COMPARE AND CONTRAST TWO CHANGE THEORIES, AND DETERMINE WHICH THEORY MAKES THE MOST SENSE FOR IMPLEMENTING YOUR SPECIFIC EBP INTERVENTION NRS 493

COMPARE AND CONTRAST TWO CHANGE THEORIES, AND DETERMINE WHICH THEORY MAKES THE MOST SENSE FOR IMPLEMENTING YOUR SPECIFIC EBP INTERVENTION NRS 493

Topic 4 DQ 2

Compare and contrast two change theories, and determine which theory makes the most sense for implementing your specific EBP intervention. Why? Has your preceptor used either theory, and to what result?

One change theory, very widely used in nursing, is Lewin’s Change Theory. Lewin developed the change model to illustrate how people react when facing changes in their lives. The three stages of this process include unfreezing (the person has an existing state), moving or changing towards new ways of being, and then refreezing into a new state. The theory has barriers and facilitators, referred to as driving and resistant forces. Driving forces facilitate change because they push the person in the desired direction. For this theory to be successful the facilitating factors must overcome barriers and resistance (Current Nursing, 2020). 

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Kotter’s Eight-Step Change Model, created in 1995, includes the following change management steps: create a sense of urgency for change, form a guiding change team, create a vision and plan for change, communicate the change vision and plan with stakeholders, remove change barriers, provide short-term wins, build on the change, and make the change stick in the culture. According to Kotter change happens when at least 75% of employees are convinced that change is necessary. This sense of urgency is developed among employees by “change leaders” with a focus on what are new realities, what are threats and new opportunities. In this theory, the vision for change needs to be agreed upon Barrow, Annamaraju &Toney-Butler, 2021). 

Lewin and Kotter’s theories both must overcome resistance for change to occur. Lewin’s theory, more generalized, is described in three steps as opposed to Knotter’s whose theory put emphasis on organizations, highlighting teamwork and coalition formation.  

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References 

Barrow, J. M., Annamaraju, P., & Toney-Butler, T. J. (2021). Change Management. StatPearls StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459380 

Current Nursing. (2020). Change Theory – Kurt Lewin.  https://www.currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/change_theory.html 

Kitty Gay

Posted Date

May 13, 2022, 11:15 PM

Replies to Sharia Jones

Kurt Lewin not only has a nursing theory, he is considered the father of social psychology and the designer of the nursing model known as Change Theory and it his original theory which others have used as a foundation. (Petiprin, 2020). Lewin’s Change Theory is known as the “unfreeze-change-refreeze model” with 3-concepts or steps which are the “driving forces, restraining forces and equilibrium” per Petiprin (2020). The key points of Lewin’s change model is compelling forces, “restraining forces and equilibrium” (Petiprin, 2020).

Step 1 = “Unfreeze”: to put aside old ways of doing things. Helping people to do away with old patters or habits, increasing the key need to readdress away from the something has always been done.

Step 2 – “Change” in ways of thinking, acting and/or feeling that is a more productive manner.

Step 3 = “Refreeze” establishing solid actions, ways of doing things or habits in such (firm/solid/established) way that the actions, thoughts or feeling replace the prior. If this is not fully established the olde ways shall become new again ~ not actually replaced per Petiprin, 2020. (side thought: if no fresh trays and water for the “icecubes of life”…trays of ice just left on the counter and melted, but not really dealt with ~ using the same olde water, not a fresh source for fresh cubes to be created)

           Lippitt has a Seven-Step Change Theory that has the foundation of Levin’s change theory [er .

Step 1: Acknowledge (Diagnosis) the problem: come to grips as to the issue or problem by looking at information, data or the big picture to assess what needs to be and that whoever shall be affected by the change is committed to the outcome needed.

Step 2: “Assess the change agent’s motivation and capability for change”: assess what shall be needed to in the process of achieving the change.

Step 3: “Assess the change agent’s motivation, resources, experiences, stamina and dedication”

Step 4: “Select progressive change objectives”: assess what needs to be done, what is needed to achieve accomplish it and how to go about it to get it done.

Step 5: “Explain the role of the change agent to all employees” to assure everyone fully comprehends what is needed and expected of them.

Step 6: “Maintain change”: encourage and welcome interaction from employees

Step 7: “Gradually terminate the helping relationship of the change agent”: due to a full understanding and utilization of change incorporated, the change agent shall not be needed, as the employees shall fully realize the importance of the changes made and shall “take ownership” going forward and sharing the information/new ways/procedures/interventions with others. (per Wisconsin Technical Manner, n.d.)

           The comparison is that Lippitt’s change theory made use of the foundation of Levin’s change theory which was concise and to the point and branched it out to expound upon it, creating a more detailed set of steps (WTCS, n.d.). Although it seems too many steps, Lippitt’s 7-Step Change Theory seems to make most sense, especially in the light of out-patient care regarding Covid-19 at the site of my preceptorship and capstone. The site I am at does not utilize either theory, yet verbalized Lippitt’s theory would work well in most medical settings.  

Resources

Petiprin, A. (2020). Kurt Lewin – Nursing theorist. Nursing Theory. https://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Kurt-Lewin.php

Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) . (n.d.). https://wtcs.pressbooks.pub/nursingmpc/chapter/4-3-implementing-change/#footnote-993-1

  •  

Stacy Moore

replied toKitty Gay

May 14, 2022, 7:13 AM

·  Replies to Kitty Gay

Hello Kitty,

The three stages that make up the Lewin theory of change are known as “unfreezing,” “moving,” and “refreezing.” It argues that the cycle will ultimately repeat itself because unfreezing occurs when there is a requirement for change, movement occurs while change is occurring, and refreezing occurs when change is stabilized, and equilibrium has been achieved. Because of this, forces are set in motion that either encourage or discourage change (Petiprin, 2020).

1. Unfreezing (when change is needed).

2. Moving (when change is initiated).

3. Refreezing (when equilibrium is established).

The approach proposed by Lewin is highly logical, goal- and plan-oriented. It does not take into consideration personal circumstances, which are a potential driving force for change. On the other hand, the change hypothesis developed by Prochaska and DiClemente It outlines a change process that is more generic, and as a result, it is less particular. It suggests that rather than going around the problem, people should learn from their past mistakes by reflecting on such experiences. My preceptor claims that she frequently makes use of Lewin’s and Lippet’s change theories when she wants to launch a change since these theories are highly persuasive and drive people to change. Additionally, the theories assist her in recognizing any and all types of resistance that may impede the process of change implementation.

Reference:

Petiprin, A. (2020). Kurt Lewin – Nursing theorist. Nursing Theoryhttps://nursing-theory.org/nursing-theorists/Kurt-Lewin.php

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