N 491 Module 2 Assignment Aspen

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Part One: Objectives

The nursing profession has made tremendous progress from the occupational perspective in the 20th century (Wasaya et al., 2021). Hildegard Peplau reported that further progress in this profession is still expected to be recorded and reported in Cyberspace, with the internet being a central pivot for that. The internet will help link nurses to knowledge and information necessary in promoting their practice. Part one of this presentation will cover the definition of Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations, a description of the four phases of Interpersonal relations, and finally, provide the advantages and disadvantages of Peplau’s theory concerning current nursing practice.

Introduction to Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations

Hildegard Peplau originally published the theory of interpersonal relations in the year 1952 (Forchuk, 2021). In 1968, the theory become a core point in providing psychiatric care by nurses. In the journey of developing this theory, Peplau receives great influence from theorists like Percival Symonds, Henry Stack Sullivan, Neal Elger Miller, and Abraham Maslow. The Interpersonal relations theory mainly revolves around the psychodynamics of nursing. The nurse must seek to understand and appreciate her behavior and that of others and employ principles of human relations in satisfying the needs of patients.

Phases of Interpersonal Relations

The nursing model identifies four phases of Peplau’s interpersonal relations theory. The first phase is the orientation phase which involves the nurse engaging the client to determine their health needs and how to help them. The second phase is the identification phase which involves respect building a healthy and respectful relationship with the patient and use of education and skills to satisfy patient needs (Forchuk, 2021). The third phase is the exploitation phase which involves shifting the patients’ behavior by the nurse towards promoting self-care to the point where the nurse’s services are not needed anymore. The last phase is the termination phase where the patient is discharged and moves forward to self-reliance.

Orientation Phase

The orientation phase sets the start of the therapeutic relationship between the patient and the nurse. The nurses greet the patient to set the tone of the relationship and introduce themselves. Open communication is needed at this point with the nurse developing trust with the patient. With active listening and interview, the nurse collects data from the patient regarding their main reason for seeking care services. A therapeutic contract may be necessary at this point to define the role of the nurse and the patient in this therapeutic relationship (Wasaya et al., 2021).

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Identification Phase

In the identification phase, the nurse identifies the reason behind the patient’s visits to the care facility. Peplau identifies the nurse as a non-judgmental resource, teacher, surrogate, and counselor. After defining the patient’s main clinical problem, the nurse identifies the necessary professional assistance and resources required in helping the patient. Therapeutic goals are then set mutually with the nurse and the patient in terms of the nursing diagnosis and care plan (Turkina, 2020). The nurse will be required to work hand in hand with the patient henceforth to ensure that the set therapeutic goals are achieved.

Exploration and Termination Phase

In the third phase, the exploitation phase, the patient makes full use of the care services provided to attain satisfaction. The case services are provided as per the health needs of the patient and their interest. The patient is also involved in the process. The nurse’s objective at this point shifts toward changing the behavior of the patient to solve the problem to the point where the nurse is no longer needed (Wasaya et al., 2021). At this point, the termination phase precedes, where the patient is released from the care of the nurse. This marks the end of the therapeutic relationship. The patient is thus discharged with adequate information and education to support self-care at home

Application of Interpersonal Relations Theory in Current Nursing Practice

Several advantages and disadvantages are associated with the application of the interpersonal relation theory in current nursing practice. starting with the advantages, nurses may be able to promote trust and open communication in the orientation phase. In the identification phase, chronic medical conditions and mental problems can be identified. The exploration phase also provides the nurse with an opportunity to promote patient education and direct them to relevant resources. In the termination phase, the client may be able to take care of themselves upon the termination of the relationship (Forchuk, 2021).

Application of Interpersonal Relations Theory in Current Nursing Practice

On the other hand, in the orientation phase, the environment may not be conducive to open relationships. Consequently, in the identification phase, multiple problems may not be addressed with thin the policies of the healthcare facility (Turkina, 2020). In the exploitation phase, the nurse may refer the patient to chronic care or a psychiatric clinic without being assigned to follow up on the patient. and finally, in the termination phase, all patient issues may not be resolved before releasing the patient.

Part Two: Objectives

Dorothy Orem’s self-care theory was developed between the year 1959 and 2001 (Taalab et al., 2021). The theory was considered a grand nursing theory hence its relevance in promoting current nursing practice. as such, this second part of the presentation will focus on defining Dorothy Orem’s self-care theory and identifying the three parts of the theory. The application of the theory in promoting current nursing practice will also be addressed with the provision of relevant examples.

Introduction to Dorothea Orem’s Theory of Self-Care Deficit

Dorothea Orem’s Theory of Self-Care Deficit was developed between 1959 and 2001, comprising three interrelated theories(Tanaka, 2022). The theory of self-care involves the performance or practice of activities at a personal level to promote an individual’s health and well-being. The self-care deficit theory illustrates the involvement of a nurse, in case the individual is unable or is experiencing challenges with providing self-care for themselves. The theory of the nursing system on the other hand illustrates the methods used in determining the patient’s self-care deficits and defining the role of the nurse and the patient in meeting self-care needs.

The Theory of Self Care

The theory of self-care reinforces the eight basic components of universal self-care, which comprise adequate air intake, adequate water intake, adequate dietary intake, elimination process, and excrements care, attaining activity and rest balance, achieving a balance between social interaction and solitude, prevention from human life hazards impact their functioning and well-being and promoting human development and function within social groups. Deficits in self-care occur in case of illness or medical condition which requires seeking medical attention (Taalab et al., 2021).

Theory of Self-Care Deficit

As mentioned earlier deficits in self-care occur in case of illness or medical condition which requires seeking medical attention. Orem provides five main methods that can be used to resolve this deficit  (Rahayu & S, 2018). Such methods include advocating for other people and helping them promote their health. Providing them with guidance. Providing other people with the necessary support that they need. Providing a conducive environment to promote health and well-being and finally educating others to promote their health literacy on living healthily.

Theory of Nursing System

If a patient is unable to utilize their self-care action, such as in chronic conditions, Orem provides three main methods that can be used to meet the self-care demand of such an individual (Tanaka, 2022). The first method is assessment, where the data is collected regarding the patient’s care needs. The second step is the development of nursing diagnosis based on the collected data and coming up with a care plan. The last step involves implementing the care plan and evaluating treatment outcomes for further alterations to be made.  

Application of Orem’s Theory in Current Nursing Practice

Self-care actions have been considered great preventive measures in promoting the health and well-being of patients. Orem’s theory establishes self-care as per her theory as assessing, initiating, and performing care actions to promote the well-being of the patient (Tanaka, 2022). Nurses utilize Orem’s theory to promote appropriate assessment, diagnostic, treatment, and evaluation skills for a variety of self-care deficits like a chronic infections. Patients also end up learning how to improve their self-care when their health problem has been resolved, to avoid reinfection or recurrence of the disease.

Conclusion (Closing Statement)

            Generally, both Hildegard Peplau and Dorothy Orem have greatly contributed to the advancement of the nursing profession with the use of their theories. Thank you.


Forchuk, C. (2021). From therapeutic relationships to transitional care: a theoretical and practical roadmap. Routledge.

Rahayu, K. D., & S, S. (2018). Theory Implementation of Need for Help Wiedenbach and Self Care Orem in Pregnancy Case with Tuberculosis Multi-Drug Resistance. Journal of Maternity Care and Reproductive Health1(1). https://doi.org/10.36780/jmcrh.v1i1.4

Taalab, A., Qasem, E., Gamal, A., & Ashour, E. (2021). Dependent Care: Applying Orem Self-Care Theory. Menoufia Nursing Journal6(2), 155–170. https://doi.org/10.21608/menj.2021.225860

Tanaka, M. (2022). Orem’s nursing self‐care deficit theory: A theoretical analysis focusing on its philosophical and sociological foundation. Nursing Forum57(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12696

Turkina, N. V. (2020). Interpersonal interaction model by Hildegard Peplau. Медицинская сестра22(6), 20–23. https://doi.org/10.29296/25879979-2020-06-04

Wasaya, F., Shah, Q., Shaheen, A., & Carroll, K. (2021). Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations: A Case Study. Nursing Science Quarterly34(4), 368–371. https://doi.org/10.1177/08943184211031573

Module 2 Assignment


This week you will create a two-part Power Point to discuss the following:

Part one:

Peplau was the first nursing theorist to identify the nurse–patient relationship as being central to all nursing care. Peplau valued knowledge, believing that the nurse must possess extensive knowledge about the potential problems that emerge during a nurse–patient interaction. Peplau’s theoretical work on the nurse–patient relationship continues to be essential to nursing practice.

Describe the phases of the Nurse-Patient relationship as defined by Peplau. Align your presentation regarding the use of Peplau’s theory with a current practice example.

Part two:

Provide a discussion of Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory. Identify and explain the three related parts? Identify a current nursing practice example where Orem’s theory would be relevant. Use at least one evidenced-based research article to support your practice example. The PowerPoint should include at least 3 outside references and the textbook. It should include title and reference slides and be 14-20 slides.

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