DNP 420 TOPIC 4 DQ 2

DNP 420 TOPIC 4 DQ 2

DNP 420 TOPIC 4 DQ 2

Compare and contrast qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research. What are the differences in approaches?  Reflect on the “Level of Evidence Plus Critical Appraisal of Its Quality Yields Confidence to Implement Evidence-Based Practice Changes”editorial article, located in the topic Resources. Which levels and criteria would be most appropriate when choosing primary research for a literature review? What are important criteria to consider to support your evidence-based project intervention?

Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research are comparable in that they all provide analysis of data however they differ based on the approach used to collect data. Qualitative data focuses on personal views, literature, and non-numerical data. Data found by interviews, focus groups, observations, cultural records, personal records, and documents are examples of qualitative data that is then interpreted. Quantitative data is a data collection process that tests processes among variables that yield numeric data. Data found by experiments, surveys, database reports, and questionnaires are used for numerical analysis. The questionnaires in quantitative data have yes/no or numerical answers in order to obtain numerical data whereas questionnaires or interviews during qualitative analysis uses open-ended questions that are either unstructured or semi-structured (What is qualitative vs. Quantitative Study? n.d.). Furthermore, researchers utilize a mixed-method research approach to examine both qualitative and quantitative aspects of a study. This type of research has increased within the healthcare setting and has demonstrated strengths in obtaining data to discover diverse perspectives and relationships based on the research question (Shorten & Smith, 2017). 

Melnyk (2016) describes critical analysis of research in primary research to comply with a valid PICOT question. Primary research studies must have quantitative data that support the PICOT question. Quantitative studies that can be utilized as primary research include randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case control studies, mixed-method studies, and a pilot/quality improvement study. Primary research articles will demonstrate critical aspects in order to support the evidence-based project intervention. For instance, critical appraisal of articles can be evaluated by tools such as the Rapid Critical Appraisal of Systematic Reviews of Clinical Interventions/Treatments. This tool enables the DNP learner to evaluate validity, type of research, methodology quality, results, individual patient data, intervention size, level of significance, similarity of patients from own DPI versus study group, feasibility, clinically important outcomes, risk and benefits of treatment, contraindications to implementation, and patient and/or family preferences and values to treatment (Melnyk, 2016). It is important to ensure the EBP intervention is valid, has positive patient outcomes, and resembles aspects in the tool mentioned above. 

Melnyk, B. M. (2016). Level of evidence plus critical appraisal of its quality yields confidence to implement evidence-based practice changes. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 13(5), 337-339. 

Online Nursing Essays

Struggling to Meet Your Deadline?

Get your assignment on DNP 420 TOPIC 4 DQ 2 done on time by medical experts. Don’t wait – ORDER NOW!

Shorten, A., & Smith, J. (2017). Mixed methods research: Expanding the evidence base. Evidence Based Nursing20(3), 74–75. https://doi.org/10.1136/eb-2017-102699 

What is qualitative vs. Quantitative Study? GCU. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2022, from https://www.gcu.edu/blog/doctoral-journey/what-qualitative-vs-quantitative-study 

I agree with you that qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research are comparable in that they all provide analysis of data. However, these research methods are contrasting properties that make them different. The difference determines suitability of these research methods to different research. Qualitative data focuses on personal views, literature, and non-numerical data (Rivero Jiménez et al., 2021). The focus also differentiate the type of data and presentation. For instance, qualitative data is represented in non-numerical format whereas quantitative data is purely in numerical form. Mixed-method research is unique as both numerical and non-numerical data can be used. Quantitative research obtains data by interviews, focus groups, observations, cultural records, and personal records.  Frequently, quantitative data is considered to be organic and first-hand information (Cheek et al., 2021). As a result, quantitative research is prioritized in providing the most accurate data. The questionnaires in quantitative data have yes/no or numerical answers in order to obtain numerical data whereas questionnaires or interviews during qualitative analysis uses open-ended questions that are either unstructured or semi-structured. In healthcare settings, healthcare professionals can use different research methods.

References

Cheek, J. (2021). Maintaining the integrity of qualitatively driven mixed methods: Avoiding the “this work is part of a larger study” syndrome. Qualitative Health Research31(6), 1015-1018. https://doi.org/10.1177/10497323211003546

Rivero Jiménez, B., Conde-Caballero, D., & Juárez, L. M. (2021). Loneliness among the elderly in rural contexts: a mixed-method study protocol. International Journal of Qualitative Methods20, 1609406921996861. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406921996861

Qualitative research is naturalistic, interpretative approach concerned with understanding the meanings which people attach to phenomena (actions, decisions, beliefs, values etc.) within their social worlds. Qualitative research is subjective and uses different methods of collecting information, including individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups discussion. Qualitative research collects, analyzes, and interprets data by observing what people do and speak. The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open-ended. Qualitative research can provide insight which is not possible to elucidate with purely quantitative data. It is a means for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to social or human problems, and attitudes human behavior and social world. Qualitative research answer questions on: Why people behave the way they do? How are opinions and attitudes formed? How are people affected by the events that go on around them? How and why cultures have developed? (Berg, B. L, 2017).

Quantitative research method deals with numbers and anything that is measurable in a systematic way of investigation of phenomenon and their relationships. It is used to answer questions on relationships within measurable variables with an intention to explain, predict and control phenomena. Quantitative research is ‘explaining phenomenon by collection numerical data that are analyzed using mathematically based methods. Quantitative research is controlled, obstructive, objective and product oriented which aims at quantifying the variation of certain situation, issue, even or phenomenon. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and /or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena (Berg, B. L, 2017).

And mixed method research is when single research makes use of both qualitative and quantitative research methods, the study is said to be mixed methods research. Mixed methods strategically integrate or combines rigorous quantitative and qualitative research methods to draw on the strengths of each. Mixed method approaches allow researchers to use a diversity of methods, combining inductive and deductive thinking, and offsetting limitations of exclusively quantitative and qualitative research through a complementary approach that maximizes strengths of each data type and facilitates a more comprehensive understanding of health issues and potential resolutions. Mixed methods may be employed to produce a robust description and interpretation of the data, make quantitative results more understandable, or understand broader applicability of small-sample qualitative findings. Creswell (2017) suggests that mixed methods research is an approach in which the researcher collects analyses and interprets both quantitative and qualitative data, integrates the two approaches in various ways and frames the study within a specific design (Johnson BR, 2017).

Level II systematic review and meta-analysis would be most appropriate. Systematic review is a comprehensive review of existing literature which involves analyzing all articles related to the research question and summarizing findings. Researchers then make recommendations for clinical practice based on evidence from articles reviewed. While meta-analysis is the use of statistical methods to summarize the results of independent studies. By combining information from all relevant studies, meta-analysis can provide more precise estimates of the effects of health care than those derived from the individual studies included within a review (Shea BJ, et al, 2017).

References

Berg, B. L., (2017). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Creswell, J. W. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Johnson BR. Dialectical pluralism: A metaparadigm whose time has come. Journal of Mixed Methods Research. 2017;11:156–173. doi: 10.1177/1558689815607692.

Shea BJ, Reeves BC, Wells G, et al. AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. Bmj 2017;358:j4008. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4008

RESPOND HERE

ELSIE I agree with you that qualitative research seeks to understand the meanings that people attach to phenomena. As a result, the research method uses interviews, filling of questionnaires, and observation in data collection. At the same time, qualitative research provides detailed information in non-numerical format (Bressan et al., 2020). Qualitative research collects, analyzes, and interprets data by observing what people do and speak. The researcher may as well use secondary data to get information on people’s behaviors and decisions. Qualitative research answer questions on: Why people behave the way they do? How are opinions and attitudes formed? On the other hand, quantitative research is guided by the research question. Quantitative research method deals with numbers and anything that is measurable in a systematic way of investigation of phenomenon and their relationships (Sirin et al., 2021). Therefore experiments, interviews, and literature reviewing can be used to obtain data in quantitative research. Mixed method research incorporates both qualitative and quantitative studies. Using mixed-method research may be complex to other healthcare workers since the method incorporates two unique other methods enjoined.

References

Bressan, V., Visintini, C., & Palese, A. (2020). What do family caregivers of people with dementia need? A mixed‐method systematic review. Health & Social Care in the Community28(6), 1942-1960.  https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13048

Sirin, H., Ahmadi, A. A., Ketrez, G., Ozbeyaz, C., Dikmen, A. U., & Ozkan, S. (2021). Assessment of anxiety in elderly population during the COVID‐19 pandemic and the impact of compulsory home‐stay in the central districts of Ankara, Turkey: A quantitative, qualitative mixed method study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry36(11), 1785-1794.  https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.5600

Topic 4 DQ 2

Compare and contrast qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research.

Qualitative Research: This is a process of naturalistic inquiry that seek an in-depth understanding of social phenomena that relies on data obtained from first hand observation, interviews, questionnaires or participant groups made in the natural settings (Venkatesh, et al., 2013). Qualitative approaches include ethnography, action-assessment, grounded theory, case studies and mixed methods. Qualitative research uses data from interviews (semi-structured or unstructured), focus groups, observations or written materials. Data analysis is inductive, allowing meaning to emerge from the data (Venkatesh, et al., 2013).

Quantitative Research: This focuses on quantifying the collection and analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaire, surveys, or manipulation of pre-existing statistical data formed from using computational techniques and deductive approach where emphasis is placed on the testing of theory. Our DPI-research studies allow us to use comparative, quasi-experimental, and experimental quantitative research studies (Venkatesh, et al., 2013).

Mixed-method Research: This combines quantitative and qualitative research methods in the same research inquiry which helps to develop rich insights into various phenomena of interest (Venkatesh, et al., 2013). Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method research are based on concepts such as reliability, validity, statistical power, bias, and generalizability.

What are the differences in approaches?

Comparing quantitative and qualitative research according to Kisely & Kendall, (2011).

Methodology: Quantitative research studies uses case-controlled studies, cohorts, or randomized control trials. Qualitative research studies use action-assessment, grounded theory, and mixed methods (Kisely & Kendall, 2011).

Data sources: Quantitative research studies investigations, structured and semi structured interviews, validated questionnaires, tests and investigations. Qualitative research studies use observations such as interviews and focus groups, and document analysis (Kisely & Kendall, 2011).

Sampling, Sample size, and Analysis: Quantitative research studies uses random, power calculations, saturation, descriptive, univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses. Qualitative research studies use purposive; theoretical, and thematic analyses.

Applicability to other settings: Quantitative research studies use generalizability in the study while qualitative research studies use transferability

Software: Quantitative research studies uses SPSS, SAS, Stata while qualitative research studies use NVivo, NUD * ST

Data quality: Quantitative research studies uses Internal and external validity; reliability qualitative research studies use transcription of interviews, trustworthiness, triangulation, thick description, considering the Hawthorne effect, member checking, and audit trails (Kisely & Kendall, 2011).

Ethical issues: Quantitative research studies may have conflict of interest, problems with sources of funding, transference, and counter-transference while qualitative research studies have problems with reflexivity (Kisely & Kendall, 2011).

Which levels and criteria would be most appropriate when choosing primary research for a literature review?

Level I Systematic review/meta-analysis which is original research and comprises of synthesis of evidence from all relevant RCTs and other studies. This involves guidelines from experts and renowned research organizations such as Diabetes Associations, Endocrinology associations, or Agency of health care and research association. Level II which involves actual research based on randomized controlled trial (RCT), an experiment in which participants are randomized to a treatment or control group is good too (Melnyk, 2016).

What are important criteria to consider to support your evidence-based project intervention?

The criteria for to consider that is acceptable research to support the Doctor of Nursing Practice Project (Direct Practice Improvement-DPI) and my evidence-based project intervention include, methodology and design must be present, p-value is present, and a sample size of at least 30 participants. The research studies should have clinical significance to the population impacted. Case studies, reports, expert opinions, editorials, animal, or lab studies permitted, Master’s Thesis and/or Doctoral Dissertations are not allowed because the intervention is coming from the scientific evidence rather than someone else’s opinion of the evidence (Grand Canyon University, 2022).

Reference

Kisely, S., & Kendall, E. (2011). Critically appraising qualitative research: a guide for clinicians more familiar with quantitative techniques. Australasian Psychiatry, 19 (4), 364-367. Retrieved from https://eds-s-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&sid=a833c2c0-7060-4d6e-bd58-ee9e5923b26b%40redis

Melnyk, B. M. (2016). Level of Evidence Plus Critical Appraisal of Its Quality Yields Confidence to Implement Evidence-Based Practice Changes. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 13(5), 337-339. Retrieved from https://web-s-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=055dca5d-302e-435f-9b1f-a8b4ce471b78%40redis

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S. A., Bala, H. (2013). Bridging the Qualitative-Quantitative Divide: Guidelines for Conducting Mixed Methods Research in Informatics Systems. MIS Quarterly, 37 (1), 21-54. Retrieved from dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.25300/MISQ/2013/37.1.02

Grand Canyon University (2022). Criteria for Acceptable Research to Support the Doctor of Nursing Practice Project (Direct Practice Improvement-DPI).

it is true that qualitative research is a process of naturalistic inquiry that seek an in-depth understanding of social phenomena. The process relies on data obtained from first hand observation, interviews, questionnaires or participant groups made in the natural settings. Qualitative research seeks to get the meaning of certain phenomena such as people’s choices and decisions (Ramlo, 2020). Data analysis is inductive, allowing meaning to emerge from the data. The data is represented in non-numerical format. As a result, some people understanding the text used in qualitative study compared to numerical data in quantitative research. Quantitative research collect data through polls, questionnaire, surveys, or manipulation of pre-existing statistical data formed from using computational techniques (Sykes et al., 2018).  Quantitative research uses research question to shape the research process. Mixed-method research combines quantitative and qualitative research methods in the same research inquiry. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method research are based on concepts such as reliability, validity, statistical power, bias, and generalizability.

References

Ramlo, S. E. (2020). Divergent viewpoints about the statistical stage of a mixed method: Qualitative versus quantitative orientations. International Journal of Research & Method in Education43(1), 93-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743727X.2019.1626365

Sykes, B. L., Verma, A., & Hancock, B. H. (2018). Aligning sampling and case selection in quantitative-qualitative research designs: Establishing generalizability limits in mixed-method studies. Ethnography19(2), 227-253. https://doi.org/10.1177/1466138117725341

Don’t wait until the last minute

Fill in your requirements and let our experts deliver your work asap.