NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations Topic 4

NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations Topic 4

NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations Topic 4

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The American healthcare system faces a major challenge in the form of inequality, which has a disproportionate impact on marginalized communities, including people of color (Boyd et al., 2020). Such disparities are the cause of gaps in health insurance coverage, resulting in uneven access to care services and poor health outcomes among minority populations. Furthermore, studies show that these inequalities have a significant impact on African Americans, contributing to the high prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, as well as the increased mortality rates among this minority population. This discussion examines the health status of African Americans as a minority population in comparison to the national average.

Health Status of African Americans

African Americans account for approximately 13.4% of the US population. In comparison to whites, black Americans have a higher prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular disease, sexually transmitted infections, and diabetes. Morbidity and mortality rates among African Americans have been linked to a variety of economic and social factors. For example, studies show that African Americans are more likely than whites to avoid seeing a doctor when they are sick, owing to high healthcare costs (Yearby, 2018). Despite significant advances in the current healthcare system in the United States, there is evidence that racial and ethnic minorities, such as black Americans, continue to receive lower quality care services, resulting in poor health outcomes when compared to whites. As of August 2019, approximately 68 million people were covered by the Medicaid program, with black Americans accounting for 20%. Because most black Americans have lower social and economic status, they are poorer than other demographic groups, making it more difficult for them to enroll in health insurance programs such as Medicaid.

Health Disparities

The death rate among African Americans has declined by about 25% over the past 17 years precisely for populations above the age of 65 years, as reported by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, studies also show that young African Americans have a higher probability of dying at an early age as a result of increased risks for stroke, heart disease, cancer, pneumonia, diabetes, and HIV/AIDs among other conditions, as compared to their white counterparts. Social factors common among this minority group contributing to the above-mentioned health disparities include unemployment, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and poverty among others (Bell et al., 2020). Consequently, this group of individuals is also faced with nutritional challenges such as unfavorable nutritional environments, food deserts, food swamps, and food insecurities. For instance, black Americans are associated with poverty and a low level of education, which makes it hard for them to access quality and healthy foods as compared to the economically rich racial majorities. They end up consuming fast foods, among other unhealthy foods, which increases their risk of cardiovascular conditions and obesity.

A minority population is a group of individuals who share religious, cultural, racial, ethnic, or linguistic features and make up less than half of a country’s or state’s population. In the United States, minority racial/ethnic groups have specific health features and attributes, and they are frequently socially disadvantaged as a result of potential discriminatory activities. The purpose of this study is to examine health disparities, health barriers, and health promotion activities and approaches among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

Ethnic Minority Group

American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) are a U.S. ethnic minority group made up of people from North, Central, and South America who maintain tribal and community ties. In 2020, 9.7 million people identified as AI/AN alone or in combination with another race, according to the Census Bureau. (Frey, 2020). The figure has risen from 5.2 million in 2010. AIANs make up 2.9 percent of the population in the United States. AI/AN are the second-largest racial group in many states, trailing only Whites (Frey, 2020). Alaska (14.8 percent), New Mexico (8.9 percent), South Dakota (8.4 percent), Montana (6 percent), and North Dakota have the highest AIAN populations (4.8 percent ).

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NRS 429V Week 1 Discussion 2

In the assigned reading, “How to Write Learning Objectives That Meet Demanding Behavioral Criteria,” Kizlik explained that “objectives that are used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of observable behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning.” How do health providers design educational programs to clearly articulate objectives to engage both patients as well as families?


According to the family systems theory, a member of a family has to change its behaviors and influence everyone in the family to follow along and change to promote health and wellness. An example is a family member with a history of obesity decides to lose weight and creates a diet plan and exercise regimen and encourages the rest of the family to join him in the journey of losing weight. Behavioral changes when an individual decides to change for the better and act on it.

The family systems theory helps in teaching behavioral changes because once a family member is involved in the plan of care and already decides to take part in the process of helping to live a better lifestyle, it is much easier to influence the rest of the family.

According to the ebookHealth Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum, variables that affect the ability to learn are race, ethnicity, immigration status, disabilities, sex/gender/sexual orientation, environmental threats, poverty, access to health care, and lack of education can be barriers that affect a patient’s ability to learn and move forward with the behavioral changes.

A patient’s readiness to learn to change their lifestyle for a better life improves the learning outcomes because once a patient understands the reasoning behind the need for the change, it is easier to change its bad habits to new habits and live a healthy lifestyle.


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from


This is an outstanding response Ronald. I agree with it. Health conditions tend to emanate from intricate factors such as those advanced by social, economic, and political determinants. Health is determined by the manner in which societies are structured and how health policy agendas are influenced by the political nature in the society (Laverack, 2017). Health promotion interventions that address behavioral risks are capable of supporting policies to enhance health or uphold inequalities in a society. This is attributed to the fact that behavioral change models have insignificant impact on wider conditions that result in poor health. Therefore, any health promotion model intended to initiate behavioral changes should be adopted as a component of a winder, inclusive policy framework. Ensuring a comprehensive and multi-component health promotion model is appropriate in changing bad behaviors that can cause negative health effects (Laverack, 2017). Advancing health promotion model through a strong policy framework is crucial in giving people greater control over their lives instead of instructing them on what to do.


Laverack, G. (2017). The challenge of behaviour change and health promotion. Challenges, 8(2), 25.

AI/ANs have poorer health than the general population. Statistics show that 22.4 percent of adults aged 18 and up are in fair or poor health. Among AI/AN patients, the most common diseases are heart disease, cancer, diabetes, stroke, and unintentional injuries. AI/ANs have a high prevalence of and risk factors for obesity, diabetes, mental health disorders, substance use, suicide, unintentional injuries, sudden infant death syndrome, teenage pregnancy, liver disease, and hepatitis, according to the United States Office of Minority Health (OMH). In 2020, the leading causes of death among AI/AN were COVID-19 complications, heart disease, and cancer. (OMH, 2021). Because of conditions such as chronic lower respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, assault/homicide, unintentional injuries, and intentional self-harm/suicide, AI/AN continue to outlive the general population. In 2020, AI/AN had 967.1 deaths per 100,000 people. (OMH, 2021). Because people face a variety of barriers to receiving quality medical care, such as geographic isolation, cultural barriers, poor sanitation facilities, and low income, race and ethnicity have an impact on the health of AI/AN.

One of the countries having a wide range of races and communities is the USA. The existing number of racial groups and communities means that there have been persistent racial disparities in mortality, mental health, chronic health conditions, and health coverage (Shepherd et al., 2018). The disparities existing have come due to prolonged durations of systematic inequality in the American health care systems, housing, and economic systems. Among such minority groups are African Americans. This health promotion in minority populations paper therefore looks explores African Americans. A description of the group, the current health status, and how race and ethnicity influence their health will be discussed. In addition, the health disparities and nutritional challenges existing among the African Americans, barriers to health, potential health promotion activities, and a cultural theory to consider while coming up with a health promotion plan will be explored.

The Ethnic Minority Group, Current Health Status and Influence of Race and Ethnicity on Health

African-Americans were chosen as the minority group. African-Americans are people who have some or all of their ancestors from Africa’s Black racial groups. According to the CDC, even though mortality rates among African Americans have decreased in the last decade, particularly among those aged 65 and older, younger generations are dying or living with many conditions that are more common among Whites in their old age (CDC, 2017). Race and ethnicity influence this group’s health in a variety of ways, owing largely to social and economic circumstances. For example, adults in this group are more likely to report that they are unable to see a doctor due to high costs. A significant number of African-Americans believe that their health is determined by fate and faith, with only about half believing that health is a priority (Maragh-Bass et al., 2021).

NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations Topic 4 Assessment Description

Select an ethnic minority group that is represented in the United States (American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander). Using health information available from Healthy People, the CDC, and other relevant government websites, analyze the health status for this group.

In a NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations Topic 4 paper of 1,000-1,250 words, compare and contrast the health status of your selected minority group to the national average. Include the following:

  1. Describe the ethnic minority group that was chosen. Describe this group’s current health status. How do race and ethnicity affect this group’s health?
  2. What are the health disparities for this population? What are this group’s nutritional challenges?
  3. Discuss the health barriers that this group faces as a result of culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors.
  4. What kinds of health-promoting activities does this group frequently engage in?
  5. Describe at least one approach that is likely to be the most effective in a care plan given the unique needs of the minority group you have chosen, using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary). Explain why you believe it is the most effective option.
  6. What cultural beliefs or practices must be taken into account when developing a care plan? What cultural theory or model would be most appropriate for supporting culturally competent health promotion in this population? Why?

Cite at least three peer-reviewed or scholarly sources to complete this NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations Topic 4 assignment. Sources should be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and public health content.

Prepare this NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations Topic 4 assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Course Resources if you need assistance.


Topic 4 DQ 1

What are the methods a nurse can use to gather cultural information from patients? How does cultural competence relate to better patient care? Discuss the ways in which a nurse demonstrates cultural competency in nursing practice.

Replies to Lauren Ashby

The best way to get cultural information is by asking questions to help identify patient needs. This is done on admission and through assessments. Inquiring about a patient’s beliefs and understanding their expectations helps the nurse to provide care holistically. Providing holistic care includes spiritual, emotional, and psychological well-being. Information can also be obtained from family, friends, and those closest to the patient. Cultural competence is essential to providing care in various settings. Nurses empower, educate, and encourage patients to take control of their health to meet basic needs. Falkner, A., (2018) notes “Cultural competency does not mean becoming an expert on every culture encountered, but it does mean that nurses should recognize what they do and do not know to provide appropriate care.” Nurses must provide privacy to patients and respect their culture. For example, when providing care to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer population it is done by providing care that is significant, educational, and thoughtful (Kaiafas & Kennedy, 2021).


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from Chapter

Kaiafas, K. N., & Kennedy, T. (2021). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer cultural competency training to improve the quality of care: An evidence-based practice project. Journal of Emergency Nursing47(4), 654-660.

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

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NRS 429 Health Promotion in Minority Populations Topic 4

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!