NRS 429 Family Health Assessment Part 1
NRS 429 Family Health Assessment Part 1
Family health assessment involves obtaining information from a family about their health status, disease prevention, and health promotion activities. The nurse assesses the family’s status, its capacity to sustain itself as a functioning unit and system, and its capacity to promote wellness, prevent, control, and address problems to attain health and well-being in its members (Barnes et al., 2020). In this assignment, I interviewed Family Z using the Gordon Functional Health Patterns to assess its health status. The purpose of this paper is to describe the family structure, health behaviors, and strengths and weaknesses in the health patterns.
Family Z is composed of four members, Mr. Z (49 years), Mrs. Z (47 years), daughter Z (24 years), and son Z (19 years). It is an African American family living in Conroe, TX. The family falls under the middle-class income group with an average annual household income of $105 000. Mr. Z is an accountant working in an insurance firm, while Mrs. Z is a paralegal working in a real estate firm. Daughter Z graduated from university six months ago and is currently an intern in a media company. Son Z is a 2nd-year student studying Biotechnology. In addition, it is a Catholic family, and they report attending Sunday mass at least twice a month. The family lives in a suburban estate, with accessibility to schools, healthcare facilities, malls, and transportation options. All members have a health insurance cover, enabling them to access healthcare services.
Health Behaviors of the Family
Family Z has adopted some healthy behaviors, which they have perceived as important to prevent diseases and promote overall good health. The behaviors include avoiding tobacco smoking, having limited alcohol consumption, and eating 3-4 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The family is currently in good health with no history of chronic medical or psychiatric illnesses. The family members state that they attend annual medical check-ups to monitor blood sugar and blood pressure, PSA test, Pap smear, and get their annual Flu shots. However, Mr. Z is overweight, putting him at risk of lifestyle diseases. The overweight can be attributed to inadequate physical exercise and a family history of obesity.
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Functional Health Pattern Strengths and Health Problems/Barriers
We identified two functional health pattern strengths and three areas of health problems and barriers from the family interview. Strengths were noted in the functional health patterns of Values/Health Perception and Nutrition. Findings in the Values/Health Perception pattern include the family engaging in health promotional and disease prevention activities such as attending wellness programs, immunization, breast, and testicular self-exam, limiting alcohol consumption, and avoiding the use of tobacco and other illicit drugs (Khatiban et al., 2019). The family perceives that the health promotion activities are relevant to their health, and failing to uphold them will be detrimental. The nutrition pattern is a strength-based on the family’s healthy dietary habits such as having 3-4 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, preparing balanced meals, limiting the intake of high-fat foods, consumption of at least 2L of water per person, and limiting purchase and intake of junk food.
Health problems and barriers were noted in the Sleep/Rest, Activity/Exercise, and Coping patterns. In the sleep/rest pattern, the family members reported having less than 6 hours per day of sleep. Mr. and Mrs. Z reported that they often worked at night and slept late, which impaired their sleeping habits. Mrs. Z sometimes uses sleeping pills to reduce night-time awakening. The son reported that he spent much of his free time binge-watching movies and often slept for less than 6 hours. In the Activity/Exercise pattern, the family reported having inadequate physical exercises (Khatiban et al., 2019). The only form of exercise was walking, and they reported having low fitness levels. Health problems in the Coping pattern include high-stress levels among some family members and a history of using stress-relieving drugs. Besides, the family reported having ineffective approaches to handling stressful issues, with some members having anger management issues.
Application of the Family Systems Theory
The family systems theory perceives the family as an emotional unit and applies systems thinking to define the complex interactions in a family unit. The theory assumes that it is a family’s nature for its members to be deeply connected emotionally (Erdem & Safi, 2018). Family members seek each other’s approval, attention, and support and respond to each other’s needs, expectations, and distress. The theory can be applied to initiate changes in family members by pointing out a health need in the family, such as the need to increase physical exercise (Petridou et al., 2019). The members can be encouraged to support each other as they engage in physical exercises to better their health.
Family Z is an African American middle-income family having four members. The family practices healthy health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Strengths were noted in the Values/Health Perception and Nutrition patterns, which have promoted a good health status. However, health problems and barriers were identified in Sleep/Rest, Activity/Exercise, and Coping patterns.
Barnes, M. D., Hanson, C. L., Novilla, L. B., Magnusson, B. M., Crandall, A. C., & Bradford, G. (2020). Family-centered health promotion: Perspectives for engaging families and achieving better health outcomes. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 57, 0046958020923537. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958020923537
Erdem, G., & Safi, O. A. (2018). The cultural lens approach to Bowen family systems theory: Contributions of family change theory. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 10(2), 469-483. https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12258
Khatiban, M., Tohidi, S., & Shahdoust, M. (2019). The effects of applying an assessment form based on the health functional patterns on nursing student’s attitude and skills in developing the nursing process. International journal of nursing sciences, 6(3), 329–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2019.06.004
Petridou, A., Siopi, A., & Mougios, V. (2019). Exercise in the management of obesity. Metabolism, 92, 163-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2018.10.009
Appendix: Interview Questionnaire
- How would you describe the family’s general health?
- What interventions do you take to prevent diseases?
- Describe any behaviors you engage in that you think are harmful to your health?
- How would you describe the family’s typical daily food and fluid intake?
- Which foods are preferred and avoided by the family?
- Which eating problems do the family members experience?
- How would you describe the family’s daily sleeping patterns?
- Which sleeping difficulties do the family members experience?
- Which interventions does the family use to promote sleep?
- How would you describe your daily bowel elimination and voiding pattern?
- What problems do you experience in voiding and emptying bowels?
- What medications do you use to promote bowel elimination and voiding?
- How would you rate your ability to perform activities of daily living?
- What is the family’s physical exercise routine?
- Which barriers do you experience when performing activities of daily living and physical exercises?
- What difficulties do you encounter in memory and maintaining concentration?
- What challenges do you face in making decisions?
- What type of challenges do you experience with communication and language?
- What pain symptoms are you currently experiencing?
- What hearing difficulties do the family members have?
- What visual problems do the family members have?
- How would you describe your body image?
- Which personal abilities would you rate as best?
- What mood disorders do the family members experience?
- How would you define the relationship among the family members?
- What is the role of each member of this family?
- How satisfied are you with your job?
- What disturbances in sexuality do the family members experience?
- Which reproductive health problems do the family members currently have?
- Which contraceptive methods are currently being used by the family members?
- Which are the common stressors in the family?
- How do the family members respond to these stressors?
- What measures do you take to address the stressors?
NRS 429 Family Health Assessment Part 1 SAMPLE 2
A family’s strengths and weaknesses in terms of access to high-quality, reasonably priced treatment must be determined through family health assessment. The examination also gives healthcare professionals vital information about the dangers to reaching overall wellbeing and comprehensive health for the entire community. Additionally, the family assessment equips nurses, particularly Family Nurse Practitioners, with the necessary knowledge and abilities to evaluate the health patterns of families and provide solutions that are family-based (Peterson-Burch, 2018). The idea has also shown to be helpful in developing genetic therapies for some of the more complicated illnesses.
I spoke with Mr. and Mrs. K’s family during my family health evaluation. The family consists of two young people, a male and a female, both of age 21 and 24, as well as three older elders, ranging in age from 60 to 95. The family, who are of Hispanic-American ancestry, consists of Mrs. K’s 92-year-old mother who is battling Alzheimer’s disease and arthritis, Mr. K, a 68-year-old retired attorney, and Mrs. K, a 60-year-old retired high school teacher. The entire family is a devout Catholic with a standard of living in the upper middle class. Their pension is sufficient to cover their costs for food, medicine, and other family expenses.
Family Behavior and Family Health
Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is the primary goal of modern family health behavior. Mr. and Mrs. K frequently go to the gym to work out. Wednesdays, Fridays, and Sundays are when they work out. To stay healthy, they also follow a nutritious diet. Mrs. K has hypertension and Mr. K has a history of hyperlipidemia, but they both take good care of their health issues with food and exercise. Their two elderly children are both in good health and don’t have any underlying illnesses. They perform well in school and are average people. They have been doing well in both academics and athletics. While the 21-year-old has been competing in tennis ball tournaments since she was 6 years old, the 24-year-old son enjoys soccer and plays on the college soccer team. For the past five years, Mrs. K’s mother has been battling both arthritis and Alzheimer’s. She regularly goes to therapy to get the arthritis discomfort under control.
NRS 429V Week 5 Discussion 2 NEW SYLLABUS
How could you use the family structural theory to determine if a family is dysfunctional or not? Provide evidence to support your answer.
NRS 429 Topic 5 DQ 2 OLD SYLLABU
What characteristics would lead a provider to suspect domestic violence, child abuse, or elder abuse is taking place within a family? Discuss your facility’s procedure for reporting these types of abuse.
Re: Topic 5 DQ 1
Health education is used to teach people how their actions or inactions have affected their overall health and well-being. Health promotion is when this information is used by the individual in order to promote their own health and have positive outcomes. “Nurses are actively involved in both health promotion and health education, providing education that is necessary to help patients achieve control over the promotion of their own health” Grand Canyon University, 2018). The nursing process is vital in developing health education. You first begin by assessing the knowledge your patient already has and what kind of learning style they possess. Next you would make a plan of how you wanted to educate the patient and the strategies they would best respond to. You should then implement the plan. And lastly, you need to evaluate how much and what information you patient has retained.
When I lived in the Midwest one of the major issues that affected many friends and family was the opioid epidemic. Many people I knew were not prone to drug abuse but because of lack of education found themselves abusing opioids. This type of addiction did not care what social or economic status you found yourself at, it did not discriminate against anyone. “Health education programs are a vital component to end the opioid epidemic by preventing opioid addiction and misuse before overdose or opioid-related comorbidities occur” (Policy Brief A Nation in Crisis: A Health Education Approach to Preventing Opioid Misuse and Addiction, n.d.). In order to slow the addiction to these kinds of drugs it is important to educate every patient before they begin taking any of these types of medications about their addictive nature. This should be done using public programs so that they have the information before they are even given an opioid. They then can address the issue with their doctor if they are ever prescribed an opioid. “Therefore, health education is not only effective in its ability to allow community members to make informed health decisions, but to improve safety and quality of life” (Policy Brief A Nation in Crisis: A Health Education Approach to Preventing Opioid Misuse and Addiction, n.d.).
Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/
Policy Brief A Nation in Crisis: A Health Education Approach to Preventing Opioid Misuse and Addiction. (n.d.). https://www.sophe.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Policy-Brief-Heealth-education-and-opioids.pdf
I agree with you that health education is critical component in nursing practice. It is the main tool that guides in health promotion approaches. The nurses have a responsibility to educate the members of the public on health risks, predisposing factors, the effects of the diseases and finally the preventive measures (Whitehead, n.d.). I also agree with you that health education empowers the members of the community hence increase their safety.
This is as a result of having information on the risks of various lifestyle choices and habits that could have adverse effects to the health hence informed choices. Guidance and counselling patients is also a form of health education. In tackling the opioid misuse epidemic in the US, the federal regulation stipulates clearly the for the centers that dispense methadone treatment to offer counselling, the same applies to doctors who prescribe these drugs, they should refer the patients for counselling (Hoffman et al., 2019). This demonstrates how health education is a critical component in the healthcare systems.
Whitehead, D. (n.d.). Exploring health promotion and health education in nursing. Journals.Rcni.com. https://journals.rcni.com/nursing-standard/cpd/exploring-health-promotion-and-health-education-in-nursing-ns.2018.e11220/print/abs
Hoffman, K. A., Ponce Terashima, J., & McCarty, D. (2019). Opioid use disorder and treatment: challenges and opportunities. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4751-4
When I look at the Transtheoretical model of nursing through the lens of health promotion prevention measures, since this model involves lifestyle modification such as physical activity, diet and smoking cessation, it makes me remember towards the end of the year how you hear family members or friends say “I need to loose (X) amount of weight in the new year”, or “I’m going to stop smoking” and when the year turns, you see that they are at the same state or continue to indulge in the same bad habits.
To me, when we look at the five stages of this model of nursing, these folks are stocked in the contemplation and preparation phase and they will get stock at these phases until their health goes bad. According to Falkner (2018), as nurses, to help folks like these change their behavior, we want to encourage them to make better choices, acknowledge willingness to make small changes and offer ongoing support to them; help them set goals, reiterate the importance of adherence to plan, and help them make environmental changes that will support them to meet their goal. When this is done, they may likely move to the subsequent phases which is the Action and Maintenance phase.
Falkner, A. (2018). Health promotion in nursing care. In Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. (Chapter 2). Grand Canyon University. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/#/chapter/2
SAMPLE Family Health Assessment Part 1
Family Health Assessment is crucial in identifying the family’s strength and weakness in terms of access to quality and affordable care. The assessment also provides crucial information to the healthcare practitioners on the threats to achieving comprehensive health and general wellness for the whole population. Furthermore, the family assessment prepares nurses especially the Family Nurse Practitioners with the relevant skills required in the assessment of the family health patterns and be able to offer family-based solutions (Peterson-Burch, 2018). The concept has also proved to be instrumental in advancement of genetic interventions in some of the complex conditions.
In my family health assessment, I interviewed the family of Mr. and Mrs. K. The family unit is composed of three elderly adults of age between 60 to 95 years and two young adults, a 21-year-old female and a 24-year-old male. The family is of Hispanic -American descent, Mr. K is 68-year-old retired attorney while Mrs. K is a 60-year-old retired high school teacher they live together with Mrs. K’s mother who is 92-year-old battling arthritis and Alzheimer. All the family members are practicing Catholics with an upper middle class economic standard. They have enough pension to cater for their medical, food and other family expenses.
Family Health and Family Behavior
The current family health behavior is focused on maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Mr. and Mrs. K have regular exercise schedules in the gym. They do exercise thrice a week on Wednesdays, Fridays and Sundays. They do also maintain a healthy diet to keep them healthy. Mr. K has a history of hyperlipidemia while Mrs. K has hypertension, they both manage the health conditions well through diet and exercise. Their two elderly children are healthy, with no pre-existing medical conditions. They are normal with above average performance in school. They have been excelling in both academic and sporting activities. The 24-year-old son has interest in soccer and plays in the college soccer team while the 21-year-old has been participating in the tennis ball competitions since she was a 6-year-old. Mrs. K’s mother has been battling arthritis and Alzheimer for the last five years. She attends regular therapy to relieve the pain associated with arthritis.
Functional Health Patterns; Strengths and Barriers to Health
In the assessment of the family’s health pattern strength and weakness, it was clear that the family lifestyle and concern about health has helped the family members remain healthy. The family members are engaged in regular exercise and nutrition which are precursors to staying healthy and fit. Mr. K has been able to successfully manage his hyperlipidemia while Mrs. K has been managing hypertensive condition through regular exercise and diet.
The strength towards adoption of the health promotion measures as one of the key pillars in the Affordable Care Act that advocates for reduced pressure on healthcare resources and facilities through health promotion measures (Courtemanche et al., 2018). Additionally, give the level of education of Mr.and Mrs. K they are fully aware and knowledgeable on the health matters concerning, health insurance, immunization and vaccination programs and general health promotion measures.
The fact that they are practicing Catholics with strong foundation in Christian values of faith, love, patience and compassion, it helps in strong family culture of unity and helping each other overcome the emotional stress that might arise from the workplace or school. The religious guidance has for long been associated with improved mental health among the adolescents and young adults (Estrada et al., 2019). Another strength noted in ensuring a healthy pattern and lifestyle in the excellent communication skills that exists between the family members. They do discuss in open any challenges they are facing and this helps in coping up with stress.
The barrier to health that were noted could be limited energy and ability to exercise due to their advanced age. Another barrier to health in the family is Mrs. K’s mother’s health condition that has put the family under stress especially when her arthritis condition becomes very severe. This condition calls for both physical and emotional support o help the patient in coping up with the condition (Brignon et al., 2020). Mrs. K elimination complexity has been an area of concern and discomfort that has hindered her from fully enjoying a quality life.
Family Systems Theory
The family system theory views a family as a complex social system where the individual behaviors of the family members influence one another and make a collective interactive system. The system is observed as a whole and not as a single unit or individual person. The role Family Health Nurses Practitioners (FHNP) has been gaining popularity over the years; however, the enhancing health care practices requires a multifactorial approach that brings together all the stakeholders to realize effective change in healthcare (Duhamel, 2017). Families are encouraged to incorporate collective health promotion measures such as health diet, regular exercise, hygiene and following immunization and vaccination programs.
In the coping with stress issues in the family, the family notes of doing outdoor activities such as working on the garden, exercising and meditation. They mention of experiencing stress about the current situation of Covid-19 condition and stress due dealing with grown up children’s issues. The family systems theory can be instrumental in helping strengthen communication between the family members. The fact that all the family members are practicing Catholics, they can have joint sessions of Bible study and prayer sessions together to help in dealing with the stress and the psychological and mental effects associated with Covid-19 pandemic.
Family health assessment process helps the nurse practitioner better understand the family health patterns, the strengths and barriers families experience in access to quality care and achievement of the complete functional health that guarantees the family members quality life. In my family assessment report, I was able to interview a Hispanic-American family of five people. Three elderly adults and two young adults. The family being from the middle upper middle class, have adequate resources and descent living. Though the family has elderly family members battling chronic illness of hyperlipidemia, hypertension and arthritis, they have been able to manage the conditions well through proper nutrition, regular exercise and adherence to the prescribed medication.
Brignon, M., Vioulac, C., Boujut, E., Delannoy, C., Beauvais, C., Kivits, J., Poivret, D., Giraudet Le Quintrec, J., Untas, A., & Rat, A. (2020). Patients and relatives coping with inflammatory arthritis: Care teamwork. Health Expectations : An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy, 23(1), 137–147. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.12982
Courtemanche, C., Marton, J., Ukert, B., Yelowitz, A., & Zapata, D. (2018). Effects of the Affordable Care Act on Health Care Access and Self-Assessed Health After 3 Years. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 55, 004695801879636. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958018796361
Duhamel, F. (2017). Translating Knowledge From a Family Systems Approach to Clinical Practice: Insights From Knowledge Translation Research Experiences. Journal of Family Nursing, 23(4), 461–487. https://doi.org/10.1177/1074840717739030
Estrada, C. A. M., Lomboy, M. F. T. C., Gregorio, E. R., Amalia, E., Leynes, C. R., Quizon, R. R., & Kobayashi, J. (2019). Religious education can contribute to adolescent mental health in school settings. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-019-0286-7
Peterson-Burch, F. M. (2018). Family Matters: The Nurse’s Role in Assessing Family Health History in Ocular Disease. Insight (American Society of Ophthalmic Registered Nurses), 43(4), 23–25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169806/
Family Focused Functional Assessment Questionnaire
Values, health perception:
How healthy is your family? I would say that we are moderately healthy with the exception of having a few co-morbidities. My husband, Gregory has hyperlipidemia, I have hypertension. Both co-morbidities are controlled by medication, diet, and exercise.
Do you and your family value be healthy? As a couple entering our seasoned years, we see the value of managing our health. The healthier we live, the longer we will be able to enjoy life.
Do you always try to follow doctor’s recommendations when given? In most parts, we follow doctor’s instructions. We get our annual physicals, vaccinations, and health screening as instructed.
Do you read labels for nutrition value? On occasion we read label due
to see the amount of sodium.
What kind of snacks do you eat? Nuts, popcorn, grapes, cheese
Do you have diet restrictions and are you compliant? Both of us watch our sodium and cholesterol intake. Generally, we eat lots of fish, vegetables, and grains. We bake or grill our meats and veggies. Our
Biggest challenge is eating out at restaurants frequently.
How much sleep do you get a night? We both get about 6-8 hours each night
Does anyone snore? Gregory snores a little during allergy seasons
What problems do you experience with getting sleep? Gregory and I both have some periods of insomnia during stress times (work, projects, school)
Do you all have normal bowel movements? How often? Gregory has regular bowel movements; never an issue. Angela has history of irregularities and constipation; uses laxatives on occasion
Are you experiencing any changes in elimination system? We are both experiencing changes- as old man says he never passes up a restroom;
We both laugh at each other
Have you had the 50 year colonoscopy? We have both had our initial
colonoscopy; Angela- one and done; Gregory has had followed up- clear
How much exercise do you get in a typical week? We try to get 30 mins
to 1 hour 3 times a week
What types of exercise do you do? Walking on treadmill, riding echelon
stationary bike, and weights
Do you ever get confused? We both do not get confused. At times forgetful
Are you experiencing any memory loss? No, we both have not experienced any memory loss.
How are decisions made? We make decisions together after discussion
How is your eyesight? We both wear glasses. Angela- for computer work and driving; farsightedness; Gregory- glasses or contacts always
Is taste a problem? Gregory taste buds poor
Do you have any numbness and tingling in extremities? We both are not experiencing any numbness or tingling.
Do you feel hopeful about the future? We both are feeling very hopeful for the future. The pandemic has caused a lot of grief to family, church family, and friends. Overall our spirits are better now that we both have the covid vaccination and cases are dropping.
What do you think of yourself? We are both self-confident in our abilities, education, and self-worth.
Have you experienced any depression or mental illness? We both have no mental illness. Gregory suffered from depression more than 10 years ago.
How is your marital relationship? We are both happy in our martial relationship. We both previously married but find that this relationship is far more enjoyable and appreciative.
How do you discipline your children? Our child are grown
How do you deal with conflicts? We agreed many years ago that communication was the key to resolving issues or problems.
How often do you have sex? Gregory would say “not enough”; currently 2 times weekly- Angela needs to increase energy
Is there any sexual dysfunction? Not at present
How would rate your sexual relationship? We agree that “it is well”
What methods do you use to deal with stress? Exercise, gardening, reading and meditation
Have there been any prominent stressful events in your life lately? Yes, dealing with the effects of Covid, dealing with grown children’s issues
What are your strengths and concerns with dealing with stress? We both agree that communication about issues is key, being on the “same sheet of music”
Assessment is usually the first step in the nursing process when developing care plans for an individual patient or a family. Family health assessment involves collecting information about a family’s disease prevention and health promotion practices (Jazieh et al., 2018). A family influences an individual’s health by health behavior, direct biological and psycho-physiological means. Family assessment is the initial step in establishing the need for additional interventions and the particular aspects of family life that need to be addressed (Jazieh et al., 2018). In this assignment, I developed a questionnaire using Gordon’s health patterns and interviewed a family. This paper seeks to analyze the family’s assessment findings, including the family structure, health behaviors, strengths, and health problems, and use the family systems theory to influence changes in the family.
I interviewed family X, a blended family of six members. The members include the father, mother, three daughters, and one son. The father is 58-year-old, the mother is 56 years, 1st born is 34, 2nd born is 32, 3rd born is 28, and 4th born is 16 years. Mr. and Mrs. X have been married for 24 years. Since it is a blended family, the 1st born and 3rd born daughter belong to Mrs. X, the 2nd born daughter belongs to Mr. X, and the 4th born son was born from their union. The family is multiracial; Mr. X is an African American, Mrs. X, and the 3rd born are Whites, and the 1st, 2nd, and 4th born children are multiracial. The family belongs to the upper-middle socioeconomic class with an average annual household income of $250,000. Mr. X is a managing director of an insurance firm, while Mrs. X is a financial coach having an established consultancy firm. The 1st born is an attorney, 2nd born is an architect, 3rd born is her final year in law school, and the 4th born is in his final high school year. The family lives in Forest Hills, Queens, in New York. All the family members observe the Catholic faith and practices.
Health Behaviors of the Family
The family generally has acceptable health behaviors based on the members’ lifestyle and health promotion practices. The family reported adopting a culture of taking freshly-prepared healthy home meals. Their meals are composed of high proteins, fruits and vegetables, and low carbohydrates. The diet patterns were informed by their awareness of chronic lifestyle illnesses and have helped to maintain a healthy weight (Conner & Norman, 2017). In addition, they reported having adequate water intake and healthy snacks between meals.
The family also has healthy sleeping patterns. Mrs. X reported that she initiated the sleeping patterns in the children since their childhood by limiting screen time. Another health behavior is attending annual well-exams. The family members have made it a habit to attend the exams where they are assessed for underlying problems and screened for chronic illnesses (Conner & Norman, 2017). The family generally has a good health status since no member has a chronic illness or is currently having an infectious disease.
Functional Health Pattern Strengths
Strengths were identified in the functional health patterns of Nutrition and Sleep-rest patterns. The family has adopted healthy dietary patterns characterized by balanced meals with adequate fruits and vegetable servings and low caloric intake. Besides, the family had no diet restrictions or difficulties in eating, digestion, or absorption of food. The family also avoids junk fast foods since they have high fat and sodium content and low-nutritional value (Conner & Norman, 2017). The family reported having adequate sleeping hours of 7-10 hours per day in the sleep-rest pattern. They also had adequate rest-relaxation periods and reported feeling rested and ready for daily activities after waking up. No member reported having difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep, sleeps interruptions, early awakening, or using sleeping aids.
Identified Health Problems/Barriers to Health
Health problems and barriers were identified in the patterns of Values-Health Perception, Activity-Exercise, and Role-Relationship. In the Values-Health perception pattern, some family members reported engaging in unhealthy habits such as tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use, which puts them at risk of chronic illnesses (Jia et al., 2017). In the Activity-Exercise pattern, most members had ineffective exercise patterns and reported rarely engaging in physical exercises. Besides, those who engaged in physical exercises did not reach the recommended minimum of 150 minutes of aerobic activity. The inadequate physical exercises put them at risk of chronic illnesses (Jia et al., 2017). The role-relationship pattern had major problems characterized by frequent strains and dysfunctional relationships in the family contributed by being in a blended family. Mr. and Mrs. X reported having difficulties in handling family problems. The children had frequent conflicts related to their roles in the family, and the parents experienced problems handling them. Besides, some of the children reported feeling isolated.
Application of the Family Systems Theory
The Family Systems theory describes a family as an interrelated whole that adapts to changes brought by a health illness of a family member. The theory helps providers understand that families change regularly in response to environmental stress and strains. The complexity of family systems advances over time, and families must improve their capacity to change or adapt (Calatrava et al., 2021). The family systems theory can be applied to promote healthy lifestyle practices in family X. A family member can be encouraged to adopt a healthier lifestyle, which will, in turn, inspire others to do the same (Pilato & Davison, 2021). Besides, the theory can help the family address the stress they undergo that causes family chaos to promote functional family patterns.
The primary purpose of a family assessment is to assess and evaluate the family members’ functioning to understand their problems. The interviewed family demonstrated healthy behaviors such as healthy diet and sleep patterns and engaging in health promotion activities. However, health problems and barriers were identified in the Values-Health Perception, Activity-Exercise, and Role-Relationship patterns.
Calatrava, M., Martins, M. V., Schweer-Collins, M., Duch-Ceballos, C., & Rodríguez-González, M. (2021). Differentiation of self: A scoping review of Bowen Family Systems Theory’s core construct. Clinical psychology review, 102101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2021.102101
Conner, M., & Norman, P. (2017). Health behavior: Current issues and challenges. Psychology & Health, 32(8), 895-906. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2017.1336240
Jazieh, A. R., Volker, S., & Taher, S. (2018). Involving the family in patient care: A culturally tailored communication model. Global Journal on Quality and Safety in Healthcare, 1(2), 33-37. https://doi.org/10.4103/JQSH.JQSH_3_18
Jia, Y., Gao, J., Dai, J., Zheng, P., & Fu, H. (2017). Associations between health culture, health behaviors, and health-related outcomes: a cross-sectional study. PloS one, 12(7), e0178644. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178644
Pilato, K. A., & Davison, C. M. (2021). Family as a health promotion setting: A scoping review of conceptual models of the health-promoting family. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249707
SAMPLE Family Health Assessment Part I
Family health assessment involves obtaining a family’s information on the activities or practices they implement to promote health and prevent diseases. The key elements of the family health assessment process are evaluating existing family information, meeting with the family, interviewing family members, performing specialized assessments, and identifying the family needs and circumstances contributing to these needs. Family health assessment also includes making judgments and decisions about necessary services, documenting the information and decision-making with the family, and disseminating the information to the family (Park & Lee, 2020). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the family health assessment findings of a family interviewed in this assignment.
Family Y was interviewed during this assignment. Family Y is an African-American family living in Maricopa County, AZ. It comprises six family members, Mr.Y (husband and father), Mrs.Y (wife and mother), three daughters, and one son. Mr.Y is 62 years, Mrs. Y is 59 years, and the children are aged 35, 32, 28, and 23 years. The family belongs to the lower-middle class income group with an average annual household income of $95, 000. Mr. Y is a retired high school teacher and is currently running a restaurant in his neighborhood. On the other hand, Mrs.Y is a clerical officer working in a government office. The firstborn and second born daughters are married and currently do not live with the family. The third born daughter moved out of the family house two years ago after becoming an advocate. The son is a fourth year university student pursuing Engineering and currently lives with the family. Family Y is a protestant family and attends Sunday church services at least twice a month. Furthermore, they live in a suburban estate in Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ with access to social amenities such as healthcare facilities, schools, shopping malls, and transportation. Every family member has private medical insurance.
Overall Health Behaviors of the Family
Family Y has an overall good health status and has adopted various healthy lifestyle practices to promote health and prevent disease. Mr.Y has positive medical history of controlled Type 2 Diabetes and hypertension, which were diagnosed at 43 years. No other family member has been diagnosed with a chronic illness. Mr.Y adopted several lifestyle practices to prevent the worsening of diabetes and hypertension including cessation to tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, engaging in regular physical exercises, and limiting consumption of high-caloric foods. Mrs.Y and the children have also adopted some of these lifestyle practices like regular physical exercises and healthy diet since they are aware of the risk of developing lifestyle diseases.
Functional Health Pattern Strengths
The functional health patterns considered as strengths from the family interview are Nutrition and Activity/Exercise. The Nutrition pattern was a strength owing to the adopted healthy eating habits by the family including limited intake of high-caloric foods, processed foods, and carbonated drinks. The family takes regular servings of vegetables and fruits, healthy fats, lean meats, legumes, and nuts. Mr.Y follows the DASH diet to help promote weight loss and control blood pressure (Crone et al., 2021). In addition, the family members consume a minimum off 2l of water per day and have limited alcohol consumption. The family members have no GI issues or discomforts with eating and swallowing and dental problems.
The Activity/Exercise pattern was an area of strength based on the family’s history of engaging in regular physical exercises. The family has subscribed to a local gym and takes part in moderate-high intensity aerobic exercises and muscle strengthening exercises like weight-lifting. In addition, the family engages in regular recreational activities like swimming and hiking, which have significantly improved their fitness levels and cardiovascular endurance (Crone et al., 2021). The family members have sufficient energy for required activities and the ability to carry out all Activities of daily living (ADLs) with no limitations.
Various health problems and barriers were identified in the functional health patterns of Values/Health Perception, Sleep/Rest, and Coping. Barriers were identified in the Health perception-Health Management pattern since some of the family members did not consistently attend annual well check-ups. They also reported lack of consistency in self-examinations like breast and testicular exams and their immunization was not up-to-date. Health problems were identified in the Sleep/Rest pattern like dysfunctional sleep patterns and sleep interruptions by nightmares. Mrs.Y reported having sleep disturbances in the past two years and has been prescribed sleeping pills for sleep-onset problems and early awakening. Problems identifies in the Coping pattern include ineffective ways of handling stressful issues by some of the family members. For instance, some family members have compromised coping mechanisms and impaired adjustment to life crisis that result in using stress-relieving drugs.
Application of the Family Systems Theory
The family systems theory (FST) was emanated from Bowen’s study of the family. The theory is a concept that views the family as an emotional unit. FST is a relationship system that a family demonstrates as the interlocking concepts of familial development (Erdem & Safi, 2018). Therefore, FST can be used to promote changes in family members by having the family work together to understand their group dynamic. It can also be used to help the family work better together and identify how one’s behavior affects other family members. The guiding notion is that what happens to one family member happens to all other family members (Bortz et al., 2019). If a family member develops a lifestyle condition, other family members understand that it can also happen to them. Consequently, they engage in the healthy lifestyle practices recommended to the other family member. For instance, other Family Y members engage in regular physical activities and healthy diet similar to Mr.Y since they perceive that they are also at risk of diabetes and hypertension.
The family interviewed in this assignment was family Y, an African-American family belonging to the lower-middle class. Family Y has an overall good practice and has adopted various healthy lifestyle practices. Strengths were noted in the Nutrition-Metabolic and Activity-Exercise patterns. However, health problems and barriers were identified in the Values/Health Perception, Sleep/Rest, and Coping patterns.
Bortz, P., Berrigan, M., VanBergen, A., & Gavazzi, S. M. (2019). Family systems thinking as a guide for theory integration: Conceptual overlaps of differentiation, attachment, parenting style, and identity development in families with adolescents. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 11(4), 544-560. https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12354
Crone, M. R., Slagboom, M. N., Overmars, A., Starken, L., van de Sande, M., Wesdorp, N., & Reis, R. (2021). The Evaluation of a Family-Engagement Approach to Increase Physical Activity, Healthy Nutrition, and Well-Being in Children and Their Parents. Frontiers in public health, 9, 747725. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.747725
Erdem, G., & Safi, O. A. (2018). The cultural lens approach to Bowen family systems theory: Contributions of family change theory. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 10(2), 469-483. https://doi.org/10.1111/jftr.12258
Park, H., & Lee, K. S. (2020). The association of family structure with health behavior, mental health, and perceived academic achievement among adolescents: a 2018 Korean nationally representative survey. BMC public health, 20(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08655-z
Traditionally a family was defined as parents and children today the definition seems to have the same basic meaning through a much more broad take on parents and children (Green, 2018). Parents traditionally would be a father and mother that are married in today’s society it is more than acceptable to have parents encompass all family backgrounds, for example, two moms, two dads, transgender parents, aunts/uncles, and even grandparents that are raising their children. Children also are comprised of similar definitions only in today’s society children can encompass a niece/nephew, a childhood friend, a cousin and more recently animals. With an increasing number of people not wanting to have children of their own many seek to have their pets such as cats or dogs be treated as if they are their children.
Acknowledging the fact that these non-traditional family units are in fact families is key in providing a healthy supportive lifestyle. When assessing a family for function development and structure the background of the family needs to be considered. Structurally the family needs to be identified who is the head of the family and most important what holds the family together. Function and developmental assessment are needed to determine if the family as a whole can overcome any situations that could hold the family back.
The family system theory shows that the family as a whole needs to be considered when addressing one member’s health. One family member may look to another for support or guidance so, education for the family as a whole is important (Green, 2018). Whether the family unit is a traditional or non-traditional family unit they look to each other for support. One study on genetic counseling and how the family structure effects decisions point out that the background of individuals and how they react to information can and does have a ripple effect on the rest of the family (MacLeod, Metcalfe, & Ferrer, 202). Knowing the family structure can make a difference in the receptiveness to information as well as the potential for action to change current habits if they need to be corrected.
Family Health Assessment Part 1
The involvement of nurses with families is not a new phenomenon as families have long been the clinical point of focus for clinicians working in a home setting (Wu et al., 2020). Over the past decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in assessing the family unit to promote an understanding of the health promotion and disease prevention activities that can be adopted by the family (Wu et al., 2018). The family assessment not only narrows down to risk factors but also involves the perception of the nurse regarding the family’s norms, constitution, theoretical knowledge, standards, and community abilities (Lauritzen et al., 2018). The nurse utilizes open communication when conducting family health assessments to promote the level of accuracy of the information provided. The purpose of this assignment is to analyze the assessment findings of the conducted interview with Shawn’s family.
Shawn’s family is a middle-class nuclear family that resides in Fort Lauderdale, Broward county, Florida. They live together in a three-bedroom apartment downtown. The family is composed of a 55 years old husband, Mr. Shawn, who is a father of two. He is considered the head of the family. The wife, Mrs. Shawn is 49 years only, with their daughter being 10 years old Amanda, and their son, John, is 12 years old. Both the children are in middle school. The family is of African American descent. They are strong Christians, who go to church every Sunday.
Family Health and Health Behaviours
The family believes in seeking medical care when ill. Mr. Shawn is hypertensive and is managing the condition with dietary interventions and antihypertensives. Mrs. Shawn is diabetic and on metformin and Glibenclamide to control her blood sugar levels. Amanda is obese and tries to exercise to cut down on her weight. John on the other hand is healthy, with all childhood immunizations up to date. They believe in supporting each other to promote their health, with Christ as their true healer.
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