Assignment Evaluation Of Research Ethics
Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics
|Article Citation and Permalink
|Matthews, F. E., Stephan, B. C., Robinson, L., Jagger, C., Barnes, L. E., Arthur, A., … & Dening, T. (2016). A two-decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II. Nature communications, 7, 11398. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms11398|
|Point||The quantitative article elaborates on the global increase in the number of people who have dementia. There is the use of quantitative approaches to establish the prevalence of dementia among different populations. The authors use various statistical tests to institute and determine changes over the given time on dementia incidences. The article utilizes the MRC Cognitive Function as well as the Ageing Study to address some aspects of the research. Through the use of data collected in different areas of study, the authors can predict the global increase in the future number of individuals who have dementia. According to the article, there is a lack of multicentre population-based research that have detected changes over a given period on the incidences of dementia. Also, the article entails data analysis and interpretation processes; the researchers or the authors elaborate on the methodology used in the processes of data collection and how the analysis was done to prove the hypotheses and to provide answers to the research questions. The article consists of elaborate analysis and there is also the use of data to support the claims. The discussion in the article answers the research questions. Also, the article proves the hypothesis and provides an elaborate discussion of the findings. The algorithmic approach to diagnosis is also available in the research, without the variability likely to be present whenever those subject to the changes in diagnostic practices over time are involved in the diagnosis.
|Broad Topic Area/Title||
The title of the article is A two-decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II.
Going by the title, the study’s findings suggest that the population’s brain health is changing, probably profoundly, across generations, and the situation is likely to be unfavorably affected by the risk factors related to the disadvantages. According to the authors, the positive changes that have been experienced across Europe may become limited to the nations that have had some of the major investments in population health (Fleiner, 2017).
(What is the problem research is addressing?)
|Dementia continues to be one of the major health problems across the world. With the increasing number of the older generation, the condition has become a major international interest with succeeding reports indicating large increases globally in the next few decades. With the increasing governmental concerns as well as the 2013 G8 Summit, there has been an increased risk, lack of better treatment and diagnosis of the dementia syndrome (Matthews et al., 2016). The emerging studies indicate that the incidences of dementia can be changeable in different generations with both increases and decreases reported. With the increasing risk factors, the diagnosis processes, as well as the treatment mechanism, continues to become a challenge. The complications that arise due to the nature of various dementia conditions require continuous and elaborate education and training to the nurses. The dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge enables nurses to gain knowledge and confidence to achieve effective patient outcomes (Chiao, Wu, & Hsiao, 2015). Patients who have dementia often experience challenges as a result of several adverse events resulting in the geriatric syndromes of delirium, falls and loss of function with the increased time of stay in the hospital as well as the increased mortality. Some of the contributing factors to the above problems include insufficient treatments and assessment, discrimination, inappropriate interventions, lack of staff training and a low number of staff or medical professionals within the healthcare facilities (Cipriani et al., 2016).
(What is the purpose of the study?)
The purpose of the study is to indicate the comparison between the cognitive function and the ageing studies I and II. Also, the study aims at establishing the dementia incidence rates among the study participants. Finally, the quantitative research aims at showing if there are consensus clinical practice and research studies on patients with dementia.
(What questions does the research seek to answer?)
|ü Does the prevalence of dementia-related to age and sex?
ü What are the health factors related to dementia
ü Is there consensus in clinical practice and research studies on patients with dementia?
(Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used)
|Null Hypotheses (Ho): The prevalence of dementia is not related to the age and sex
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The prevalence of dementia is related to both the age and sex of the patients.
|Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables||Dependent variable: Prevalence of Dementia; the data under this variable is continuous and normally distributed.
Independent Variable: Age or sex; in case of sex, the variable would be categorical. On the other hand, if the variable is age, the data would be continuous with a normal distribution.
|The population of Interest for Study||In the study, the population samples of people aged 65 years and over, followed by an assessment interview in 20%, were conducted in five geographical areas of the UK
|Sample||From the quantitative research, the sample size was 7,762. Out of the above number of people, only 5, 288 were involved in the re-interview process. Therefore, all the above number of people or study participants could be used to determine or calculate the incidence directly. In the process of conducting the study, a total of 1, 830 study participants, constituting 24% were lost between the waves, on the other hand, there was 643 death constituting 8% of the original participants. The response rate among the individuals who were still alive in the course of wave 2 was 74% (Matthews et al., 2016).|
|Sampling Method||To ensure detailed data for the processes of analysis, the researchers employed random population sampling.|
|Identify Data Collection
Identify how data were collected
|There was use of questionnaires to carry out surveys during data collection. The figures collected were then recorded in the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to enhance data cleaning processes.|
|Summarize Data Collection Approach||
The methodology in the research involved the application of questionnaires in data collection; the data were collected from all the respondents or study participants selected for the study.
|Discuss Data Analysis
Include what types of statistical tests were used for the variables.
|From the data collected, given that there were continuous variables with the normal distribution, the t-test was the ideal approach to prove the hypothesis above. Both paired sample t-tests and independent sample t-tests were used by the researcher to answer the research questions and to test the hypothesis. The methodology in the research involved the application of questionnaires in data collection; the data were collected from two hundred and six respondents selected for the study. There was also the use of full likelihood modeling of dementia incidences to answer the research questions.|
|Summarize Results of Study||ü From the analysis, the prevalence of dementia at wave I am potentially related to sex and age.
ü Also, the incidence of dementia at wave II is potentially related to sex and age for the study participants who were not demented in wave I.
ü Exercise represents a potentially worthwhile approach for the treatment of patients suffering from dementia
|Summary of Assumptions and Limitations
Identify the assumptions and limitations of the article.
Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author.
|ü From the study, one of the assumptions is that the missing longitudinal data is correlated to sex, age, and care status.
ü From the study, there was also an assumption of normality. In other words, the continuous variables were assumed to be normally distributed.
ü From the study, it was also assumed that the continuous data exhibited equal variance.
ü The random samples were the perfect representation of the entire population.
In the process of the research, several ethical concerns were experienced. One of the ethical concern was data privacy. In the process of
data collection, there was a lack of elaborate mechanisms to secure the tool as well as the facts and information obtained from the study participants (ICollmann & Matei, 2016). In most cases, privacy does not mean secrecy because sometimes, the private data ought to be audited in line with the legal requirements. The private data gathered from private individuals with consent should not be uncovered to third parties with any traces to their identities. Exposing personal data to the public could have occurred due to the lack of stringent policy issues. The study tools used, including questionnaires, could not be secure; therefore, the w ability to manage the flow of private information could have been a problem across large party massive analytical systems (Mittelstadt & Floridi, 2016). The researchers and individuals dealing with databases could have shared sensitive or personal data. While designing the study, researchers failed to define the restrictions on how and whether the information obtained can be shared further. The article consists of elaborate analysis and there is also the use of data to support the claims. The discussion in the article answers the research questions. Also, the article proves the hypothesis and provides an elaborate discussion of the findings. One of the principles for ethical data use is that it needs to be done with the expectation of concrete benefit. The product of data analysis should provide value to all the parties interested in the study. Therefore people who generate the data, as well as the organizations or institutions that collects it, should adhere to the ethical concerns.
Chiao, C. Y., Wu, H. S., & Hsiao, C. Y. (2015). Caregiver burden for informal caregivers of patients with dementia: A systematic review. International nursing review, 62(3), 340-350.
Cipriani, G., Lucetti, C., Danti, S., Carlesi, C., & Nuti, A. (2016). Violent and criminal manifestations in dementia patients. Geriatrics & gerontology international, 16(5), 541-549.
Collmann, J., & Matei, S. A. (2016). Ethical Reasoning in Big Data: An Exploratory Analysis.
Fleiner, T., Leucht, S., Foerstl, H., Zijlstra, W., & Haussermann, P. (2017). Effects of short-term exercise interventions on behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with dementia: a systematic review. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 55(4), 1583-1594
Matthews, F. E., Stephan, B. C., Robinson, L., Jagger, C., Barnes, L. E., Arthur, A., … & Dening, T. (2016). A two decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II. Nature communications, 7, 11398. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms11398.
Mittelstadt, B. D., & Floridi, L. (2016). The ethics of biomedical big data.
Confidence intervals and hypothesis tests are similar in that they are both inferential methods that rely on an approximated sampling distribution. Confidence intervals use data from a sample to estimate a population parameter. Hypothesis tests use data from a sample to test a specified hypothesis. Hypothesis testing requires that we have a hypothesized parameter (Penn State Eberly College of Science, 2022).
Hypothesis testing and confidence intervals are used together in health care research in other to be able to determine the level of significance by understanding and knowing the p value and not just relying on the researchers (Shreffler & Huecker, 2022).
Confidence intervals are defined as “the range of values around the statistic within a population parameter, at a specific parameter While hypothesis testing is used to determine solely a positive correlation, or determine if there is a positive or negative correlation.
While these two are different in correlation they are trying to find, they are very similar and can be
utilized together in order to obtain accurate results (Ambrose, 2018).
An example of how hypothesis testing and confidence intervals are used together in health care research can be when a nurse try to research a new medication for hypertension on some of their hypertensive patients, the nurse take like 10 sample of hypertensive patients and give them the new medication, and also, 10 hypertensive patient not taking the new medication to see if the medication is effective on the hypertensive patients.
Ambrose, J. (2018). Applied statistics for health care: Clinical inquiry and hypothesis testing. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt362v/applied-statistics-for-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3
Penn State Eberly College of Sciene, (2022). Elementary Statistics. Confidence Intervals & Hypothesis Testing. Retrieved from https://online.stat.psu.edu/stat200/lesson/6/6.6
Shreffler J, & Huecker M. R. (2022). Hypothesis testing, p values, confidence intervals, and significance. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557421/#_NBK557421_pubdet_
Great post, it is informative. Hypothesis testing and confidence intervals are used in healthcare research to evaluate the validity of the evidence drawn from a given sample. The concept also provides a rationale through which factors related to the population can be isolated. That is, researchers are able to understand the reliability with which observed findings from a specific population can be extrapolated and applied to the larger population where the study sample was obtained. The hypothesis formulated enables the data to be evaluated within the limits of the confidence intervals and decisions made. In healthcare research, vast amounts of numerical data are always collected. For instance, if a new equipment is to be manufactured, research must be done to ensure that end users get the product in a safe and functional state. The confidence intervals serve as a validation protocol for the hypothesis in question which helps to ensure that the evidence gathered will consistently lead to the achievement of the main objectives of the research (Collett, 2015).
Collett, D. (2015). Modelling survival data in medical research. Chapman and Hall/CRC.