FNU How We Can Improve Accurate Detection And Treatment Of ADHD Discussion Questions

Sample Answer for FNU How We Can Improve Accurate Detection And Treatment Of ADHD Discussion Questions Included After Question

FNU How We Can Improve Accurate Detection And Treatment Of ADHD Discussion Questions

FNU How We Can Improve Accurate Detection And Treatment Of ADHD Discussion Questions

Question: How Can We Improve Accurate Detection And Treatment Of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)?

Assessing children and adults for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can offer crucial insight into one’s functioning and, thereby, guide life-impacting treatment decisions. These include providing input into educational interventions, determining eligibility for disability requirements, and evaluating therapeutic or scholastic outcomes.

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Finding and utilizing reliable assessment tools – along with therapeutic supports to efficiently address ADHD – is key. This process begins with understanding the multitude of factors that can impact an ADHD diagnosis:

  • high prevalence rates (more on this below)
  • concerns about over-diagnosis
  • the adverse influence ADHD can have on functioning at home, school, work, and in social relationships
  • the fact that ADHD often coincides with another disorder.

These factors collectively provide an impetus for developing and implementing measures that can accurately diagnose this condition from the onset. This article reviews widely recommended professional guidelines in the scientific literature – that is, best practices – to assess ADHD and the limitations often faced with evaluating ADHD.

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Prevalence and Costs Associated with ADHD

ADHD is the most common behavioral condition seen in children and adolescents in the United States, affecting 10% of those ages 4 to 17 years old. Compare this to 7% seen in 1998 to 2000 and a worldwide prevalence rate of 5%, the latter explained by different diagnostic instruments and guidelines and access to healthcare.¹

It is notable that incidence rates increase with age. Estimates of ADHD among those 10 to 17 years old are almost twice as high as those for children 5 to 9 years old.¹

In 2013, US healthcare expenditures for ADHD totaled $23 billion.² Societal costs – such as healthcare, education, and reduced family productivity associated with childhood ADHD – have been estimated to range from $38 billion to $72 billion per year.³

Long-term studies show that “children and adolescents with ADHD are more likely to experience a variety of negative outcomes compared to their peers without the disorder, including lower academic attainment, impaired social functioning, increased risk of hospital admissions and injuries, increased substance use and risk of a substance use disorder, and reduced income and participation in labor markets as adults.

A Sample Answer 3 For the Assignment: FNU How We Can Improve Accurate Detection And Treatment Of ADHD Discussion Questions

Title: FNU How We Can Improve Accurate Detection And Treatment Of ADHD Discussion Questions

ADHD is now more accurately viewed as a neurodevelopmental disorder. This conceptualization has been widely supported by more than two decades of research noting how the condition often, but not always, is diagnosed in childhood and is intricately connected to brain-behavior relationships involving executive functioning (eg, attention, impulse control, self-regulation, organization/planning, and working memory) that presents differently across the lifespan. The American Psychological Association recognized and codified these distinctions in the DSM-5.

This shift in appreciating the connection between executive functioning and ADHD over the past 20-plus years has translated to the development of neuropsychological batteries to evaluate the disorder. In addition, current understandings have influenced targeted areas measured in continuous performance tests and led to appreciable revisions of rating scales. (See Table I below on the various assessment tools available.)

A challenge with diagnosing ADHD is that the characteristics associated with the disorder – such as difficulties with focusing, shifting/dividing attention, managing frustration, organization/poor time-management, working memory, and staying engaged – are common symptoms that could have a breadth of etiologies.

As noted, more often than not, ADHD coincides with another disorder. As per a national 2016 parent survey, 6 in 10 children with ADHD had at least one other mental, emotional, or behavioral disorder.⁹ The most common co-occurring conditions reported with ADHD include:⁹

  • 52% behavioral or conduct problems
  • 33% anxiety disorders
  • 17% depression
  • 14% autism spectrum disorder
  • 1% Tourette syndrome

A small percentage (1.0%) of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with ADHD also had a parent-reported current substance use disorder (SUD).

Clinicians Involved in ADHD Diagnosis

Assessment of ADHD is conducted within a wide range of professions, that include, but are not limited to:

  • clinical psychologists
  • school psychologists
  • neuropsychologists
  • psychiatrists
  • neurologists
  • pediatricians/neurodevelopmental pediatricians
  • internists/family physicians.

Evidence-Based ADHD Assessment: False Positives and False Negatives

Regardless of the healthcare expert charged with diagnosing/evaluating potential ADHD, a well-regarded and arguably gold standard approach is using an evidenced-based assessment that involves adherence to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria along with the inclusion of multi-informant/multimethod methods. Such methods should incorporate empirically validated research and, when possible, test data about key clinical populations to guide and increase confidence with clinical impressions.

With all assessment measures, an overriding goal is to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the instrument. Sensitivity is the ability of a test, such as a rating scale, to correctly identify those with the condition, whereas specificity is the ability of a test to correctly identify people without the condition. These statistics are of particular concern with ADHD given its impact across the lifespan.

Erroneous diagnostic impressions have real-world consequences. A false negative could impede necessary treatment efforts (eg, academic/occupational accommodations, medication, counseling) for one who is struggling at home, school, or work. False-positive errors can lead to inappropriate provisions of medication, academic accommodations, diminish educational resources, as well as provide an unfair advantage to those without disabilities.¹⁰˒¹

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires alot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

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I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource

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