Assignment: Benchmark Policy Brief

NRS 428 Assignment: Benchmark Policy Brief

Assignment: Benchmark Policy Brief


People’s productivity depends on their health statuses, and it is crucial to keep health at an optimal level always. Disappointingly, many problems hampering care provision at the global, state, and community levels make it challenging to achieve the optimization required. For instance, the world’s global warming level keeps on rising, risking the populace’s health. Due to the far-reaching effects of such problems, public health policies usually play a fundamental role in controlling the magnitude of damage and remedy situations. The declining state of air quality in California due to pollution is a worrying issue that can be remedied through policy interventions.

Policy Health Issue: Description

The respiratory system functions at the best level required when people breathe fresh air. Despite this general fact, not many people are guaranteed quality air as pollution levels increase progressively. As highlighted in the American Public Health Association (APHA) website, climate change over the years has been increasing ground-level ozone and other types of air pollution, and the state of California is among the most affected. Frankly, the entire population is affected, but the damage is more severe among older people due to their low immunity levels (Simoni et al., 2015; Chen et al., 2015). They appear the most affected since the direct consequences of air pollution such as air toxics and particulate matter increase their hospitalization and infection with asthma and bronchitis. California has eight out of the ten most polluted cities in the United States (American Lung Association, 2020). This figure implies that the problem is critical in California, and more interventions to supplement the current frameworks are crucial.

Problem Statement

The environment plays an instrumental role in keeping people healthy. Food production and quality of air depend, to a large extent, on the climatic patterns. When climate change is unfavorable, the entire population faces considerable risks, which typifies what has been happening in California. According to Cart (2020), air pollution has been worsening over time; its severity can be confirmed because staying at home during the Covid-19 pandemic has not decreased it to the level required in any notable way. Emissions that increase the danger have been increasing over time too. Sommer et al. (2020) noted that emissions, combined with hot and stagnant weather, make air pollution hit dangerous levels, particularly in the summer, leading to a scenario where California does not comply with federal air standards. Such situations need robust policies to remedy.

The current situation and notable efforts show that there has been an effort to reduce air toxicity in California, but there is a lot to be done. The extent of danger is greater than the control measures. For instance, pollution reductions under the Clean Air Act have prevented approximately 205,000 premature deaths (Revesz & Lienke, 2016). However, the general objective of policies and supplementary laws should be to accomplish a state where every population segment is safe. Policies should further protect the most vulnerable, which does not happen in California.

The Current Policy: Breathing Fresh Act of California

From a general viewpoint, this policy is anchored on the idea principle that a policy should define a vision for the future. The Breathing Fresh Act follows a similar concept with the Clean Air Act but improves when it comes to reviewing. Unlike requiring the state to review its environmental protection guidelines after eight years like the Clean Air Act, the Breathing Fresh Act will obligate the state to review its rules every three years. Furthermore, all organizations should have elaborate social responsibility programs centered on environmental protection while concentrating on making the air free from pollution.

Initiating this policy follows the general procedure of policymaking. The first step is identifying the need, which has already been done. The damaging effect of toxic air should be minimized to health-friendly levels. The second step is delegating responsibility. A team should work on it to develop ways in which the authorities will be reached and informed. After that, a draft policy will be composed, followed by consultation with appropriate stakeholders. Here, the target stakeholders are the politicians and other government officials, particularly the Senator, who can sponsor the recommendations as a bill.  The main budgetary consideration to make is how to print copies of the act and distribute it to influential individuals at the community level.

Impact on the Health Care Delivery System

Health care provision is centered on a patient-centered practice that prioritizes quality. In agreement with Bhatt and Bathija (2018), one way of ensuring that people get quality care is by reducing infections as much as possible and protecting the vulnerable populations with more resources. Health care providers should never be overburdened too. Implementing the Breath Fresh Act implies that the California health care fraternity and the government are committed to reducing respiratory infections in the state. Doing so will keep everyone safe from such infections and ensure that the state’s productivity does not decline as industrialization that increases air pollution grows at all levels.

Admittedly, no state can guarantee its people total protection from illnesses. Challenges must emerge often, and environmental damage has been a leading source of public health problems. In California, air quality has been declining due to continuous pollution, causing diseases such as asthma and bronchitis. The proposed policy recognizes the need for practical and long-lasting solutions to such problems. It is hoped to make a massive impact on keeping people productive at the community, state, and national levels.




American Lung Association. (2020, Apr 21). Nearly half of US breathing unhealthy air; record-breaking air pollution in nine cities. Eureka Alert!.

Bhatt, J., & Bathija, P. (2018). Ensuring access to quality health care in vulnerable communities. Academic Medicine93(9), 1271-1275. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002254

Cart, J. (2020, Apr 12). As Californians stay at home, air quality improves – for now. Cal Matters.

Chen, Z., Salam, M. T., Eckel, S. P., Breton, C. V., & Gilliland, F. D. (2015). Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children’s Health Study. Journal of thoracic disease7(1), 46–58.

Revesz, R. L., & Lienke, J. (2016). Struggling for air: Power plants and the “war on coal”. Oxford University Press.

Simoni, M., Baldacci, S., Maio, S., Cerrai, S., Sarno, G., & Viegi, G. (2015). Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly. Journal of thoracic disease7(1), 34–45.

Sommer, L., Hersher, R., Jingnan, H., & Beniscasa, R. (2020, May 19). Traffic Is Way Down Because Of Lockdown, But Air Pollution? Not So Much. NPR.

Lead exposure is a policy health concern at the municipal and state levels. Locally, lead exposure is particularly common in industrial settings. Over 3 million American workers may be exposed to lead, according to data from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Lead pollution is caused by public water systems in the state that employ lead pipes to contaminate water intended for human consumption.

Mining, manufacturing, smelting, and recycling are all environmental activities that expose individuals to lead. Lead paint, gasoline, and aviation fuel have all been widely utilized in several countries, significantly increasing the danger of lead exposure. Drinking water from lead pipes or pipes linked together with lead solder is one of the leading sources of lead poisoning from polluted water.

Evidence of Lead Contamination

According to the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), lead exposure resulted in roughly 1.06 million deaths and 24.4 million years of healthy life lost worldwide in 2017. (Levin, 2016).

Low- and middle-income countries bear the greatest burden of sickness caused by lead poisoning’s negative effects (WHO, 2019). Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in 63.2 percent of all idiopathic developmental and intellectual impairments worldwide in 2016, according to IHME. Furthermore, lead exposure was linked to 6.2 percent of strokes, 5.6 percent of ischemic heart disease, and 10.3 percent of hypertensive heart disease globally (Wani, Ara & Usmani, 2015). Lead toxicity affects nearly all physiological systems. The neurological, reproductive, and renal systems are among the most severely impaired physiological functions. Kidney function is reduced as a result of lead intoxication in the renal system (Wani, Ara & Usmani, 2015). Children’s neurological systems are the most affected, slowing growth, causing learning difficulties, mental retardation, and behavioral disorders. Anemia, as well as immune and reproductive system impairment, are two additional risks.

Statement of the Problem

Due to environmental causes, the whole populace is at significant risk of lead exposure. Nonetheless, lead exposure to children and adults occurs on a daily basis, placing them at risk for major health problems. This study’s goal is to give recommendations on this topic that will address lead contamination and lower the prevalence of lead exposure in the general public.

Suggestions for Handling Lead Contamination

Lead exposure can be reduced at the home, neighborhood, and state levels. At the family level, health education can be provided to advise them of measures to reduce their risk of lead exposure (Ettinger, Leonard & Mason, 2019). To avoid exposure by hand-to-mouth transfer, caregivers can be advised to keep lead-containing objects out of children’s reach. Basic domestic hygiene measures, such as consistently washing children’s toys and hands, as well as regularly mopping floors and other household surfaces, should also be emphasized (Ettinger, Leonard & Mason, 2019). People should also be warned against using peeling lead-based paint.

County officials can test children’s blood for lead poisoning and teach them how to avoid it (LeBrón et al., 2019). Regional health departments can educate caregivers, medical professionals, and community groups on how to avoid lead poisoning (LeBrón et al., 2019). They can also organize outreach campaigns to increase lead testing for children who are at high risk of lead exposure.

State governments may enact legislation mandating the use of lead-free pipes and fixtures in public water systems or facilities that provide drinking water (LeBrón et al., 2019). Legislation requiring annual lead and copper testing of consumer taps can be enacted by state legislatures. Furthermore, state laws prohibit the sale and manufacture of toys containing lead-based paints or lacquers that exceed the maximum allowable limit.

Policy Brief- Lead Contamination

The selected policy health issue from the “Topics and Issues” in the American Public Health Association (APHA) website is Lead contamination. Lead is a type of metal highly used in manufacturing car batteries and pipes. Lead exposure occurs through inhaling contaminated air or dust, or consumption of contaminated water and food (WHO, 2019). Regarding Lead contamination, this paper seeks to discuss the policy health issue on Lead contamination, suggestions to address the health issue, and its impact on the health care delivery system

Population Affected By Lead Contamination

Lead exposure affects all individuals across the lifespan. The main routes of Lead exposure are water, air, and household environment (WHO, 2019). Children, especially infants and toddlers, are exposed to lead contamination due to behaviors such as putting their hands and objects in the mouth. Exposure to Lead is mostly harmful to children owing to their developing bodies. Besides, those living at or below the

NRS 428 Benchmark – Policy Brief assignment Essays
NRS 428 Benchmark – Policy Brief assignment Essays

federal poverty level and in old houses have the highest risk of Lead exposure (WHO, 2019). Besides, children from minority racial and ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic African-Americans, are also at higher risk for exposure to lead.

Lead exposure is particularly harmful to pregnant women. It crosses the placenta affecting the fetus, which increases the risk of congenital abnormalities. Besides, Lead can also be passed from the mother to an infant through breast milk. Adults are exposed to lead through occupational activities, consumption of contaminated food and water, and during recreational activities. Families can also be trained in ways to make water safe for drinking, such as boiling and chlorination.

Assignment: Benchmark Policy Brief

Level Lead Contamination Occurs

Also Read: Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal


Topic 5 DQ 1

Sep 26-28, 2022

What spiritual considerations surrounding a disaster can arise for individuals, communities, and health care providers? Explain your answer in the context of a natural or manmade disaster. How can a community health nurse assist in the spiritual care of the individual, community, self, and colleagues?

I can’t imagine how hard it can be to go through a natural disaster, seeing how hard you have worked to build a house/car and seeing nature take it away can be heartbreaking. As nurses, we have to be alert and be able to assess any situation, in the case of disaster the spiritual consideration we have to think about is a disaster can have a toll on someone’s mental health. Our eBook makes an important statement, “They should be aware of cultural differences and approach each patient with sensitivity and respect, allowing them to grieve, react, and respond the way that is appropriate for them, as long as they are not causing self-harm or harming others. In areas where populations are extremely vulnerable, such as areas of high poverty” (Grand Canyon University, 2018), meaning letting our patients have the freedom to express what they feel spiritual can help heal the trauma, making sure this doesn’t harm someone else. Man-made disasters can be described as armed conflict and climate change. For example, armed conflict can bring division within the communities, loss of resources, and lives. A way to help the community to cope with it is by relying on emergency rescue groups, that are capacitated with special training. “Emergency response workforce was established knowledge, more sophisticated, and more capable of reducing illness and saving more lives in less time” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d.). The responsibility of the PHN is to be aware of the community’s needs and put in place interventions that are going to be beneficial and better the outcomes of the community.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Natural and Human-Made Disasters | Epidemic Intelligence Service | CDC. Retrieved September 28, 2022, from


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Community & public health: The future of health care. Retrieved from


Donia Martinet

replied toAbigail Retana

Sep 29, 2022, 1:52 PM


A great way to prepare to help others during disaster is self reflection, as you did in your opening statement. Having a clear idea of how we can empathize, or how we would feelin such situations can really help us become good listeners and connect with others in the community. Many times spirituality, and beliefs are questioned during times of disaster, but allowing them to react in whatever manner they see fit, so long no one is harmed, is a great way to help the community. Donia

Shola Akonu

Sep 28, 2022, 9:21 PM

Natural or man-made disasters can be scary, chaotic and tragic. Nurses have always proved to be reliable responders when it comes to emergency situations. Their compassionate nature typically compels them to respond to those in need, even when their own safety is at risk. Many people mistakenly believe that spirituality and religion is the same thing, but they are not. Religion is a narrow definition of spirituality (Karadogan, 2022). Spirituality is concerned with a person’s meaning of existence and how they interact with God or a higher force that transcends religion. A tragedy that shakes everyone’s spirituality affects the whole society because it may result in unexpected loss. People can feel helpless, despair, remorse, doubt God’s existential supremacy over their beliefs and faith, and become enraged by the situation.

Spiritually balanced people can find meaning in their lives by associating with the supreme power. Consider a tragedy such as a flood, in which people lose their families, their possessions, and even their hope. This type of disaster necessitates a lengthy period of psychological, physical, and spiritual recovery. Spiritual treatment helps people who are experiencing spiritual disasters find hope, courage, and purpose (Egan, 2019). Understanding a population needs and implementing a whole community approach to planning will help me in developing emergency operation plan that will provide equitable services and resources to all community members.

A community health nurse can assist in the spiritual care of the individual or community by listening to them as they speak their faith or praying with them. They can attend an event with the community or individual that promotes healing. Overall, creating a therapeutic environment is valuable in assisting the patient with the healing process and being supportive of them and their feelings will prove beneficial. In addition, assisting with a faith-based, non-profit organization that provides support during the disaster relief would help the community recover (Falkner, 2018). Many of these faith-based organizations provide support and assistance following their religious principles that speak of compassion, caring, and helping the less fortunate (Falkner, 2018). Volunteering to join any of these organizations may fulfill the nurses desire to help the community and give the nurse a sense of pride.





Egan, R. (2019). Spirituality in Aotearoa, New Zealand: Personal Reflections From a Spirituality in Health Care Researcher. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 57(5), 1031–1034.

Falkner, A., (2018). Disaster Management. Community & Public Health: The Future Of Health Care.