Exercise 1.5 The relationship between obesity and cancer is described and discussed in this chapter. Conduct a search to answer the following questions.
The incidence rates for six cancers associated with obesity are increasing in young Americans. Identify them.
“Obesity is associated with an increased risk for many cancers, including esophageal, pancreatic, colon and rectal, breast (after menopause), endometrial, kidney, thyroid, and gallbladder (Curley, 2020).” According to Sung et. al. (2019) young adults (25-49) in the U.S. have an increased risk of obesity-related cancers when compared to those born in 1950. This study was the first to investigate obesity-related cancer incidence U.S. trends for younger generations. Investigators examined 12 obesity-related cancers and 18 malignancies (Sung et.al., 2019). They grouped people by birth cohorts in 5-year increments, younger generations had a progressively higher cancer incidence when compared with older birth cohorts for six of the 12-obesity related cancers, which included colorectal, multiple myeloma, uterine corpus, gallbladder, kidney, and pancreatic cancers (Sung et. al., 2019).
What is the prevalence rate of obesity in people younger than 18 in your state?
When looking at the state of New Jersey obesity rates in people younger than 18 years old as show by the State of childhood Obesity (2023) NJ’s obesity rate is 16.1% with a state rank of 27. According to Stainton (2019) there is a decline in N.J. obesity rates due to children enrolling in a federal nutrition program for low-income families.
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Which children are at highest risk for obesity in your state?
According to Onyeagoro (2022) family structure can be a predisposing factor for obesity. Nutrition and physical activity are primary reasons for weight gain in children. Obesity is more prevalent amongst children of ethnic minorities (Onyeagoro, 2022). Low-income families have a higher risk of obesity due to lacking the funding to buy healthy foods.
Are there any prevention programs in your state that address this issue?
There are multiple prevention programs, but one program that has been linked to successfully lowering childhood obesity rates in N.J. is WIC (Stainton, 2019). WIC is a special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children, which provides families with lower incomes vouchers for healthy food. According to Stainton (2019) the program covers more than 135,000 NJ women and children. Besides food programs there are multiple programs introduced by NJ Department of Education (2020) to reduce obesity through physical activity. Some of those programs include action for healthy kids, Alliance for a healthier generation, play 60, and many others (NJ Department of Education, 2020). Programs have been initiated through NJ schools to promote physical fitness and provide healthier meal options to combat obesity rates in NJ. Other programs provided by the state of NJ include Rutgers cooperative extension, fresh foods program, school breakfast programs, after school snack programs, and school lunch programs.
Are they effective?
Looking at the school lunch program, the purpose is to provide a well-balanced and healthy lunch to kids that may not be able to obtain that at home. The school lunch provided 1/3 of the recommended dietary allowances for lunch and meets dietary guidelines and caloric goals. Reductions in the price of lunch were made available for low-income families (NJ Department of Agriculture, 2016). These programs have been successful in lowering obesity rates in the state of NJ. According to Stainton (2019) with the introduction of the WIC program alone, NJ was one of the 41 states that seen a decline in childhood obesity rates. NJ has a Childhood Obesity project for children 10 to 17 years of age and showed NJ ranked No. 22 nationwide. From 2008 NJ peaked at 19.6% for obesity and now we are down to 16. 1% (Stainton, 2019).
Has your state passed and enacted any laws designed to decrease obesity?
There was a bill introduced to the senate but not passed yet. It is senate bill 302 and it requires that children’s meals served in restaurants meet certain nutritional requirements. The bill directly references the obesity rates in NJ and draws attention to the fact that we need a change (Legiscan, 2023).
Are they effective?
There are a few bills that have been introduced to the senate but have not passed yet. According to Legiscan (2023) NJ S531 a bill introduced to require schools to comply with lunch and breakfast nutrition standards has not been passed yet. Bill S302 that requires children’s meals served in restaurants meet nutritional standards has only been introduced to the senate. Bills obviously take a long time, but if these bills pass and become law, obesity rates will change.
If they are not effective, explain why you believe they are not working.
It is not that they are not effective, but they have not passed into law yet. If these bills did pass into law it would require that schools and restaurants serve children nutritious meals that comply with nutritional dietary requirements. In order for the problem of obesity to be tackled, it needs to be a group effort. Healthier options should be offered and high calorie foods with little nutritional value should be removed from menus. Healthy food should begin in schools, introducing children to healthy eating options and progress to restaurants. According to Persellin & Temkin (2022) weight gain is associated with harmful chemicals referred to as obesogens. Obesogens are chemicals that directly or indirectly increase fat accumulation and contribute to obesity. People are exposed to more processed foods that are high in trans-fat, sugar, and sodium which not only contribute to weight gain but to cardiac diseases and cancers.
Curley, A.L. (2020). Population-Based Nursing, Third Edition. Springer Publishing Company.
Legiscan. (2023). New Jersey Senate Bill 302. Retrieved https://legiscan.com/NJ/text/S302/2022Links to an external site.
NJ Department of Agriculture (2016) National School Lunch Program. Retrieved https://www.nj.gov/agriculture/divisions/fn/childadult/school_lunch.html
NJ Department of Education. (2020). Physical Activity and Obesity Prevention. Retrieved https://www.nj.gov/education/safety/wellness/ph/
Onyeagoro, C. T. (2022). Association between Family Structure and Childhood Obesity in Essex County, NJ (Order No. 29169780). Available from ProQuest One Academic. (2667719663). https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fdissertations-theses%2Fassociation-between-family-structure-childhood%2Fdocview%2F2667719663%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D147674Links to an external site.
Persellin, K. & Temkin, A. (2022) Chemicals in our food may be contributing to weight gain. Retrieved https://www.ewg.org/news-insights/news/2022/09/chemicals-our-food-may-be-contributing-weight-gain
State of childhood Obesity. (2023). Explore Data by Demographic. Retrieved https://stateofchildhoodobesity.org/demographic-data/ages-10-17/Links to an external site.
Stainton, L.H. (2019). Lower Childhood Obesity Rates in N.J. Linked to Nutrition Program. Retrieved https://whyy.org/articles/lower-childhood-obesity-rates-in-n-j-linked-to-nutrition-program/
Sung H, Siegel RL, Rosenberg PS, Jemal A. Emerging cancer trends among young adults in the USA: analysis of a population-based cancer registryLinks to an external site.. Lancet Public Health, February 1, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30267-6
This discussion board content is intended to facilitate learning for students through engaging dialogues as they achieve the desired learning outcomes/competencies associated with their course in a manner that empowers them to organize, integrate, apply and critically appraise their knowledge to their selected field of practice.
The use of discussions provides students with opportunities to contribute graduate level-appropriate knowledge and experience to the topic in a safe, caring, and fluid environment that models professional and social interaction. The ebb and flow of a discussion is based upon the composition of student and faculty interaction in the quest for relevant scholarship.
Participation in the discussion generates opportunities for students to actively engage in the written ideas of others by carefully reading, researching, reflecting, and responding to the contributions of their peers and course faculty. Discussions foster the development of members into a community of learners as they share ideas and inquiries, consider perspectives that may be different from their own, and integrate knowledge from other disciplines.
- Initial prompt due by Wednesday, 11:59 PM MT of week 1
- One peer and one faculty or two peer posts due by Sunday 11:59 PM MT of week 1
A 10% late penalty will be imposed for initial discussions posted after the weekly deadline regardless of the number of days late. No postings will be accepted after 11:59pm MT on Sunday (i.e. student will receive an automatic 0). Week 8 discussion closes on Saturday at 11:59pm MT.
Total Points Possible: 60 Points
Preparing the Assignment
Choose one of the following to respond to in Week 1 Discussion Board;
- Chapter 1, Exercise 1.5 or
- Chapter 2, Exercise 2.1 or
- Chapter 2, Exercise 2.4
Respond with a minimum of two (2) paragraphs of 4-5 sentences each.
- You should address each bullet point in the exercise you select.
- Your work should have in-text citations integrating at a minimum one scholarly article from this week’s readings and course textbook.
- APA format should be utilized to include a reference list.
- Correct grammar, spelling, and APA should be adhered to when writing, work should be scholarly without personalization or first person use.
- Respond to a minimum of two (2) individuals, peer and/or faculty, with a scholarly and reflective post of a minimum of two (2) paragraphs of 4-5 sentences. A minimum of one (1) scholarly article should be utilized to support the post in addition to your textbook.
I agree that obesity in children is often caused by children living in households of obese caregivers or parents. This could be a result of low socioeconomic status, mental health, lack of motivation/time, and lack of physical activity. While I agree that it is important that parents or caregivers are involved in and on top of their children’s nutrition, I think it is equally important that parents instill positive feelings about eating healthy and encourage their children in a positive way. Growing up in a low-income household, my parents often couldn’t afford the most healthiest options for food. I remember quite often, my mom just throwing something together with what we had in the pantry at the time. Looking back, I believe that our low socioeconomic status had a lot to do with my obesity in my younger years. However, now that I am an adult and have my own career and make decent money, I feel like the fact that I can afford more, I am able to indulge in going out to restaurants and unhealthy eating. Of course, my unhealthy eating habits aren’t only because of my socioeconomic status, there is a lot more to it than just that.
I came across an article that I found interesting regarding this topic. It discusses the correlation between the different parenting styles and the different eating disorders. Ramsewak et al. (2022) evaluate the differences between authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful/uninvolved parenting styles. Authoritarian households are often described as strict and “cold” with strict rules and punishments, where authoritative households are described as strict and “warm” and well-defined rules and punishments. Permissive parenting is explained as indulgent, laid back, and lacking direction, and uninvolved and neglecting parents are described as just that. Ramsewak et al. (2022) state that authoritative parenting seems to be the most sufficient approach as reported by enhanced academic attainment, healthy physiological and behavioral functioning, as well as good eating habits. I mentioned it’s important that parents instill positive feelings about eating healthy, and don’t come off too strict as that may instill negative feelings surrounding eating within their children and can lead to eating disorders, including over eating. My dad was very much an authoritarian parent, where my mom was more of a permissive parent. My dad was always making comments about us gaining weight, putting a negative tone on the topic and leaving us feeling anxious when it came to eating. Ramsewak et al. (2022) report that when a father is an authoritarian parent versus authoritative, children are likely to develop disordered eating habits. This article provided a different perspective into obesity amongst children. As providers, when we see obese children and their parents we can keep in mind this article and provide resources accordingly. One resource that might be helpful in this case could be family therapy to get to the root of the issue underlying the obesity.
Ramsewak, S., Moty, N., Putteeraj, M., Somanah, J., & Nirmala, L. P. (2022). Parenting style and its effect on eating disorders and substance abuse across the young population. Discover Psychology, 2(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s44202-022-00025-7Links to an external site.
- Posts should be made on a minimum of 3 separate days/dates.
- All faculty replies to students must be responded to directly in the discussion board.
- Minimum posting is:
- Initial discussion board post to the weekly prompt, two peer posts (if there are no faculty postings), or one peer post and a faculty post.
Review the following for integration into your writing/responses: https://campaignforaction.org/issue/fostering-interprofessional-collaboration/Links to an external site.
|Scholarly||13||22%||The student actively stimulates and sustains inquiry by making reflective insightful comments, asking thoughtful questions and/or engaging in a scholarly discussion.The student expresses a clear idea of the topic under discussion and sustains inquiry in order to explore relevant issues.The student recognizes values or values conflict as things that form the assumption basis of arguments and recognizes when it is important to acknowledge these values.The student recognizes the accuracy, logic, relevance, or clarity of statements.The student asks clarifying questions and knows when clarifying questions need to be asked.The student distinguishes fact from opinion.|
|Application||20||33%||All components of discussion prompt addressed (met) in initial posting.The student’s writing conveys an understanding of significant ideas relevant to the issue under discussion. This is indicated by integration of course and weekly objectives, as well as readings from text and articles.All posts should make correct use of terminology, precise selection of the pieces of information required to make a point, correct and appropriate use of examples and counterexamples, demonstrations of which distinctions are important to make, and explanations that are concise and to the point.Information and knowledge are accurate.The student elaborates statements with accurate explanations, reasons, or evidence from the course and/or weekly objectives.All postings integrate scholarly sources to support points consistently.|
|Interactive Dialogue||10||16.6%||Responds to ideas in a way that advances discussion with engagement, depth, rigor, and application.Interacts with a professional tone and is able to express opinions with ownership and without judgement.Chooses to include professional experience to the discussion board mindful of appropriateness and boundaries. Experience is integrated as it supports the discussion board topic and utilizes scholarly references to support overall topic.|
|43||72%||Total CONTENT Points = 43 pts|
|APA||12||20%||In text citations are formatted per APA 7th ed.Reference list is formatted per APA 7th ed.Spelling, grammar, and scholarly tone are per APA 7th ed.|
|Spelling / Grammar etc.||5||8%||Posts should utilize correct spelling and grammar (sentence structure and avoidance of slang or casual language).|
|17||19%||Total FORMAT Points = 17 pts|
|DISCUSSION TOTAL = 60 points|
**To see view the grading criteria/rubric, please click on the 3 dots in the box at the end of the solid gray bar above the discussion board title and then Show Rubric.
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