NRS 429 Family Health Assessment Part II GCU

Sample Answer for NRS 429 Family Health Assessment Part II GCU Included After Question

Family Assessment Part II

Social determinates of health (SDOH) are described as the conditions in which individuals are born, live, play, work, learn, worship, and age that affect function, health, and quality of life (QoL). SDOHs are classified into five broad areas: health and health care, education, social and community context, economic stability, and neighborhood and built environment (Clements, 2018). In the previous assignment, a family assessment was conducted on Family Y, an African-American lower-middle-class family. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the SDOH associated with the family’s health status, propose age-appropriate screening strategies for the family members, and explore a health model that can be used in a plan of action.

SDOH That Affects the Family Health Status

The SDOHs that affect Family Y’s health status include education, economic stability, health and health care, and neighborhood. All the family members have reached high school education and above, which enables them to understand the importance of healthy lifestyle practices and the consequences of unhealthy habits. Zajacova and Lawrence (2018) explain that individuals who have attained a higher educational level live healthier and longer lives than those with less education. Besides, people with low education levels are likely to engage in unhealthy habits like tobacco smoking, unhealthy dietary habits, and lack of physical exercise.

Due to the high education levels in the family, the members were able to get income opportunities that enabled them to purchase private medical insurance and consequently access healthcare services, including specialized services. Zajacova and Lawrence (2018) assert that education contributes to better, more stable sources of income that bring higher income and enable families to build wealth that is used to enhance their health. Furthermore, the family lives in a safe neighborhood with access to adequate clean water, healthy foods, healthcare facilities, and transportation options. This has significantly impacted the family’s health since they are free from water-borne and water-wash diseases. Besides, access to healthy foods reduces the intake of junk foods which lowers the risk of lifestyle diseases (Clements, 2018). Lastly, the access to healthcare facilities has enabled the family to obtain essential and specialized healthcare services, which improves their health.

Age-Appropriate Screenings for Each Family Member

Family Y members are at risk of chronic illnesses contributed by risk factors such as a family history of diabetes and hypertension, and race. Therefore, age-appropriate screenings are vital to helping identify chronic diseases at an early stage and take appropriate interventions to treat them or delay their progress. Appropriate screenings for Mr. Y (62 years with controlled Type 2 Diabetes and hypertension) include colorectal cancer screening,

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The United States Preventive Services Taskforce (USPSTF) recommends screening for colorectal cancer in adults aged 45 to 75 years (USPSTF, n.d.). Cholesterol screening is also needed since he is at risk of heart disease. An annual eye and foot exam are also recommended due to the risk of cataracts and diabetic foot ulcer.

Age-appropriate screenings for Mrs. Y (59 years) include blood pressure, blood sugar, colorectal cancer, cholesterol, cervical cancer, and mammography screening. The USPSTF recommends screening hypertension from 18 years and diabetes from 35 years. In addition, it recommends cervical cancer screening in women 30-65 years, including three-yearly with cervical cytology alone and five-yearly with high-risk HPV testing alone (USPSTF, n.d.). The USPSTF further recommends biennial screening mammography for females 50 to 74 years. The recommended screening for the daughters (35, 32, and 28 years) includes blood pressure, blood sugar, monthly self-breast exam, biannual dental check-ups, and cervical cancer screening. The appropriate cervical cancer screening for the 28-year-old as per the USPSTF recommendations is three-yearly cervical cytology alone (USPSTF, n.d.). Furthermore, recommended screenings for the son (23 years) include blood pressure and biannual dental check-ups.

Health Model

The Health Belief Model (HBM) was selected to help develop a plan of action. HBM predicts and explains changes in people’s health and lifestyle behaviors. In addition, HBM has explained the core elements influencing health behaviors, including perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers to action, cues to action, and self-efficacy (Bechard et al., 2021). These elements emphasize individuals’ beliefs about health and diseases, influencing health behaviors. HBM is the ideal health model for Family Y since it can help predict the health behaviors among the family members. Furthermore, the model can give insight into how the members’ beliefs about disease and health impact their lifestyle practices (Bechard et al., 2021). For example, Mrs.Y and the children recognize they are susceptible to developing lifestyle diseases since Mr. Y had diabetes and hypertension. Consequently, they have adopted healthy lifestyle practices like regular physical exercise and healthy dietary habits, which they perceive to be beneficial in lowering the risk of diseases.

Steps for a Family-Centered Health Promotion

The HBM can be applied to family health promotion by first performing a needs assessment to identify the family’s health needs. Besides, the assessment is essential in determining the health risks prevalent among the family members. The next step in health promotion using the HBM is to assess whether the family members believe that they are at risk of any diseases based on the health risks and how they regard them as being severe enough to affect their health (Bechard et al., 2021). The third step is to inquire about the interventions taken by the family to mitigate the health risks, their view on how they will benefit their health, and the barriers limiting them from effectively implementing the interventions. Additional interventions that can help mitigate the health risks should also be provided at this step.

The family should be assisted in identifying approaches to eliminate these barriers to achieve the desired outcome. Communication strategies during the health promotion include involving all the family members by allowing each member to participate in the discussion (Barnes et al., 2020). Furthermore, the provider should acknowledge the family’s rights and privacy and its need for independence in performing their responsibilities.

Conclusion

The SDOH that impacts Family Y’s health status includes high education levels, income, health insurance, healthcare facilities, a safe neighborhood, and access to safe water and healthy foods. The recommended screenings include blood pressure, blood sugar cholesterol, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, mammography, self-breast exam, and dental check-ups. The HBM is applied in health promotion and disease prevention programs since it helps better understand individuals’ health behaviors.

Family Assessment Part II References

Barnes, M. D., Hanson, C. L., Novilla, L. B., Magnusson, B. M., Crandall, A. C., & Bradford, G. (2020). Family-Centered Health Promotion: Perspectives for Engaging Families and Achieving Better Health Outcomes. Inquiry: a journal of medical care organization, provision, and financing57, 46958020923537. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958020923537

Bechard, L. E., Bergelt, M., Neudorf, B., DeSouza, T. C., & Middleton, L. E. (2021). Using the Health Belief Model to understand age differences in perceptions and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in psychology12, 1216. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.609893

Clements, D. S. (2018). Social determinants of health in family medicine residency education. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.2211

United States Preventive Services Taskforce. (n.d.). A and B recommendations | United States preventive services Taskforce. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation-topics/uspstf-and-b-recommendations

Zajacova, A., & Lawrence, E. M. (2018). The Relationship Between Education and Health: Reducing Disparities Through a Contextual Approach. Annual review of public health39, 273–289. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031816-044628

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: NRS 429 Family Health Assessment Part II GCU

Title: NRS 429 Family Health Assessment Part II GCU

Over time, the concept of health has evolved. Due to poor sanitation practices, such as inadequate water treatment and incorrect removal of human waste, infectious diseases were common and difficult to control in the early 19th century. Health was fundamentally understood at this time to be the absence of disease. In the latter part of the nineteenth and beginning of the 20th centuries, good sanitary measures made diseases more controllable, changing the notion of health to include the capacity to continue functioning as a member of society. If a disease resulted in a chronic impairment or the inability to perform expected role responsibilities, it compromised overall health. Disease prevention became a top focus with the development and use of immunizations in the 20th century, as many diseases were all but eliminated (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015). Today’s objectives are to establish a community of wellness where health promotion and disease prevention come before seeking medical attention once an ailment has already manifested. We now understand that maintaining a healthy lifestyle and preventing diseases go hand in hand. Even though we may not always be able to regulate our health, we may still choose to live happier lives.

Health promotion is defined as “the process of empowering people to have greater control over, and to improve, their health” by the World Health Organization (n.d.). It shifts away from concentrating on human behavior and instead considers a variety of social and environmental interventions,” (para. 1) The nurse’s role in health promotion is crucial and involves advocacy, providing care and services, managing care, educating patients, and doing studies. By employing EBP, the nurse is promoting changes to reinforce protocols to increase the protection of patients.

References

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). History of immunizations. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/immunizations/Pages/History-of-Immunizations.aspx

American Nurses Association. (n.d.). Health care reform. http://nursingworld.org/healthcarereform

The concept of health has undergone various changes over time. In the past, health was defined as the absence of diseases or physical illnesses. However, this approach was later altered to take into account not just the physical aspects of health but also the mental, social, and emotional factors that contribute to overall well-being.  According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health is “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (WHO, 1948). This expanded definition of health highlights the importance of overall well-being, including the ability to cope with everyday life stresses, have satisfying interpersonal relationships, and reach personal and professional goals. 

The approach to health promotion and intervention has also changed over time. Initially, the focus of health promotion was mainly on disease prevention and management. However, with the evolution of the health concept to include overall well-being, the promotion of health behaviors, wellness, and self-care has been emphasized. Health promotion aims to empower individuals to take care of themselves, prevent illnesses, and make healthy lifestyle choices (Green & Kreuter, 1999). 

Nurses are critical players in promoting health and wellness and should implement evidence-based health promotion interventions. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the integration of the best available research evidence to inform clinical decision making (Siewert & Vermeersch, 2020). EBP is critical in nursing practice as it helps ensure that interventions implemented are based on the most up-to-date and relevant research evidence. By using EBP, nurses can provide patients and clients with the latest and most effective interventions to promote positive health outcomes. 

In conclusion, the concept of health has evolved over time, with an increased emphasis on overall well-being and wellness. Health promotion has shifted to focus on prevention, self-care, and lifestyle changes. Nurses play a critical role in implementing evidence-based health promotion interventions to support patients and clients’ positive health outcomes. 

References: 

Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (1999). Health promotion planning: An educational and environmental approach. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield. 

Siewert, J. J., & Vermeersch, P. E. (2020). Evidence-based practice in nursing. StatPearls Publishing. 

World Health Organization. (1948). Constitution of the World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/about/who-we-are/constitution

Family Assessment Part II – Rubric

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Rubric Criteria

Total150 points

Criterion1. Unsatisfactory2. Less than Satisfactory3. Satisfactory4. Good5. Excellent
SDOH Affecting Family and Family Health StatusSDOH Affecting Family and Family Health Status0 pointsSDOH affecting family health status, and the direct impact to the family, are not presented.22.5 pointsSDOH affecting family health status are partially presented. SDOH listed are not relevant to the family. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are unclear. There are inaccuracies.23.7 pointsKey SDOH affecting family health status are summarized. The SDOH identified are relevant to the family. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are generally discussed. More support or rationale is needed in some areas.26.7 pointsThe overall SDOH affecting family health status are accurately identified and described. The SDOH identified are relevant to the family. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are discussed.30 pointsThe SDOH directly affecting family health status are relevant, accurately identified and thoroughly described. The direct impact to the family, and why the factors are prevalent to the family, are discussed in detail. The discussion is well supported and illustrates insight into SDOH and their effect on family health status.
Age-Appropriate Screening RecommendationsAge-Appropriate Screening Recommendations0 pointsAge-appropriate screenings are not presented.22.5 pointsScreenings are presented for some family members. The screenings are not age appropriate. Screenings are not relevant to the information gathered through family health assessment.23.7 pointsScreenings are presented for each family member. Screenings are generally age appropriate, but entirely not relevant based on the information gathered through family health assessment. More rationale and support is required.26.7 pointsScreenings presented for each family member are age appropriate. Screenings are relevant and based on the information gathered through family health assessment. Some minor rationale or support is needed.30 pointsScreenings presented for each family member are age appropriate and highly relevant. Screenings correlate to the information gathered through family health assessment. Strong rationale and support is presented.
Assessment of Health ModelAssessment of Health Model0 pointsA health model to assist in the creation of a plan of action is not presented. The model chosen is not a health model.22.5 pointsA health model is selected to assist in creating a plan of action. The description of the model is incomplete. It is unclear why the chosen model is best for this family.23.7 pointsA health model is selected and described. A summary of how the model will assist in creating a plan of action is presented. A general overview for why it is best for this family is provided. More rationale and support is required.26.7 pointsA health model is selected and described. A discussion of how the model will assist in creating a plan of action is presented. Reasons for why it is best for this family are provided. Some rationale or support is needed.30 pointsA health model is selected and thoroughly described. A detailed discussion of how the model will assist in creating a plan of action is presented. Reasons for why it is best for this family are clearly outlined. Strong rationale and support are provided to support reasoning.
Application of Health ModelApplication of Health Model0 pointsFamily-centered health promotion using selected health model is omitted.22.5 pointsSteps for a family-centered health promotion are partially presented. The health promotion is not based on the health model. Significant aspects are missing. There are major inaccuracies.23.7 pointsThe health model is used to create a general family-centered health promotion. The steps to achieve the desired outcome require more detail to illustrate a clear plan of action. A general plan for communication with the family is presented. More rationale and support is required.26.7 pointsThe health model is used to create a relevant family-centered health promotion. The steps to achieve the desired outcome are illustrated. Strategies for communication with the family are presented.30 pointsThe health model is used to create a relevant and viable family-centered health promotion. The steps to achieve the desired outcome are described in detail. Appropriate strategies for communication with the family are clearly presented. The health promotion is well-designed and demonstrates an ability to assimilate findings and appropriately apply theoretical knowledge to achieve desired outcomes.
Thesis Development and PurposeThesis Development and Purpose0 pointsPaper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.5.63 pointsThesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.5.93 pointsThesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.6.68 pointsThesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.7.5 pointsThesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
Argument Logic and ConstructionArgument Logic and Construction0 pointsStatement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.5.63 pointsSufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.5.93 pointsArgument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.6.68 pointsArgument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.7.5 pointsClear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)0 pointsSurface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.5.63 pointsFrequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present.5.93 pointsSome mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.6.68 pointsProse is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.7.5 pointsWriter is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)0 pointsTemplate is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.2.25 pointsTemplate is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.2.37 pointsTemplate is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.2.67 pointsTemplate is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.3 pointsAll format elements are correct.
Documentation of SourcesDocumentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)0 pointsSources are not documented.3.38 pointsDocumentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.3.56 pointsSources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.4.01 pointsSources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.4.5 pointsSources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Family health is so important because each member of the family is affected by each others health. Family is usually someone’s main support so if one gets sick the others can a designated caregiver. Adding caregiver to someone’s roles can add worry, stress and hardships to someone else’s life. Making sure the family has good communication, resources and the ability to care for the family member can be beneficial. Because families feed off of each others emotions, it is important to offer support groups to not only the patient but the rest of the family as well. Because it seems like an obligation for other members to care for the ill, members may not voice their concerns so it is important to check in how the family is doing as well. Family health is also important because it paints a picture of a patients lifestyle including health habits, hygiene, living conditions and accessibility and allows the nurse to come up with an individualized care plan for a patient and allow the nurse to create attainable goals for the patient.

The nurse has to decide what strategies to use for an individuals health promotion through assessment. The Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models (CFAM and CFIM) are beneficial tools to assess and address interventions. The Calgary family intervention model (CFIM) focuses on the fact that change occurs cognitively, affectively and behaviorally and also affects how the family functions as well. (Falkner et al., 2022) A study conducted from 1990-2021 actuallly proved the CFIM to be useful in bedside nursing. Using this tool allows for communication, collaboration and therapeutic conversations which allow for the nurse to grasp an adequate understanding of the family dynamic and what interventions would best benefit the patient and family.(Mileski et al.,2022)

References

Falkner, A., Green, S., & Whitney, S. (2022). 1. Teaching and Learning Styles. In Health Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum (Second Edition, pp. 104). essay, Grand Canyon University. 

Mileski M, McClay R, Heinemann K, Dray G. Efficacy of the Use of the Calgary Family Intervention Model in Bedside Nursing Education: A Systematic Review. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2022 Jun 16;15:1323-1347. doi: 10.2147/JMDH.S370053. PMID: 35734541; PMCID: PMC9208629.

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