NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

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Epidemiology Paper

HIV infection has a wide range of physical implications. Because of the virus’s increased ability to replicate in the human body, the immune system is significantly weakened, leaving a person prone to opportunistic infections. HIV patients frequently get tuberculosis, CMV, and a variety of other opportunistic infections. Tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death among people living with HIV/AIDS. Additionally, the patients’ poor gastrointestinal health may result in diarrhea. Patients with advanced Kaposi sarcoma or blood vessel wall cancer are diagnosed (Laurencin et al., 2018). Dark purple lesions on the skin and in the mouth are characteristic Kaposi sarcoma signs and symptoms. This sickness is also associated with difficulties with the lungs, digestive system, and other internal organs. Furthermore, lymphomas, which are characterized by enlarged lymph nodes, may occur in HIV/AIDS patients.

Individuals must rely on ARTs to delay the disease’s progression because there is currently no known treatment. Those who consistently take their prescription have a better chance of living for many more years. Poor adherence, on the other hand, has been linked to adverse outcomes in HIV/AIDS patients (Laurencin et al., 2018). Because HIV/AIDS is highly contagious, persons should exercise caution when engaging in sexual activity. Those who are already infected should take their medications as instructed to avoid treatment failures.

HIV/AIDS screening includes testing for antibodies produced against the infection. The disease is reportable, and normally, high-risk populations are involved in the reporting processes. The government’s efforts to combat and eradicate the disease are guided by epidemiological reporting of disease burden by region. Over time, HIV/AIDS management has been characterized by ongoing research efforts and distribution of study findings to the general public and healthcare organizations. Furthermore, because the disease affects the entire world, it is critical to constantly convey the findings of various research studies.

Description of the Disease

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is present in more than 50% of African populations. The World Health Organization estimated that 40 million people were infected with the disease by 2004. The disease weakens the human immune system, rendering it incapable of fighting subsequent infections. HIV/AIDS patients are vulnerable to infections. CD4 cells signal other immune cells in the body to respond to infections. People with HIV have low CD4 counts, which means that their body’s defense mechanisms are severely compromised in their ability to respond to infection. Because of their weakened defenses, people with the disease are more vulnerable to opportunistic infections. As a result, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a class of drugs that aid in the treatment of HIV.

Also Check Out: NRS 451 Benchmark – Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

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Causes, Symptoms, and Mode of Transmission of HIV/AIDS

Sexual contact with infected blood, sperm, or vaginal secretions is the primary route of HIV transmission. The greater the viral load in an infected person, the greater the chance of infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports for sexual behaviors that minimize the risk of disease transmission, such as sterilization and sterilized sex. Even drug dealers are at danger of catching the sickness if they use a needle that has been infected with the virus. The transmission of mother-to-child transmission during birth or breastfeeding is of more concern. For the first six months of a child’s life, they should be breastfed exclusively. However, the fact that HIV is intracellular means that it cannot survive outside the body, limiting the chance of the virus being shared through encounters such as swapping glasses with infected individuals. There is also a low chance of transmission by kissing, unless the person has ulcers in their mouth that could allow the virus to enter their body through the mouth.

The virus might express itself in various ways clinically. As long as the virus remains dormant, many people will have flu-like symptoms during the incubation period. Other early indications and symptoms of the disease are an itchy or red skin rash; headache; fatigue; gland swelling; and muscular discomfort. A person’s level of immunity also plays a role in the severity of the symptoms (Laurencin et al., 2018). Two weeks after infection, symptoms begin to emerge. Sero-reversion occurs when the body’s immune system responds to an infection and the virus is eliminated. As a result, infected people may not show symptoms for several years before they resurface. As the disease develops throughout the body, the symptoms become more severe. Skin disorders such as Kaposi’s sarcoma and Cryptococci meningitis may develop in sufferers who have reached an advanced stage. In order to prevent further viral replication, treatment measures must be initiated as soon as the virus is detected. In order to lessen the impact of the disease on society, the CDC advises HIV testing for everyone. Based on the population’s risk classification, the frequency of testing should be adjusted accordingly At the very least, everyone should get screened once every year. In addition, those who have more than one sexual partner should be screened every three months, regardless of their risk level.

Topic 2: Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases


NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment
NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment


Click here to ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment


Measles, also referred to as Rubeola, is an acute and highly contagious disease that mainly affects children. Measles is a major cause of child mortality in developing countries. However, measles can affect individuals of all ages. At least 90% of measles secondary infection rates occur in susceptible domestic contacts. This paper discusses measles, including causes, symptoms, transmission, complications, treatment, and demographics, and how social determinants contribute to the disease. The paper will also explore the role of the community health nurse and agencies in addressing measles and the global implication of the disease.


The Measles virus causes measles. It is a single-stranded, negative-sense enveloped RNA iris belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the Paramyxoviridae family (WHO, 2019). The virus is highly infectious, and almost all infected persons develop clinical illness.


The symptoms of measles depend on the nutritional status of the patient. The onset of measles symptoms occurs 7-14 days after exposure to the virus (Odei, 2018). The first clinical manifestation is a high fever of above 1040 F that usually lasts for 4-7 days (WHO, 2019).  The prodromal phase present is characterized by fever, malaise, anorexia, and the classical triad of conjunctivitis, coryza, and cough (Odei, 2018). The characteristic manifestation of enanthem occurs 2-4 days after the start of the prodromal phase and lasts for 3-5 days, marked by Koplik spots inside the cheeks. Exanthema occurs 1-2 days after the occurrence of Koplik spots and is associates with mild pruritus (WHO, 2019). It is marked by a rash that begins from the face and upper neck and spreads to the extremities, chest, and abdomen after 24 hours. The skin rash in measles is characteristic and matches from one region of the body to another in a systematic pattern.

Uncomplicated measles usually occurs in well-nourished or slightly underweight children. It presents with fever, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, cough, koplik spots, stomatitis, and skin rash (Odei, 2018).  On the other hand, complicated measles occurs in malnourished and underweight children. It presents with nasal flaring, tachypnea, dyspnea, hoarse voice, barking cough, inspiratory stridor, skin rash, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, keratitis, photophobia, convulsions, and ear discharge.

Mode of Transmission

The Measles virus is transmitted by a sneeze- or cough-produced respiratory droplets. The virus spreads through invisible droplets secreted from the respiratory tract of an infected person. Respiratory droplets remain active and contagious for almost two hours (WHO, 2019). It spreads very easily and fast infecting the skin and the layer of cells that line the lungs, eyes, mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal tract (Odei, 2018). Besides, the measles virus weakens a person’s immune system for many weeks after the onset of the illness, putting one susceptible to other infections.


Complications of measles occur more in individuals below five years or older than 30 years. Complications occur in various body systems, including the respiratory, neurological, gastrointestinal, eyes, and ear-nose-throat (Odei, 2018). The most common complications of measles are pneumonia, croup, and encephalitis, which are the common cause of measles-related death. Patients also develop gastroenteritis, convulsions, meningitis, conjunctivitis, and otitis media (Odei, 2018).  A patient can also develop Xerophthalmia, which is an ophthalmic condition characterized by dryness of the conjunctiva ad cornea.


There are no Antiviral drugs available for the treatment of measles. Treatment of measles involves supportive care (WHO, 2019). Persons with uncomplicated measles are usually managed on an outpatient basis, whereas those with complicated measles are treated as inpatients. Supportive management involves maintaining hydration, and replacement of fluids lost through emesis and diarrhea (WHO, 2019). For children, the caregiver should be advised to provide the child with adequate fluids and light, nutritious diet. IV rehydration is given in patients with severe dehydration. Paracetamol is administered to relieve pain and fever. Children with complicated measles should be admitted and be provided with a balanced diet to improve their nutritional status. They should be weighed to assess the nutritional status, and the caregiver should be instructed to bring the child to the clinic daily for follow up.

Vitamin A should be administered to speed up recovery of measles and prevent complications such as Xerophthalmia. The recommended Vitamin A doses for children diagnosed with measles include: Infants below six months should be administered with two doses of 50,000 IU per day; 6-11 months two doses of 100,000 IU per day, and above one year two doses of 200,000 IU per day (Odei, 2018). Besides, children with clinical signs of Vitamin A deficiency should be administered with the first two doses as per the age then a third dose based on the child’s age after 2-4 weeks.

Demographic Of Interest

Malnourished and non-immunized children below three years are at high risk of contracting measles. The severity of measles is related to the viral load one gets from the source. Children who live in overcrowded dwellings and are in close contact with the index case for the whole infective period obtain a high dose of the virus (WHO, 2019). These children develop severe measles with high case fatality rates. Unvaccinated males and females have equal susceptibility rates to infection by the measles virus (WHO, 2019). However, high mortality rates secondary to acute measles has been observed among females. Measles affects people from all racial groups.

Morbidity and mortality rates are high in individuals with malnutrition, immune deficiency disorders, vitamin A deficiency, and inadequate vaccination. Mortality rates are higher among children below five years. The highest mortality rates are among children between 4 to 12 months, and in immunocompromised children due to HIV infection or other conditions (WHO, 2019). Post-exposure prophylaxis with Measles virus vaccine or human immunoglobulin is recommended in unvaccinated persons.

Case Reporting

Immediate reporting of any suspected case of measles is required in the United States (US). Health care providers are required to report the case to the local or state department of health. Since endemic measles transmission has been eliminated in the US, measles cases should be reported within 24 hours by the state health department to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through telephone or e-mail. The state health department should electronically report notifications of confirmed cases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). The US CDC clinical case definition for reporting a susceptible measles case requires the presence of a generalized rash that has lasted for three days or longer; a temperature of 1010F or higher; and presence of cough, conjunctivitis, or coryza (CDC, 2019). When reporting to the CDC, measles cases should be classified as either Suspected, Probable, or Confirmed.

How Social Determinants of Health Contribute to the Development of Measles

Social determinants of health (SDOH) refer to complex conditions in which individuals are born, raised, work, play, worship, and age. SDOH comprises of five key areas, which are health and health Care and Neighborhood, social and community context, economic stability, education, and built environment. Individuals not immunized against measles virus have the highest susceptibility to infection. SDOH has the possibility of affecting measles immunization programs globally (Gastañaduy et al., 2019). Therefore, it is essential to explore the types of SDOH affecting immunization efforts in a country for the state to address them, thus preventing the spread of measles and lower mortality rates.

SDOH, such as housing and community design, contribute to the spread of measles in individuals living in congested areas such as slums. People living in overpopulated areas are likely to be infected with measles since it is airborne, spread very fast, and can result in outbreaks (Rivadeneira, Bassanesi & Fuchs, 2018). Individuals from low-income countries have a high likelihood of contracting measles due to inadequate health care facilities and inconsistent vaccine supply (Rivadeneira, Bassanesi & Fuchs, 2018). Families that travel for long distances to a health facility and those that lack transportation services often fail to take their children for immunization.

Furthermore, access to education opportunities contributes to the development of measles since persons with high education levels understand the importance of immunization. As a result, they adhere to immunization guidelines while individuals with low educational levels fail to take children for vaccination due to ignorance on the importance of vaccination (Rivadeneira, Bassanesi & Fuchs, 2018). SDOH, such as availability of resources to meet daily needs, for example, healthy food, determine the nutritional status of an individual (Rivadeneira, Bassanesi & Fuchs, 2018). Individuals with inadequate access to healthy food often end up malnourished, which makes them susceptible to measles.

The Epidemiologic Triangle As It Relates To Measles

Humans are the only natural hosts of the measles virus with no known animal reservoirs. The virus is this spread from person to person. Host factors that increase the risk of infection include infants with diminished passive antibody before they reach the age of measles immunization (Odei, 2018). An immunocompromised state caused by corticosteroid therapy, HIV/AIDS, alkylating agents, or leukemia despite the immunization status. Besides, host factors such as malnourishment, pregnancy, vitamin A deficiency, and underlying immunodeficiency put one at risk of severe measles and complications (WHO. 2019). Environmental factors that favor the spread of the measles virus include temperate weather during spring and late winter.

Notifications should be done in schools for if a patient is a school-going child since measles is highly contagious. Besides, school-going children are at a high risk since they have not received the second dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (Odei, 2018). It should also be done in the community in situations where no history of contact with a known case can be identified, and if the patient mostly contracted measles from community institutions such as churches.

The Role of the Community Health Nurse and the Importance of Demographic Data in the Health of the Community

The community health nurse (CHN) has the role of conducting case finding by collecting information on the transmission setting such as school or household, the likely source of infection, travel history, and the number of contacts without evidence of immunity (Gastañaduy et al., 2018). The nurse carries out vaccination and recommends quarantine of susceptible contacts without presumptive evidence of immunity.  Efforts are also made to establish the source of infection for every confirmed case of measles. The nurse asks the patient or caregiver about contact with other known cases. In cases where no history of contact with a known case can be identified, the nurse identifies opportunities for exposure to unknown cases (CDC, 2019). For instance, exposures may occur in schools, during travel, or through contact with recent travelers or foreign visitors.

The CHN has the role of reporting any suspected, probable, or confirmed case of measles to the state department of health. The CHN provides demographic information, reporting sources including state and county, the clinical symptoms, and the outcome of the case, whether the patient survived or died (CDC, 2019). In addition, the CHN collects information on the number of susceptible individuals with no probable immunity. The nurse then analyzes the data to establish what information is available and what still needs to be collected, referred to as information tracking (Gastañaduy et al., 2018). This is easily achieved by constructing a line listing of cases that enables ready identification of known and unknown data and ensures complete case investigation. Lastly, the CHN follow-up patients and their contacts to assess disease prognosis and evaluate the development of complications.

Demographic data are necessary to the health of a community since it helps identify the population at risk of infection, for example, unvaccinated preschool-age children, patients who visited a particular hospital, or students who have received one dose of measles vaccine. The data also help public health officials identify where measles transmission is occurring or likely to occur. This includes households, daycare, schools, health facilities, churches, and institutions. Furthermore, demographic data helps identify individuals at the highest risk of infection or transmission, such as unvaccinated children, immunocompromised persons, pregnant women, students, health care personnel, or infants below 12 months (Gastañaduy et al., 2018). The data is used to establish the scope of the investigation and the potential for spread.  It also guides in identifying appropriate interventions using public health judgment to guide investigation and control efforts.

National agency/ Organization that addresses Measles

The CDC is a health protection agency in the US that addresses measles by helping in reducing the occurrence of the disease and the impact it has on Americans. CDC offers both scientific and technical support to partners and countries in the US and other parts of the world to lower measles and rubella deaths (CDC, 2019). The agency played a vital role in partnership with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to create a regional measles elimination strategy in 1996. This contributed to the elimination of measles and rubella in the Western Hemisphere by 2016. It helps reduce the burden of measles by assisting in planning at macro-and micro-levels, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating measles and rubella vaccination campaigns in target areas to eliminate measles and rubella (CDC, 2019). Besides, the CDC conducts operational research to present evidence for recommendations that enhance and guide measles- and rubella-control activities at local, regional, and global levels.

CDC offers technical assistance to undertake measles and rubella outbreak investigations, surveillance reviews, and routine vaccination program evaluations. It also helps develop and strengthen case-based measles-rubella surveillance systems that allow countries to identify, monitor, and promptly respond to measles and rubella infections (CDC, 2019). It serves as the global reference laboratory for measles and rubella and provides resources for national reference laboratories. Besides, the CDC offers technical assistance to global public health laboratories for the collection and transportation of clinical samples for measles testing using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Global Implication of Measles and How It Is Addressed In Other Countries

Measles affects approximately 30 million children annually in developing countries and causes about a million deaths. It has been associated with 15000 to 60,000 cases of blindness every year globally. Although a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available, there were more than 140,000 measles deaths globally in 2018, primarily among children under the age of five (WHO, 2019). Countries are addressing the issue of Measles by introducing free immunization programs for children. Immunization has been the key public health strategy to lower measles death and eliminate measles. Countries have a routine immunization program that consists of two MMR vaccination doses (Gastañaduy et al., 2018). Countries with high case and death rates conduct mass immunization campaigns in addition to the routine measles-rubella vaccination.

Measles is not endemic in the US, and most cases result from international travel (Gastañaduy et al., 2019). However, Measles remains an endemic disease in many parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, the Middle East,  the Americas, and Africa (Gastañaduy et al., 2019). Countries with recent measles outbreaks include Thailand, Israel, Ukraine, Vietnam, Japan, the Philippines, DRC, Liberia, Madagascar, and Somalia.


Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by the Measles virus that spreads from person to person via respiratory droplets. It mostly affects children below five years but can also affect persons of all ages. Individuals highly susceptible to melees include those that are non-immunized, immunocompromised, pregnant, and malnourished. The typical symptoms of measles include fever, koplik spots, conjunctivitis, cough, and coryza. The characteristic rash of measles can be distinguished from other conditions in that it begins from the face and upper necks and then spreads to the trunk, abdomen, and extremities after 24 hours. Measles is associated with severe complications such as convulsions, severe dehydration, pneumonia, croup, and encephalitis.  SDOH, such as lack of access to health services, low-income countries, poor housing and neighborhood, and inadequate access to healthy foods, contribute to the development of measles.  A CHN has the role of conducting case findings and identifying contact individuals susceptible to developing measles as well as reporting suspected and confirmed cases of Measles to the state department of health. Measles has contributed to high blindness and mortality rates globally, and most countries are addressing this issue through immunization programs.

NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment

Epidemiology Paper SAMPLE INTRO

Since the beginning of time, populations of the world have been affected by numerous infections and diseases. Some of these ailments have had catastrophic effects on mankind and have threatened the survival of different groups of people. For instance, in the periods of Middle and Dark Ages, plagues were common and this led to mortality of millions of people in Europe (MacNeil et al., 2019). The high incident rates of morbidity and mortality reported during this time prompted scientific research in the field of medicine, which led to the discovery of vaccines and other solutions to combat these diseases. Despite these discoveries, there is always an infection that proves to be a menace to populations in the world. As key players in the field of medicine, nurses are expected to remain abreast with the patterns of disease occurrences to ensure that they provide effective care to patients (Harkness & DeMarco, 2016). Through epidemiology studies, nurses gain understanding on the spread of diseases and gain insights about the current preventive measures aimed at managing or controlling the spread of these ailments. As a case in epidemiology, tuberculosis (TB) provides the basis for this discussion.

According to Crepet et al. (2016), the condition is a major public health concern throughout the world as it competes with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in causing deaths to patients. Since its discovery in 1882, TB has continued to cause misery and death with the vulnerable populations being the hardest hit across the world (Sulis et al., 2014). However, despite a regular declining trend in the incidences of TB over the last decades, new cases and deaths associated with the condition continue to soar when compared with other infectious diseases. As such, there is a need to explore the determinants of health concerning TB and assess the role of community health nurses in controlling the spread of infections. The present study provides a discussion on TB by analyzing the diseases in terms of epidemiologic triangle, the role of nurses in addressing the disease, elaboration of agencies dealing with the ailment and global implication of the disease. NRS 428 Epidemiology Paper Assignment


Explain the role of the community health nurse in partnership with community stakeholders for population health promotion. Explain why it is important to appraise community resources (nonprofit, spiritual/religious, etc.) as part of a community assessment and why these resources are important in population health promotion.

WHO defines Community health as environmental, social and economical resources to. sustain emotional and physical wellbeing among people in ways that advance their aspirations and satisfy their needs in the unique environment. The community health nurse plays a vital role in ensuring community health, partners with community stakeholders and has numerous roles which include integrating community involvement and knowledge about the population with personal, clinical understanding of health and illness and experiences of individuals and families within the population. Evaluating health trends and risk factors of population groups and helping to determine priorities for targeted interventions for example malnutrition, sexually transmitted infections and diabetes mellitus. The nurse provides health education, care management and primary care to individuals and families who are members of a vulnerable population and high risk groups. The nurse assesses and evaluates healthcare services to ensure that people are informed of available programs and services to ensure that people are informed of available programs and services and assisted in the utilization of these services for example screening, therapy and counseling. (Missouri Department of health and senior services, 2020).

It is important to appraise Faith Based Organizations because they important venues for health promotion especially in underserved communities. Religious groups have a moral responsibility toward the wellbeing of the community but they lack the resources to do it alone and therefore may partner with faith based organizations and community stakeholders to achieve this goal. Faith based and religious groups have good understanding of the local context and speak out for underprivileged making them excellent in health promotion. These groups have close links to communities and influence over them and therefore have the ideal opportunity to promote health and address other cultural factors that contribute to ill health and untimely death. (The John Hopkins University 2021).


The John Hopkins University. 2021. What is the role of Faith Based Organizations?


Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services. Public manual .2020. Role of Public Health Nurses.


Hello Sharon,

I agree with you that community health incorporates various resources that sustain emotional and physical wellbeing of the people. Social, environmental, and economic resources. The community health nurse is a crucial person in community health (Osman et al., 2021). Health nurses in conjunction with other stakeholders are mandated multiple obligations within the community. Since the community health nurses are experts their position in the organization allows them to educate the public. When engaging the public health nurses engages various stakeholders based on the nature of the assignment (Sezici et al., 2017). Evaluating health trends and the risk factors of various groups in the community provides data that can be used to tailor the budget of healthcare services (Salerno et al., 2018). It is important to appraise community resources to determine the strength of the community when there is a crisis. Community resources supports the community well-being. Therefore, assessment disclose more information about resources.



Osman, W., Ninnoni, J. P., & Anim, M. T. (2021). Use of the nursing process for patient care in a Ghanaian Teaching Hospital: A cross sectional study. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences14, 100281.

Salerno, J. P., McEwing, E., Matsuda, Y., Gonzalez‐Guarda, R. M., Ogunrinde, O., Azaiza, M., & Williams, J. R. (2018). Evaluation of a nursing student health fair program: Meeting curricular standards and improving community members’ health. Public Health Nursing35(5), 450-457.

Sezici, E., Ocakci, A. F., & Kadioglu, H. (2017). Use of play therapy in nursing process: A prospective randomized controlled study. Journal of Nursing Scholarship49(2), 162-169.

Topic 1 DQ 1

Aug 29-31, 2022

Explain the role of the community health nurse in partnership with community stakeholders for population health promotion. Explain why it is important to appraise community resources (nonprofit, spiritual/religious, etc.) as part of a community assessment and why these resources are important in population health promotion.

Bernardette McCann

Sep 2, 2022, 11:13 AM

The role of a community health nurse is to improve the health and wellness of the community. That encompasses the nursing process but is applied to the community as a group being the patient. They look at the population, and the ecosystems of culture, socioeconomics, geography, sociopolitical, environmental, and even phenomenon. A community can be defined as a group of people in a specific location, that includes where they live, work, attend school, and recreate. Most people dwell in some type of community. The goal of the public health nurse is to promote, protect and preserve the health of their community. They provide primary intervention through the promotion of healthy lifestyles thus helping to prevent disease. Immunization awareness and promotion is one of the focus areas. They plan educational assemblies, hand-out fliers, conduct health screenings, dispense medications and administer immunizations. They provide secondary interventions by promoting health screenings like STIs,  obesity, DM, HTN, and substance abuse. They provide direct care through public health clinics. They will distribute health-related items like condoms, and pregnancy tests, and in some communities are involved in clean needle programs. Public health nurses can be found in a variety of places including hospitals, community centers, clinics, schools, and governmental agencies. Rural areas depend heavily on PHN.


Dahl, B. M., & Clancy, A. (2015). Meanings of knowledge and identity in public health nursing in a time of transition: interpretations of public health nurses’ narratives. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 29(4), 679–687.


Green, S. (n.d.). Community & Public Health: The Future of Health Care. GCU Media. Retrieved August 29, 2022, from

Abigail Retana

replied toBernardette McCann

Sep 2, 2022, 6:20 PM

Hello Bernardette, hope you are doing create! An important statement you made in your post regarding how the public community can benefit greatly from the material and educational resources public health nursing can provide. These resources should be accessible to the community free of cost or with the charge of a small co-pay but also be provided with care and empathy. Some of these resources are immunizations, infection prevention, environmental health, and opioid crisis response (American Nurses Association, n.d.). As mentioned in one of the ANA articles nurses can also provide other benefits such as, “respond directly to public health crises; from outbreaks of disease to natural disasters” (ANA, n.d.) With the help of stakeholders’ resources can be provided, and analyzing the needs of the community. For example, during the pandemic, PHN and stakeholders, educated the community about the importance of protecting each other by getting vaccinated, offering free testing, and mask. Thanks for sharing!


American Nurses Association. (n.d.-b). Public Nursing Health. ANA. Retrieved September 2, 2022, from