representing 19% of the nation’s population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2020). This population scattered across the geographic expanse of the country, with significant concentrations observed in states such as California, Texas, Florida, and New York. Recognizing the cultural heterogeneity within this group is crucial, as individuals may identify with distinct national origins, languages, and customs.

The health outcomes experienced by Hispanic/Latino Americans are subject to a complex interplay of factors, including but not limited to race, ethnicity, and discrimination. Delving into the impact of these multifaceted elements on health disparities within the Hispanic/Latino population necessitates diligent investigation and comprehensive comprehension.

Health Disparities and Nutritional Challenges

Hispanic/Latino Americans encounter a multitude of health disparities that set them apart from the national average, encompassing elevated rates of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular ailments, and specific forms of cancer. Research studies have indicated that Hispanic/Latino adults exhibit higher obesity rates than their non-Hispanic White counterparts (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). Furthermore, the prevalence of diabetes bears a disproportionately burdensome weight upon Hispanic/Latino populations, with Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans experiencing particularly pronounced impacts (American Diabetes Association, 2021). Among the formidable challenges to the well-being of Hispanic/Latino Americans lie cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and heart disease, which manifest as significant adversaries (Carnethon et al., 2017).

The presence of nutritional obstacles substantially contributes to the emergence of these health disparities. Hispanic/Latino Americans often need help acquiring wholesome sustenance, especially in neighborhoods where fresh produce and reasonably priced nutritious alternatives remain limited. Furthermore, adherence to traditional dietary patterns, characterized by consuming fattening dense and sodium-rich edibles, may potentiate the risk of obesity and concomitant chronic conditions. The intricate process of acculturation, involving the assimilation of the dominant society’s cultural norms, can also influence dietary preferences, propelling a shift towards less healthy eating habits.

Barriers to Health

The Hispanic/Latino population encounters a plethora of impediments that detrimentally affect their health and well-being. Cultural factors, such as linguistic barriers and entrenched beliefs concerning health and illness, are formidable hurdles to accessing appropriate healthcare services. Notably, the language barrier often obstructs effective communication between healthcare providers and Hispanic/Latino patients, impeding comprehension of medical advice, management of chronic conditions, and access to preventive care.

Socioeconomic factors substantially influence health disparities among Hispanic/Latino Americans. The hardships of poverty and the dearth of health insurance coverage pose significant challenges that curtail access to healthcare services, preventive screenings, and restorative treatments (Buchmueller & Valletta, 2019).

Educational and sociopolitical factors, including immigration status and experiences of discrimination, further leave an indelible imprint on the health of Hispanic/Latino Americans. Limited educational opportunities and lower levels of health literacy can impede comprehension of health information and self-management of chronic conditions. Immigration status can erect barriers to healthcare access, stemming from fear of deportation or limited eligibility for public health programs.

                                                 Health Promotion Activities

Embedded within the cultural fabric of Hispanic/Latino Americans lies much health promotion endeavors emanating from their rich heritage. These endeavors rely on time-honored home remedies, the esteemed significance of familial support networks, and active engagement in community-based health programs. Home remedies, rooted in traditional practices and the utilization of herbal concoctions, stand as steadfast allies in managing common ailments and cultivating overall well-being. The crucial role of family support networks cannot be exaggerated as they serve as pillars of emotional reinforcement and guides in navigating the intricacies of healthcare. Furthermore, the enthusiastic participation in community health programs, encompassing lively health fairs and enlightening educational workshops, forges a profound sense of communal togetherness while nurturing the cultivation of wholesome behaviors.

Levels of Health Promotion

To effectively address the distinctive health needs of Hispanic/Latino Americans, a comprehensive approach encompassing primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies is paramount.

At the primary prevention level, community-wide interventions that foster the cultivation of healthy lifestyles yield significant impact. Tailoring these interventions to the unique cultural context of the Hispanic/Latino community holds immense potential. Culturally sensitive health education programs, initiatives aimed at enhancing the availability of nutritious foods in underserved regions, and spirited campaigns advocating for physical activity all play pivotal roles.

Moving to the secondary prevention level, implementing culturally tailored screenings and timely interventions presumes the utmost importance. Healthcare providers are responsible for considering the cultural and linguistic backgrounds of Hispanic/Latino patients while conducting screenings for chronic conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension.

Finally, at the tertiary prevention level, the management of diseases and access to healthcare services emerge as crucial focal points. Guaranteeing that Hispanic/Latino Americans possess adequate and affordable access to comprehensive healthcare services, spanning primary care, specialized care, and essential medications, stands as an imperative measure.

Culturally Competent Care

When devising a comprehensive care plan tailored to the specific needs of Hispanic/Latino Americans, it is imperative to consider many cultural beliefs and practices that shape their healthcare experiences. Acknowledging the paramount role of family involvement is vital, as family members often assume central positions in decision-making processes and care-giving responsibilities. Additionally, spirituality holds significant sway, necessitating healthcare providers to remain cognizant of the potential impact of religious and spiritual beliefs on health perspectives and coping mechanisms. Furthermore, utilizing traditional healing practices, encompassing the application of herbal remedies, warrants recognition and integration into care plans when deemed appropriate.

A valuable framework for promoting culturally competent healthcare for Hispanic/Latino Americans is Campinha-Bacote’s Model of Cultural Competence, which comprises five interrelated constructs: cultural awareness, cultural knowledge, cultural skill, cultural encounters, and cultural desire (Campinha-Bacote, 2002). Cultivating cultural awareness involves the recognition and examination of one’s own biases and attitudes toward diverse cultures. The acquisition of cultural skills pertains to the ability to conduct assessments in a culturally sensitive manner and deliver appropriate and respectful care. Engaging in cultural encounters, encompassing meaningful cross-cultural interactions, catalyzes enhancing cultural competence. Lastly, cultural desire represents the intrinsic motivation and unwavering commitment to providing healthcare rooted in cultural competence. Guided by this model, healthcare professionals can navigate the intricacies of delivering care that is not only respectful but also patient-centered, effectively catering to the unique needs of Hispanic/Latino Americans.

                                                                Conclusion

The health disparities and nutritional challenges encountered by Hispanic/Latino Americans stem from a complex interplay of factors encompassing race, ethnicity, acculturation, discrimination, and limited healthcare accessibility. To rectify these inequities and uplift the health status of this population, targeted interventions designed with precision are indispensable. Primary prevention endeavors should center around community-wide interventions that cultivate healthy lifestyles.

Concurrently, secondary prevention initiatives should prioritize culturally tailored screenings and timely interventions. Tertiary prevention strategies should emphasize effective disease management and bolster access to comprehensive healthcare services. In formulating culturally competent care plans, due consideration must require to the profound significance of family involvement, spirituality, and the utilization of traditional healing practices. By diligently implementing these multifaceted strategies and embracing models like Campinha-Bacote’s Model of Cultural Competence, healthcare providers can augment health promotion endeavors and significantly diminish health disparities plaguing Hispanic/Latino Americans.

Cultural competence in nursing relates to awareness of patient’s cultural beliefs and practices and respecting those beliefs as you navigate their plan of care.

Demonstrating cultural competence in nursing includes conducting an assessment, analyzing various considerations, and ultimately demonstrating or accommodating those beliefs throughout your practice .

Practicing cultural competence in nursing makes you better nurse-patient advocate because of a true mutual respect between nurse and patient. Nurses care for individuals from various cultures, and. not being aware and respecting patients’ cultural preferences and beliefs could make the patient see the nurse as insensitive and possibly incompetent. Most behavioral traits seen in patients are partly influenced by their cultural backgrounds, therefore a nurse must be aware of cultural trends while respecting patient’s preferences, this is the foundation of evidence-based practice. The method that a nurse can use to gather cultural Information from patients is using a culture assessment tool or questionnaire.

Cultural competence can therefore be defined as developing an awareness of one’s own existence, thoughts, beliefs, and environment without letting it have an undue influence on those from other backgrounds. Cultural competence in nursing, is taking all the above, and applying it to your nursing decisions and care plan.

Having regards for one’s culture is an integral aspect of providing high-quality healthcare that meets patients’ needs and health professionals must respond to changes in patient’s demographics to provide culturally sensitive care.

Each patient is a unique individual that has unique characteristics that ties into their culture and the ability of the nurse to explore and understand this enhances effective nurse-patient relationship and better patient outcome.

For a nurse to be a true patient advocate, the nurse must display cultural competence in nursing. To provide effective and sensitive healthcare for patients of other cultures, the nurse must exhibit empathy, flexibility and a commitment to continuous learning.

Health Promotion in Ethnic Minority Populations

Ethnic minorities form a crucial proportion of Americas population. They include individuals from backgrounds such as African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic/Latino, Pacific Islander, or Native Hawaiians. The existing evidence demonstrates the existence of significant health disparities between ethnic majorities and minorities in the USA. For example, ethnic minority groups have elevated predisposition to adverse health problems such as cancer compared to American Whites (Wang et al.,2019) . Therefore, this paper explores the health status of Asian Americans and an appropriate cultural theory that can be adopted to promote their health.

Selected Ethnic Minority Group

The selected ethnic minority group for this assignment is Asian Americans. Asian Americans are individuals with origins of the Southeast Asia, Far East, or the Indian subcontinent. Census estimates show that the population of Asian Americans living in the USA in 2013 were 19.4 million. This represented a rise from 6.9 million in 1990. Most of the Asian Americans reside in states that include New York, California, Texas, Hawaii, and New Jersey. Up to three-quarters of the Asian Americans speak a different language besides English at their homes (Gebeloff et al., 2021). The statistics of the 2020 census show that America has 20.6 million people who identify as Asian Americans (Bureau, 2022).

A nurse can use various methods to gather cultural information from the patient:

Medical Records: I work in an observation unit where we admit many patients every day. Since most of our patient comes from ER, they all tend to have some kind of medical record. Therefore, start gathering patient cultural information from medical records makes sense. It may contain information about their cultural background and experiences that could influence their healthcare decisions.

Communication: Nurses should use open end questions to gather information. Be more understanding to establish trust. Acknowledging and respecting cultural differences makes it easier to collect information. We should actively attempt to learn about many different cultures, backgrounds, beliefs, customs, and medical traditions. This knowledge can help us become sensitive to cultural differences and ask the right question to get better information. Consider using an interpreter to bridge language barriers.

Observation: While gathering information, it is essential to watch for visual indicators that can help you understand cultural norms. Things like jewelry, attire, and religious symbols can point out cultural affiliations Trainer, (2018).

Cultural competence is crucial for providing better patient care:

A patient-centered approach that considers each patient’s requirements, preferences, and values is fostered by cultural competency. Patients are more likely to be receptive to their healthcare experience when they feel appreciated and understood within their cultural context.

Cultural competence allows nurses to provide tailored care that aligns with patients’ cultural beliefs. This can positively impact patient treatment, engagement in preventive care, and overall health outcomes.

Reduce health disparities: Culture-competent care helps to address healthcare disparities in marginalized or minority populations. By acknowledging and addressing cultural factors that influence health, nurses can work towards reducing inequalities and promoting health equity Cai, (2016).

The nurse demonstrates cultural competence in their practice in various ways:

Cultural self-awareness: Nurses should be mindful of their own cultural values, biases and conceptions to avoid imposing their own opinions on a patient.

Adaption of care: Nurses can modify their approach to care to accommodate cultural preferences. For instance, a nurse can consider diet restrictions, spiritual or religious practices, and communication styles when planning and delivering care.

Collaboration and advocacy: Nurses can collaborate with patients, families, and interdisciplinary teams to incorporate cultural considerations into a care plan. They can also advocate for appropriate cultural resources and community support to ensure patients receive the best care, possible Smith, (2018.

Reference:

Cai, D. Y. (2016). A concept analysis of cultural competence. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 3(3), 268-273.

Smith, L. S. (2018). A nurse educator’s guide to cultural competence. Nursing Management49(2), 11-14.

Trainor, A. A. (2018). Community Conversation as a Method of Gathering and Analyzing Qualitative Data. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 29(1), 2–6.

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