NRS 429 Topic 3 Family Assessment Part II

NRS 429 Topic 3 Family Assessment Part II

NRS 429 Topic 3 Family Assessment Part II

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The promotion of optimum health of families is imperative in healthcare. Nurses utilize their understanding of family structure and diversity in needs to develop care plans that promote the health, wellbeing, and recovery of family members. Family assessment enables nurses to provide holistic care that addresses both the actual and potential needs of the family members. The assessment provides insights into family strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities to be explored to achieve the desired health-related goals. Therefore, this paper examines an interview performed with a family to identify its health status and application of family systems theory to promote positive change in the family’s functions over time.

Description of the Family Structure

The interviewed family comprises seven members that include parents aged between 40 and 50 years, a grandparent aged 75 years, and two children aged between 10 and 20 years. The family is of African American ethnicity. It is a Christian family living in a family-owned home. The father is a nurse while the mother is a teacher. The grandfather is a retired army officer. The children are school-going. The family is of the middle class, living in a healthy environment. It engages in activities that contribute to the development of the community. For example, it assists the poor in achieving their health-related needs.

Overall Health Behaviors of the Family

The interview revealed that the family is in good health. Except for the grandfather, who is diabetic and suffers from depression, the majority of the family members were found to be healthy. The family participates in activities that benefit their health. Engaging in active physical activities, eating healthy diets, and utilizing social support systems are some of the ways they can meet their health-related needs. The interview also demonstrated to the family the importance of using screening services for health issues such as hypertension, cancer, and obesity. The interview revealed some flaws that endanger the organization’s health. They include high healthcare costs and limited access to specialized care. The family expressed concern about the rising costs of meeting the grandfather’s care needs. In most cases, the family found it difficult to obtain the specialized care he required due to the region’s geographical location. As a result, it was critical to assist the family in identifying solutions to their health-related problems.

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In this section, write your introduction. The first sentence must pique the audience’s interest. The Thesis Statement will be the last sentence of the paragraph. A thesis statement should be a concise and clear statement of the purpose. What is the aim of this paper? You could write a simple statement like: This paper will investigate the or: The purpose of this paper is to present. Check out this link for assistance in developing a strong thesis statement.

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Social Determinants of Health Affecting Family and Family Health Status

            In this section, you will be describing the Social Determinants of Health (SDOH) that affect the family health status.   (Remember to spell it out first, then you can use the abbreviation throughout the paper.)  This information needs to be relevant, accurately identified, and thoroughly described.  What is the impact of these SDOH on the family that was interviewed?  The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are discussed in detail.  Discuss why these factors are prevalent for this family.  The discussion is well supported and illustrates insight into SDOH and their effect on the family health status.  Remember when the rubric states well supported, this means to use outside sources or references to build or illustrate your point.

Did you know that family is an important social unit that influences one’s health? According to Canh, Branco, and Liotta (2019), one’s recovery from a disease is not only dependent on the medical interventions used but also the social support for the family. The critical role played by the family in the disease management makes it important for the healthcare providers to include them in decision-making processes. Evidence has shown that active involvement of the family in the disease management process often result in enhanced care outcomes such as adherence to medications, patient and family satisfaction, and empowerment of the patient and the family to adopt lifestyles and behaviors that will contribute positively to their health. Therefore, this family assessment paper explores Mr. X’s family. Mr. X’s family comprises three members who include: Mrs. Y, and Ms. A. Mr. X is the husband, Mrs. is the wife while Ms. A is their son who is suffering from type II diabetes. Currently, Mr. A is on oral hypoglycemic drugs, dietary management, and exercises. However, the family reports that incidences of unregulated blood glucose have been high due to their son’s non-adherence. Their son was recently admitted due to diabetic ketoacidosis.

Setting

Neighborhood

The neighborhood is among the critical determinants of one’s health and lifestyle behaviors. According to Devlin (2018), human beings learn most of the behaviors they display from their environment. For instance, being born in an environment where the abuse of drugs is prevalent increases one’s risk of abusing drugs too. Therefore, the environment plays a critical role in influencing one’s health, health outcomes, and lifestyle. Mr. X’s family reside in community B. The community is located in the outskirts of our town. The community’s majority is minority ethnicities that include African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Natives.

There are positive aspects that are evident in Mr. X’s community. Firstly, there are posters that raise the awareness of the public on the effects of drug and substance abuse. There are also posters on upcoming forums on promoting healthy lifestyles among the youth. The community also has recreational grounds where the public can engage in activities such as sports to promote their health (Devlin, 2018). However, the community suffers from problems that include poor drainage, inadequate housing facilities, lack of good schools, inadequate healthcare facilities, and high cases of alcohol and drug abuse.

Home Assessment

Mr. X’s family has establishments that include a church, a pharmacy, grocery, and a gym. According to the family, they usually attend the church on Sundays for their spiritual support. They also buy over-the counter medications from the pharmacy to manage conditions such as flu and headaches. The grocery is their main source of food items. The family reports that they do not utilize the services of the gym since they do not afford the cost of the services it offers.

An immediate assessment of Mr. X’s family reveals issues that appear to influence their health. Firstly, their housing is small to accommodate them. The space in the living room was inadequate due to it being used as a storage room. The house has poor ventilation and water shortage has been a prevalent issue in the homestead. The family has Medicare insurance. However, they do not largely utilize it since they believe in the use of alternative medicines. Mr. X is a smoker and takes alcohol on occasional basis. Mrs. X is a strong Christian and engages in casual work in the neighborhood. Mr. A completed his college studies last year and has been looking for a stable source of employment since then but in vain. He appears obese and reports that he likes eating fast foods, as they are readily available in their neighborhood. He does not adhere to the medical treatment of her condition because he has been using alternative medicines to manage it. This shows that the health practices of the family have influenced his decisions significantly. (Didn’t provide Checklist)

Recommendations

Specific recommendations should be implemented for the health outcomes of Mr. X’s family to be achieved. Firstly, there is an increased need to provide health education focusing on aspects that affect their health. This includes educating them in the health risks of smoking, non-adherence to medications, and unhealthy eating habits. There is also a need to educate them on the importance of environmental hygiene and sanitation. Their living environment should be clean and well aerated to promote their health by preventing respiratory diseases. Health education should also encompass their health seeking habits. They should be educated on the importance of utilizing conventional medicine in managing their conditions. Lastly, they should be educated on the social support systems and healthcare services that are available for them. This is important, as it would enhance further the realization of their diverse health outcomes.

Age-Appropriate Screening Recommendations

Based on the information gathered through the family health assessment, this section will be recommending age-appropriate screenings and highly relevant for each family member.  These screenings correlate to the information gathered through family health assessment.  Remember to present strong rational and support for your suggestions.

Assessment of Health Model

You will be choosing a health model to assist in creating a plan of action.  The health model selected needs to be thoroughly described.  Then, discuss the reasons why this health model is the best choice for this family.  These reasons are clearly outlined.  There needs to be strong rationale and support (references) provided to support your reasoning.

Application of Health Model

In this section, you will be using the model and outline the steps for a family-centered health promotion.   Create a relevant and viable family-centered health promotion.  The steps to achieve the desired outcome are described in detail.  The section must include appropriate strategies for communication with the family and are clearly presented.  The health promotion is well-designed and demonstrates an ability to assimilate findings and appropriately apply theoretical knowledge to achieve desired outcomes.

Conclusion

In the conclusion paragraph, provide a wrap-up of the information provided.

References

Falkner, A. (2018). Health promotion in nursing care. Health promotion: Health and wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/#/chapter/2

(The above reference is an example to demonstrate the formatting and hanging indent.  This is for the chapter in our course materials.  If you do not use this reference in your paper, please delete.  There should be at least three references for this assignment.)

SAMPLE 2: Family Health Assessment II Paper

The World Health Organization defines social determinants of health (SDOH) as the personal circumstances in which a person is born, grow up, work, live, and age. These circumstances include socioeconomic, political, and cultural factors and how effortlessly an individual can access education, healthcare, a safe neighborhood, and nutritious food (Vart, 2022). In the previous assignment, I conducted a family assessment of the Warren family, a Caucasian low-middle class family of five members. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SDOH that contributes to the family’s health status and identify a plan of action that can assist in developing a plan of action.

SDOH Affecting Family and Family Health Status

The SDOH affecting the Warren family include education, economic stability, healthcare, and neighborhood. The family members have had access to quality education, with every member having secondary education and higher. Access to education and high literacy levels are linked to healthier behaviors and better healthcare outcomes, which explains the family’s good overall health (Vart, 2022). In addition, the family enjoys economic stability owing to access to employment opportunities. The employment opportunities enable the family to purchase health insurance and access quality healthcare like health promotion and preventive activities. The Warren family has access to primary healthcare and health insurance, which has positively influenced the family’s health. Furthermore, the family lives in a neighborhood with quality housing, quality water, transportation options, and access to healthy foods, contributing to better health outcomes (Vart, 2022). Nevertheless, access to junk foods has contributed to the family members being obese and overweight.

Age-Appropriate Screening Recommendations

The Warren family includes Mr. Warren (56), Ms. Warren (50), first-born son (27), second-born son (24), and daughter (21). The age-appropriate screening recommendations for Mr. Warren include regular BP and blood sugar monitoring since he is at risk for hypertension and diabetes due to his obesity. He also needs cholesterol screening five-yearly since he is at risk for dyslipidemia. Mr. Warren is also at risk of prostate cancer because of his age, and a PSA test will be recommended (USPSTF, n.d.). Screening recommendations for Ms. Warren include BP, blood sugar, cholesterol screening, and bone mineral density (BMD) test. The USPSTF recommends osteoporosis screening with BMD testing to prevent osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women below 65 years who are at a high risk of osteoporosis.

The USPSTF recommends biennial mammography for females aged 50 to 74 years. Thus, Ms. Warren will be recommended to have a screening mammography every two years since she is at risk of breast cancer due to age. She will also be advised to have cervical cancer screening with cytology every three years or with high-risk human papillomavirus test every five years (USPSTF, n.d.). Mr. and Ms. Warren will be recommended to have colorectal cancer screening since the USPSTF recommends screening in all adults 50 to 75. Screening recommendations for the children include regular BP monitoring since the USPSTF recommends hypertension screening in adults from 18 years (USPSTF, n.d.). HIV screening will also be recommended since they risk contracting HIV. In addition, the daughter will be recommended to have cervical cancer screening using cervical cytology every three years.

Assessment of Health Model

The Pender’s Health Promotion Model can be employed in developing a plan of action for Warren’s family. The model explains the factors influencing an individual’s motivation to participate in health-promoting behaviors. It focuses on individuals’ interactions with their interpersonal and physical environments in their attempts to enhance health (Khoshnood et al., 2020). The model focuses on personal characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcomes. The model asserts that every individual has unique characteristics and experiences that influence successive actions (Chen & Hsieh, 2021). The Health Promotion Model is the best for the Warren family because it will stress the active role each family member has in engaging in health-promoting practices, sustaining them, and developing their environment to foster behaviors that promote health.

Application of Health Model

The Pender’s Health Promotion Model will be applied in promoting health in the Warren family. The first step will be to ask the family members to identify their unhealthy behaviors and the risks they pose to their health. The second step will involve recommending lifestyle modification practices they can adopt to promote healthy lifestyles (Khoshnood et al., 2020). The family will then be educated on the interventions crucial in modifying their lifestyle and the potential benefits of lifestyle modification. In addition, the family members will be engaged in exploring potential barriers that may hinder them from changing their lifestyle and how to eliminate these barriers. Communication will be clear and open to ensure each member understands the lifestyle modifications needed to promote a healthier lifestyle (Chen & Hsieh, 2021). Besides, communication will be two-way to ensure the members are actively involved and express their concerns about adopting the recommended lifestyle practices.

Conclusion

The SDOH affecting the Warren family and its health status includes access to employment opportunities, quality education, primary healthcare, health insurance, and health literacy. Besides, the family lives in a neighborhood with quality housing and access to clean water and healthy foods, significantly promoting the family’s health. Recommended screenings for this family include BP and blood sugar, cervical, prostate, breast, and colorectal cancer screening, HIV screening, and BMD testing. Pender’s model can be used to help the family identify unhealthy behaviors and adopt healthier lifestyles.

References

Chen, H. H., & Hsieh, P. L. (2021). Applying the Pender’s Health Promotion Model to Identify the Factors Related to Older Adults’ Participation in Community-Based Health Promotion Activities. International journal of environmental research and public health18(19), 9985. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18199985

Khoshnood, Z., Rayyani, M., & Tirgari, B. (2020). Theory analysis for Pender’s health promotion model (HPM) by Barnum’s criteria: a critical perspective. International journal of adolescent medicine and health32(4). https://doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2017-0160

The United States Preventive Services Taskforce. (n.d.). A and B recommendations | United States preventive services Taskforcehttps://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation-topics/uspstf-and-b-recommendations

Vart, P. (2022). Understanding the social determinants of health. Lancet (London, England)399(10334), 1467. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02660-X

Description of the Assessment

Consider the interview and evaluation you conducted for the Topic 2 Family Health Assessment assignment. Determine the social determinants of health (SDOH) that contribute to the health of the family. Create a plan of action to incorporate health promotion strategies for this family in a 750-1,000 word paper. Include the following items:

Describe the SDOH that have an impact on the family’s health. What effect do these SDOH have on the family? Explain why these factors are so prevalent in this family.

Recommend age-appropriate screenings for each family member based on the information gathered during the family health assessment. Provide justification and support for your suggestions.

Screening is an important approach to promoting the health of the population. It facilitates early detection and prevention of health problems. Each of the members in Shawn’s families should undergo specific, age-appropriate screenings. For instance, Mr. Shawn should undergo breast, colorectal, testicular, prostate, and skin cancer screenings annually for his health promotion. He should also undergo eye, foot, and dental checkups to detect and prevent potential health problems. Mrs. Shawn should also undergo screenings that include cervical, breast, and skin cancer due to her increased predisposition due to the advancing age. She should also undergo bone examination, eye, dental, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, and pelvic screenings. Amanda’s age-appropriate screenings include eye, hearing, blood pressure, diabetes, skin, weight, and dental screening. Similarly, John’s age-appropriate screenings include eye, dental, weight, and hearing screenings (Murphey & Bartlett, 2019). These age-appropriate screenings are important to enable early detection and treatment or prevention of potential health problems that could affect the family members.

Select a health model to help you develop a plan of action. Describe the model you’ve chosen. Discuss why this health model is the best option for this family. Give an explanation for your reasoning.

Outline the steps for a family-centered health promotion using the model. Include communication strategies.

To complete this assignment, you must cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources. Sources must have been published within the last 5 years and be relevant to the assignment criteria.

Prepare this assignment in accordance with the APA Style Guide, which can be found in the Student Success Center.

This assignment makes use of a rubric. Please review the rubric before beginning the assignment to become acquainted with the requirements for successful completion.

You must turn in this assignment to LopesWrite. If you require assistance, a link to the LopesWrite technical support articles can be found in Course Resources.

Family Assessment Part II – Rubric

SDOH Affecting Family and Family Health Status

Criteria Description

SDOH Affecting Family and Family Health Status

5. Excellent

30 points

The SDOH directly affecting family health status are relevant, accurately identified and thoroughly described. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are discussed in detail. The discussion is well supported and illustrates insight into SDOH and their effect on family health status.

4. Good

26.7 points

The overall SDOH affecting family health status are accurately identified and described. The SDOH identified are relevant to the family. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are discussed.

3. Satisfactory

23.7 points

Key SDOH affecting family health status are summarized. The SDOH identified are relevant to the family. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are generally discussed. More support or rationale is needed in some areas.

2. Less than Satisfactory

22.5 points

SDOH affecting family health status are partially presented. SDOH listed are not relevant to the family. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are unclear. There are inaccuracies.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

SDOH affecting family health status, and the direct impact to the family, are not presented.

Age-Appropriate Screening Recommendations

Criteria Description

Age-Appropriate Screening Recommendations

5. Excellent

30 points

Screenings presented for each family member are age appropriate and highly relevant. Screenings correlate to the information gathered through family health assessment. Strong rationale and support is presented.

4. Good

26.7 points

Screenings presented for each family member are age appropriate. Screenings are relevant and based on the information gathered through family health assessment. Some minor rationale or support is needed.

3. Satisfactory

23.7 points

Screenings are presented for each family member. Screenings are generally age appropriate, but entirely not relevant based on the information gathered through family health assessment. More rationale and support is required.

2. Less than Satisfactory

22.5 points

Screenings are presented for some family members. The screenings are not age appropriate. Screenings are not relevant to the information gathered through family health assessment.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Age-appropriate screenings are not presented.

Assessment of Health Model

Criteria Description

Assessment of Health Model

5. Excellent

30 points

A health model is selected and thoroughly described. A detailed discussion of how the model will assist in creating a plan of action is presented. Reasons for why it is best for this family are clearly outlined. Strong rationale and support are provided to support reasoning.

4. Good

26.7 points

A health model is selected and described. A discussion of how the model will assist in creating a plan of action is presented. Reasons for why it is best for this family are provided. Some rationale or support is needed.

3. Satisfactory

23.7 points

A health model is selected and described. A summary of how the model will assist in creating a plan of action is presented. A general overview for why it is best for this family is provided. More rationale and support is required.

2. Less than Satisfactory

22.5 points

A health model is selected to assist in creating a plan of action. The description of the model is incomplete. It is unclear why the chosen model is best for this family.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

A health model to assist in the creation of a plan of action is not presented. The model chosen is not a health model.

Application of Health Model

Criteria Description

Application of Health Model

5. Excellent

30 points

The health model is used to create a relevant and viable family-centered health promotion. The steps to achieve the desired outcome are described in detail. Appropriate strategies for communication with the family are clearly presented. The health promotion is well-designed and demonstrates an ability to assimilate findings and appropriately apply theoretical knowledge to achieve desired outcomes.

4. Good

26.7 points

The health model is used to create a relevant family-centered health promotion. The steps to achieve the desired outcome are illustrated. Strategies for communication with the family are presented.

3. Satisfactory

23.7 points

The health model is used to create a general family-centered health promotion. The steps to achieve the desired outcome require more detail to illustrate a clear plan of action. A general plan for communication with the family is presented. More rationale and support is required.

2. Less than Satisfactory

22.5 points

Steps for a family-centered health promotion are partially presented. The health promotion is not based on the health model. Significant aspects are missing. There are major inaccuracies.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Family-centered health promotion using selected health model is omitted.

Thesis Development and Purpose

Criteria Description

Thesis Development and Purpose

5. Excellent

7.5 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

4. Good

6.68 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

3. Satisfactory

5.93 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

2. Less than Satisfactory

5.63 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

Argument Logic and Construction

Criteria Description

Argument Logic and Construction

5. Excellent

7.5 points

Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

4. Good

6.68 points

Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.

3. Satisfactory

5.93 points

Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.

2. Less than Satisfactory

5.63 points

Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Criteria Description

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

5. Excellent

7.5 points

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

4. Good

6.68 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.

3. Satisfactory

5.93 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.

2. Less than Satisfactory

5.63 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

Criteria Description

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

5. Excellent

3 points

All format elements are correct.

4. Good

2.67 points

Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

3. Satisfactory

2.37 points

Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

2. Less than Satisfactory

2.25 points

Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

Documentation of Sources

Criteria Description

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

5. Excellent

4.5 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

4. Good

4.01 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

3. Satisfactory

3.56 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

2. Less than Satisfactory

3.38 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Sources are not documented.

Health has evolved over time as our knowledge and technology advances. Fifty years ago we were blind to the harm cigarettes and processed food were causing on our bodies. We used to believe that certain diseases could never be cured and with evolving technology and research we have found cures and reduced fear while increasing the well being of thousands. In light of the pandemic, health was highlighted and the concept is held higher in peoples values. For example, mental health awareness has increased since the rise of the pandemic. The pandemic has raised awareness of mental health symptoms and service needs (Gordon, 2021). In terms of wellness, people are encouraged to be more active and eat healthier as we continue to understand the way diseases manifest and how to prevent them. It is essential to keep evolving the health of our society to educate ourselves and our patients. Nurses are knowledgeable regarding the importance of health-promoting activities such as healthy eating, physical activity, stress management, sleep hygiene, and maintaining healthy relationships (Ross, 2017). Through our knowledge we can advocate and educate our patients to ensure we are moving towards a healthier tomorrow.

References:

Gordon, J. (2019). One Year In: COVID-19 and Mental Health. National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/messages/2021/one-year-in-covid-19-and-mental-health

Ross, A. (2017). Nurses and Health-Promoting Behaviors: Knowledge May Not Translate Into Self-Care. NCBI. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5536335/

Social determinants of health are factors within one’s family and community that affect their access to healthcare services. Arthur’s family was interviewed in the previous project. The assessment showed the existence of significant health-related needs for the family. Nurses and other healthcare providers should collaborate with the family in developing healthcare plans to transform their lifestyles and behaviors. Therefore, this paper examines the social determinants of health affecting Arthur’s family, age-appropriate screenings for the family members, and appropriate health model that can be used to develop a plan of care for the family.

Social Determinants of Health Affecting the Family

As noted above, social determinants of health are factors within one’s environment that influence their access to healthcare services. The factors include those in places where one was born, work, grew, aged, and died. The interview with Arthur’s family showed the existence of several social determinants of health affecting them. One of them is the lack of awareness about their health needs. Education is an important aspect in health that increase population’s awareness about health risks and how to avoid them. However, Arthur’s family is not aware of the health risks associated with sedentary lifestyles. The family members rarely engage in active physical activity despite being obese and Arthur suffering from hypertension (CDC, 2022). Arthur and his son consume high amount of high calorie foods, which increases their risk of health complications such as cancer, hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. Therefore, their lack of awareness about the health risks of their lifestyles and behaviors is a crucial determinant of the family’s health.

The other social determinant of health seen in Arthur’s family is the affordability of healthcare services. Despite Arthur and his son suffering from hypertension and obesity respectively, they rarely visit the hospital for assessment and treatment. The family noted experiencing financial hardships, which makes it difficult for them to access and utilize the healthcare services that they need. The American healthcare system is among the most expensive in the world (Palmer et al., 2019). As a result, families from low socioeconomic backgrounds often experience challenges in affording the healthcare services they need for their health and wellbeing.

The other social determinant of health evidence from the family assessment is social and community contexts. Arthur’s family demonstrated the lack of adequate family support system during the assessment. This could be seen from the family members failing to provide their daughter her desired social support when she experienced a relationship failure. The family also does not discuss about issues related to sexuality and relationship due to the influence of their religious beliefs (Palmer et al., 2019). The wider social and community system also does not support healthy habits for its members. This can be seen from the easy access to fast foods for the family members and the lack of community systems to increase the population’s awareness about the importance of healthy lifestyles and behaviors (CDC, 2022). Therefore, Arthur’s family social and community contexts act as their social determinants of health.

Age-Appropriate Screenings

Arthur’s family members should utilize different age-appropriate screenings for their health promotion. The age-appropriate screenings for John Arthur include eye examinations, hearing tests, blood pressure screening, skin, dental, and testicular examinations. Age-appropriate screenings for Cate Arthur includes skin, dental, blood pressure, hearing, and eye examinations. The age-appropriate screenings for Chris Arthur includes eye, blood pressure, hearing, dental, and skin examinations. Mr. Arthur’s age-appropriate screenings include blood pressure, testicular, blood glucose, cholesterol, colonoscopy, and prostate screening tests. The age-appropriate screenings for Mrs. Arthur include ovarian cancer screening, mammography, bone density, cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure, pelvic, and cervical cancer screenings (Fragala et al., 2019). These screenings are important for early detection and prevention of potential health problems that may affect the family members.

Health Model for the Family

A health model that can be adopted to assist in creating a plan of action for the Arthur’s family is the transtheoretical model. Transtheoretical model is a theory of change used to facilitate behavioral change among the target populations. It promotes long-term behavioral change through multiple adaptions and actions over time. The model postulates that people are in different stages of readiness to embrace healthy lifestyles and behaviors (Castrucci & Auerbach, 2019). As a result, the nurse should create awareness about the change and provide enabling factors for the process. The transtheoretical model asserts that change occurs in steps that include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. This model is appropriate for the family since it will promote sustained lifestyle and behavioral change among the family members (Pennington, 2021). Since change occurs in steps, it would be possible to implement strategies that will prevent family members from relapsing to their unhealthy habits.

Steps for a Family-Centered Health Promotion

The transtheoretical model provides several steps that must occur for the delivery of family-centered health promotion. The nurse should create awareness among the family members for the change in the precontemplation stage (Pennington, 2021). The family members should be made to understand the health risks associated with their behaviors and the need for a change. The nurse should facilitate them to develop interest in changing their behaviors in the contemplation stage. She should also help them to explore strategies that they need for their optimum health and wellbeing in the preparation stage (Liu et al., 2018). The nurse should then guide them in implementing new, healthy lifestyles and behaviors in the action phase. The focus is on ensuring incremental adoption of healthy lifestyles and behaviors and assisting the family members not to relapse to their unhealthy behaviors. The last stage in creating sustainable change is maintenance where family members have stabilized the desired healthy behaviors (Prochaska, 2020). Therefore, the transtheoretical model of change provides an effective approach to assisting the family achieve their desired health promotion goals.

Conclusion

Overall, Arthur’s family experiences significant social determinants of health that affect their healthcare access and health-related outcomes. The nurse should work with the family in identifying the effective ways to promote the optimum health of the family members. The transtheoretical model of change can be applied in assisting the family to achieve its health promotion goals. The model provides steps for achieve sustained behavioral change in the family.

References

Castrucci, B., & Auerbach, J. (2019). Meeting individual social needs falls short of addressing social determinants of health. Health Affairs Blog, 10(10.1377).

CDC. (2022, May 9). Social Determinants of Health | NCHHSTP | CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/socialdeterminants/index.html

Fragala, M. S., Shiffman, D., & Birse, C. E. (2019). Population health screenings for the prevention of chronic disease progression. Am. J. Manag. Care, 25, 548–553.

Liu, K. T., Kueh, Y. C., Arifin, W. N., Kim, Y., & Kuan, G. (2018). Application of transtheoretical model on behavioral changes, and amount of physical activity among university’s students. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2402.

Palmer, R. C., Ismond, D., Rodriquez, E. J., & Kaufman, J. S. (2019). Social Determinants of Health: Future Directions for Health Disparities Research. American Journal of Public Health, 109(S1), S70–S71. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2019.304964

Pennington, C. G. (2021). Applying the transtheoretical model of behavioral change to establish physical activity habits. Journal of Education and Recreation Patterns, 2(1).

Prochaska, J. O. (2020). Transtheoretical model of behavior change. Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine, 2266–2270.

Rubric Criteria

Total 150 points

Criterion

1. Unsatisfactory

2. Less than Satisfactory

3. Satisfactory

4. Good

5. Excellent

Thesis Development and Purpose

Thesis Development and Purpose

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

5.63 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

5.93 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

6.68 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

7.5 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

5.63 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present.

5.93 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.

6.68 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.

7.5 points

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Documentation of Sources

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

0 points

Sources are not documented.

3.38 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

3.56 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

4.01 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

4.5 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

0 points

Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

2.25 points

Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.

2.37 points

Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

2.67 points

Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

3 points

All format elements are correct.

Assessment of Health Model

Assessment of Health Model

0 points

A health model to assist in the creation of a plan of action is not presented. The model chosen is not a health model.

22.5 points

A health model is selected to assist in creating a plan of action. The description of the model is incomplete. It is unclear why the chosen model is best for this family.

23.7 points

A health model is selected and described. A summary of how the model will assist in creating a plan of action is presented. A general overview for why it is best for this family is provided. More rationale and support is required.

26.7 points

A health model is selected and described. A discussion of how the model will assist in creating a plan of action is presented. Reasons for why it is best for this family are provided. Some rationale or support is needed.

30 points

A health model is selected and thoroughly described. A detailed discussion of how the model will assist in creating a plan of action is presented. Reasons for why it is best for this family are clearly outlined. Strong rationale and support are provided to support reasoning.

Argument Logic and Construction

Argument Logic and Construction

0 points

Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

5.63 points

Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.

5.93 points

Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.

6.68 points

Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.

7.5 points

Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

SDOH Affecting Family and Family Health Status

SDOH Affecting Family and Family Health Status

0 points

SDOH affecting family health status, and the direct impact to the family, are not presented.

22.5 points

SDOH affecting family health status are partially presented. SDOH listed are not relevant to the family. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are unclear. There are inaccuracies.

23.7 points

Key SDOH affecting family health status are summarized. The SDOH identified are relevant to the family. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are generally discussed. More support or rationale is needed in some areas.

26.7 points

The overall SDOH affecting family health status are accurately identified and described. The SDOH identified are relevant to the family. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are discussed.

30 points

The SDOH directly affecting family health status are relevant, accurately identified and thoroughly described. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are discussed in detail. The discussion is well supported and illustrates insight into SDOH and their effect on family health status.

Application of Health Model

Application of Health Model

0 points

Family-centered health promotion using selected health model is omitted.

22.5 points

Steps for a family-centered health promotion are partially presented. The health promotion is not based on the health model. Significant aspects are missing. There are major inaccuracies.

23.7 points

The health model is used to create a general family-centered health promotion. The steps to achieve the desired outcome require more detail to illustrate a clear plan of action. A general plan for communication with the family is presented. More rationale and support is required.

26.7 points

The health model is used to create a relevant family-centered health promotion. The steps to achieve the desired outcome are illustrated. Strategies for communication with the family are presented.

30 points

The health model is used to create a relevant and viable family-centered health promotion. The steps to achieve the desired outcome are described in detail. Appropriate strategies for communication with the family are clearly presented. The health promotion is well-designed and demonstrates an ability to assimilate findings and appropriately apply theoretical knowledge to achieve desired outcomes.

Age-Appropriate Screening Recommendations

Age-Appropriate Screening Recommendations

0 points

Age-appropriate screenings are not presented.

22.5 points

Screenings are presented for some family members. The screenings are not age appropriate. Screenings are not relevant to the information gathered through family health assessment.

23.7 points

Screenings are presented for each family member. Screenings are generally age appropriate, but entirely not relevant based on the information gathered through family health assessment. More rationale and support is required.

26.7 points

Screenings presented for each family member are age appropriate. Screenings are relevant and based on the information gathered through family health assessment. Some minor rationale or support is needed.

30 points

Screenings presented for each family member are age appropriate and highly relevant. Screenings correlate to the information gathered through family health assessment. Strong rationale and support is presented.

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