*HLT 362 Article Analysis 2 Assignment*

HLT 362 Article Analysis 2 Assignment

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The Study’s Primary Audience The study’s population of interest includes nurses and other healthcare professionals with responsibilities similar to nurses. The study’s target population is cancer patients. The study’s goal is to determine how adult cancer patients who received psychosocial treatment fared. Only patients over the age of 18 were included in the study. The intended audience consists of nurses and patients. Patients and nurses from various healthcare facilities participated in the study. The number of high-quality healthcare outcomes was compared to the number of nurses to assess the impact of treatment processes.

Sample The study included 63 participants. In other words, 63 people, including nurses from various healthcare settings, were recruited for the study. The study’s sample size was 3120 people. Cancer patients identified by study participants in a variety of healthcare settings were among those included. There were 657 people in the sample. This included doctors from various healthcare settings. Participants were also given questionnaires to aid in data collection.

Methodology of Sampling A simple random selection method was used to collect information from study participants. Their records were located, and the necessary biodata was collected. Simple random sampling is one of the most effective methods for gathering information from study participants. A straightforward random sampling

Search the GCU Library and find two new health care articles that use quantitative research. Do not use articles from a previous assignment, or articles that appear in the Topic Materials or textbook.

Complete an article analysis for each using the “Article Analysis: Part 2” template.

Refer to the “Patient Preference and Satisfaction in Hospital-at-Home and Usual Hospital Care for COPD Exacerbations: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial,” in

HLT 362 Article Analysis 2 Assignment conjunction with the “Article Analysis Example 2,” for an example of an article analysis.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

**Read Also: Dissemination of EBP Case Discussion**

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**Topic 1 DQ 1**

Discuss the historical application of statistics in the field of health care. Describe an example, other than Florence Nightingale’s contributions, where statistical application has greatly influenced or changed health care operations or practice.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

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Health Statistics provide information for understanding, monitoring, improving, and planning the use of resources to improve people’s lives, provide services and promote their well-being. Statistics are used in healthcare for research, quality improvement, inequalities in healthcare, risk analysis, inventory management and cost, resource utilization, patient length of stay, patient satisfaction, clinical trials, morbidity and mortality, effects of new treatments, measuring change, laboratory analysis, education, and much more.

Statistics have been utilized in healthcare since at least the 19th century. Florence Nightingale used a statistical approach to decrease the mortality rate of British troops in Crimea. Her meticulous records were a key to present-day statistical quality measurement, and she was an innovator in the collection, tabulation, interpretation, and graphical display of descriptive statistics. She named her visual data display a “Coxcomb,” known today as a pie- chart (Sheingold & Hahn, 2014). Clara Barton applied the same analysis in the United States during the Civil War.

Louis Pasteur applied statistics in his research of microbes and the “germ theory” to create penicillin. This evidence led to the wide-scale adoption of antiseptic practices by physicians and hospitals throughout Europe and eventually in the U.S. Pasteur’s research also led to the development of “pasteurization,” which utilizes heat to destroy harmful microbes in perishable food while leaving the food undamaged (Sheingold & Hahn, 2014).

Dr. Rupert Blue was responsible for providing leadership in America during the worst disease outbreak in U.S. history. The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 killed fifty (50) million or 1/5 of the world’s population, representing more people than died during World War I. During the Influenza Pandemic, Dr. Blue’s quality tools were quarantine, mandatory medical exams for all immigrants entering the country, communication in the form of weekly newsletters that contained information about the latest outbreaks, and the results of influenza research conducted at the Hygienic Laboratory which continues to exist today (Sheingold & Hahn, 2014).

The medical records during the 1918 influenza pandemic inform how we should respond to a similar widespread outbreak of biological disease and provide data on the long-term effects of the flu on a pregnant woman.

Reference:

Sheingold, B. H., Hahn, J. A. (2014). The history of healthcare quality: The first 100 years 1860- 1960. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences. Vol. 1. Pages 18 – 22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijans.2014.05.002

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In 1992, Anderson and May published Infectious Disease of Humans, documenting their work in mathematical modeling transmission of infectious diseases, which was critically important to understanding the ongoing work in fighting the global HIV epidemic, as well as malaria and tuberculosis. Subsequent work on modeling diseases has been used to monitor and model the impact of influenza outbreaks. During the 1990s, laboratory techniques improved enough so that strains of viruses could be mapped and links made to the epidemiologic investigation.

Reference:

Anderson RM, May RM. Infectious diseases of humans: dynamics and control. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1992.

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Hello professor and class,

Statistics is a significant element in healthcare today. Various medical assessments rely heavily on statistics to gather crucial data for enhancing care provision. For instance, statistical measurements like temperature, body mass index, and respiratory rates are used to diagnose various illnesses. Moreover, statistical analyses are carried out on data in electronic health records to identify health issues and plan to address them (Sharples, 2018). Statistical application of healthcare began with the creation of the Royal Statistical Society in 1834, with one of the pioneers of nursing, Florence Nightingale, being a member (CDC, 2011). The health body carried out statistical analysis to understand the epidemiology of diseases and enhance the field of public health. Florence Nightingale and the Royal Statistical Society contributed to the utilization of statistical evidence in healthcare. Statistical evidence was used to identify the reasons for significant death rates and to make informed decisions to improve healthcare provision.

Besides Florence Nightingale, who contributed significantly to the application of statistics in healthcare, other people have contributed to its advancement and utilization. According to CDC (2011), Alexandar Langmuir, a leader of the Center for Disease Control in 1961, emphasized the collection of data and applying the data in healthcare through public health surveillance. Another significant statistical contribution was made by Carl Norden. According to CDC (2011), Carl Norden was the first healthcare professional to implement the t-test in research when carrying out an epidemic-assistance investigation. In the modern-day, health researchers have significantly utilized the t-test in hypothesis testing when carrying out research. James Bryan also contributed to the use of the pie chart in representing data during research. He carried out an epidemic-assistance investigation that utilized data collection through public surveillance, as emphasized by Alexander Langmuir, and utilized the pie chart to portray the data. These contributions have significantly changed healthcare since they have advanced research to enhance the investigation of various health concerns and develop solutions.

**References**

CDC. (2011). *History of statistics in public health at CDC, 1960-2010: The rise of statistical evidence.* History of Statistics in Public Health at CDC, 1960–2010: the Rise of Statistical Evidence

Sharples, L. D. (2018). The role of statistics in the era of big data: Electronic health records for healthcare research. *Statistics & Probability Letters*, *136*, 105-110.

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Hello Yvette,

I really enjoyed reading your discussion post and found it very educative! I for one found finding just one person who changed healthcare, but you went above and beyond to find many more. Statistics play a key role in healthcafre especially when finding new ways to better the clinic and to make new decisions. As you have shown, statistics have been proven to be effective when used properly and are responsible for aiding in countless great accomplishments within healthcare. Overall great post!

**HLT 362V Topic 1 Discussion 1**

Discuss the historical application of statistics in the field of health care. Describe an example, other than Florence Nightingale’s contributions, where statistical application has greatly influenced or changed health care operations or practice.

**HLT362V Topic 1 Discussion 2**

Discuss why it is important for a person working in health care to understand statistical concepts. Provide an example of how statistical data is used in your organization or specialty area today and what you are expected to do with this information as a practitioner.

**HLT 362V TOPIC 2 DISCUSSION 1**

Select a research article, other than the articles from your assignments, from the GCU library. Provide an overview of the study and describe the strategy that was used to select the sample from the population. Evaluate the effectiveness of the sampling method selected. Provide support for your answer. Include the article title and permalink in your post.

**HLT362V Topic 2 Discussion 2**

Using the research article selected for DQ 1, identify three key questions you will ask and answer when reading the research study and why these questions are important. When responding to peers, provide other questions and answers that could be considered in relation to the peers’ studies.

**HLT362V TOPIC 3 DISCUSSION 1**

Provide two different examples of how research uses hypothesis testing, and describe the criteria for rejecting the null hypothesis. Discuss why this is important in your practice and with patient interactions.

**HLT362V Topic 3 Discussion 2**

Evaluate and provide examples of how hypothesis testing and confidence intervals are use together in health care research. Provide a workplace example that illustrates your ideas.

**HLT362V TOPIC 4 DISCUSSION 1**

Provide an example of experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research from the GCU Library and explain how each research type differs from the others. When replying to peers, evaluate the effectiveness of the research design of the study for two of the examples provided.

**HLT362V Topic 4 Discussion 2**

Describe the difference between research and quality improvement. Provide a workplace example where qualitative and quantitative research is …..and how it was use within your organization. When replying to peers, discuss how these research findings might be incorporated into another health care setting.

**HLT362V TOPIC 5 DISCUSSION 1**

Describe how epidemiological data influences changes in health practices. Provide an example and explain what data would be necessary to make a change in practice.

**HLT362V Topic 5 Discussion 2**

Discuss ways your organization uses technology to gather patient and health care information, and how this information and data are use to direct patient care and outcomes.

##### Exercise 14

**Understanding Simple Linear Regression**

- According to the study narrative and Figure 1 in the Flannigan et al. (2014) study, does the APLS UK formulae under- or overestimate the weight of children younger than 1 year of age? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Using the values a = 3.161 and b = 0.502 with the novel formula in Figure 1, what is the … weight in kilograms (kg) for a child at 9 months of age? Show your calculations.
- Using the values a = 3.161 and b = 0.502 with the novel formula in Figure 1, what is the … weight in kilograms for a child at 2 months of age? Show your calculations.
- In Figure 2, the formula for calculating y (weight in kg) is Weight in kg = (0.176 × age in months) + 7.241. Identify the y intercept and the slope in this formula.
- Using the values a = 7.241 and b = 0.176 with the novel formula in Figure 2, what is the … weight in kilograms for a child 3 years of age? Show your calculations.
- Using the values a = 7.241 and b = 0.176 with the novel formula in Figure 2, what is the … weight in kilograms for a child 5 years of age? Show your calculations.
- In Figure 3, some of the actual mean weights represented by the blue line with squares are above the dotted straight line for the novel formula, but others are below the straight line. Is this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- In Figure 3, the novel formula is (Weight in kilograms = (0.331 × Age in months) – 6.868. What is the predicted weight in kilograms for a child 10 years old? Show your calculations.
- Was the sample size of this study adequate for conducting simple linear regression? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Describe one potential clinical advantage and one potential clinical problem with using the three novel formulas presented in Figures 1, 2, and 3 in a PICU setting.

##### Exercise 19

**Understanding Pearson Chi-Square**

- According to the relevant study results section of the Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study, what categories are reported to be statistically significant?
- What level of measurement is appropriate for calculating the χ2 statistic? Give two exam¬ples from Table 2 of demographic variables measured at the level appropriate for χ2.
- What is the χ2 for U.S. practice region? Is the χ2 value statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. X2= 29.68; p= <.00
- What is the df for provider type? Provide a rationale for why the df for provider type pre¬sented in Table 2 is correct.
- Is there a statistically significant difference for practice setting between the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services (RAAPS) users and nonusers? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- State the null hypothesis for provider age in years for RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers.
- Should the null hypothesis for provider age in years developed for Question 6 be accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Describe at least one clinical advantage and one clinical challenge of using RAAPS as described by Darling-Fisher et al. (2014).
- How many null hypotheses are rejected in the Darling-Fisher et al. (2014) study for the results presented in Table 2? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- A statistically significant difference is present between RAAPS users and RAAPS nonusers for U.S. practice region, χ2 = 29.68. Does the χ2 result provide the location of the difference? Provide a rationale for your answer.

##### Exercise 29

**Calculating Simple Linear Regression**

- If you have access to SPSS, compute the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality for the variable age (as demonstrated in Exercise 26). If you do not have access to SPSS, plot the frequency distributions by hand. What do the results indicate?
- State the null hypothesis where age at enrollment is used to predict the time for comple¬tion of an RN to BSN program.
- What is b as computed by hand (or using SPSS)?
- What is a as computed by hand (or using SPSS)?
- Write the new regression equation.
- How would you characterize the magnitude of the obtained R2 value? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- How much variance in months to RN to BSN program completion is explained by knowing the student’s enrollment age?
- What was the correlation between the actual y values and the predicted y values using the new regression equation in the example?
- Write your interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal.
- Given the results of your analyses, would you use the calculated regression equation to predict future students’ program completion time by using enrollment age as x? Provide a rationale for your answer.

**HLT 362V Module 1 Mean Variance Standard Deviation**

Please type you answer in the cell beside the question.

- Identify the sampling technique being used. Every 20th patient that comes into the emergency room is given a satisfaction survey upon their discharge.
- random sampling
- cluster sampling
- systematic sampling
- stratified sampling
- none of the above
- The formula for finding the sample mean is ______________.
- The formula for finding sample standard deviation is ________________.

** **

**HLT 362V Module 1 Exercise 16 Done**

1- The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement? (Your choices are: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval/ratio, or Experimental)

2- What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?

3- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4- Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.

5- Which group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

6 – Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

7 – The mean (X ̅) is a measure of a distribution while the SD is a measure of its scores. Both X ̅ and SD are statistics.

8 – What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the severity scores vary significantly between the control and the experimental groups? Is this important? Provide a rationale for your answer.

9 – Which variable was least affected by the empowerment program? Provide a rationale for your answer.

10 – Was it important for the researchers to include the total means and SDs for the study variables in Table 2 to promote the readers’ understanding of the study results? Provide a rationale for your answer.

**HLT 362V M2 Population Sampling Distribution**

For a normal distribution that has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 8. Determine the Z-score for each of the following X values:

X = 108

X = 112

X = 98

X = 70

X = 124

Use the information in 1 A to determine the area or probability of the following:

P(x > 108)

P(x

HLT362 Week 3 Quiz.docx practice exam questions with answers 2021 solution

If you are conducting a study on the impacts of diet and exercise on high blood pressure and you take a

proportional sample based upon race/ethnicity, this would be an example of: ok

Simple random sample

Cluster sampling

Stratified sampling

Convenience sampling

• If a researcher does not select the appropriate level of significance (alpha) based upon prior

research or industry standard and concludes that the study found a statistical difference when in

fact there was no difference, this is referred to as: ok

Validity

Reliability

Type I error

Type II error

• To obtain a sample of 20 patients in ICU, clinician goes to the ICU and selects the current

patients. This is an example of a: ok

Judgement sampling

Simple random sampling

Snowball sampling