HLT 362 pplication of Statistics in Health Care Assignment
Application of Statistics in Health Care Assignment
Application of Statistics in Health Care
Healthcare, especially nursing, entails the application of different theoretical models and concepts focused on studying principles of assisting patients and analyzing potentially successful interventions. These processes and operations require calculations and making correlations, making statistics a valuable tool and approach for estimating the required data and information for interpretation and decision-making (Fowler et al., 2021). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the significance of statistical application in healthcare. The paper discusses the significance of statistics to quality, safety, health promotion and leadership. In its final part, the paper considers a specialty area or organization and use of statistical knowledge in such situations.
Application of Statistical Knowledge
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The use of statistical knowledge allows help providers and leaders to enhance quality care standards, enhance safety by minimizing adverse events and poor performance by providers, and health promotion through providing education based on data concerning the prevention of non-communicable and lifestyle diseases like obesity.
Quality Care and Improvement
Hospitals and healthcare providers like nurses use statistics to assess quality measurement and improvement to enhance systematic processes focused on better care. Data measuring performance and quality indicators like on process and outcome measures is gathered over time and analyzed to identify certain trends and responses to interventions. For instance, the use of innovative models like evidence-based practice (EBP) and value-based purchasing are products of statistical data and knowledge that providers and organizations possess (Kim et al., 2020). Quality, outcome and process measures are data-driven measures that rely on statistics. Statistical data can be patient-related like diagnoses and mortality, hospital-based like readmission rates and process of care like the utilization of beta-blockers as well as adverse events like falls and hospital-acquired infections (HAIs).
Statistical information and data is critical in improving patient and provider safety in healthcare setting. For instance, each year, the U.S healthcare system records over 2 million cases of hospital-acquired infections that lead to over 100,000 deaths. Without effective statistics, it would be impossible to get such critical information to develop better intervention to reduce adverse events that impact patient safety and quality outcomes. The financial costs associated with safety issues in healthcare run into over $20 billion each year (Fowler et al., 2021). Therefore, the use of statistics is critical in enhancing patient safety by preventing the occurrence of adverse events like falls and HAIs. Statistical data is essential as it also helps understand trends and issues concerning medical expenditure and monitoring safety measures to enhance public health offering.
Health promotion is essential for communities and individuals to prevent, reduce, and eliminate susceptibility to chronic illnesses and improve the overall quality of health. Health promotion is important in public and primary health as it assists in developing health interventions for adoption in combating illnesses and ensuring that the system lowers its expenditure. By leveraging statistical information and knowledge, health organizations and even government agencies can track population data to identify large-scale indicators and patterns. Through this tracking and evaluation, they can know most appropriate intervention and outcomes (Lin et al., 2018). Statistics, for instance, ones on COVID-19 pandemic, helps governments to track the infection rates, outbreaks and vaccination rates. Governments also relies on health statistics to identify health hazards like alcohol and even motor vehicle deaths. Through statistics, the government can increase the rate of immunization and roll out other public health measures to lower disease prevalence in an area. Government uses statistical data to create agencies through which it modifies practice, policies and legislations aimed at health promotion.
Leaders in healthcare benefit from using statistics as well in managing certain processes and purpose. For instance, using quality and safety indicators, healthcare leaders can set goals to enhance quality through the application of numerical statistical data. The management also benefits from statistical data as leaders can analyze staff diversity, need for training, and aspects like turnover rates and retention of better and dedicated nurses to improve overall care quality and patient satisfaction (NCHS, 2019). By studying components like hours worked and nurse-to-patient ratio, leaders in healthcare can relate the information to other quality indicators to make conclusion and attain meaningful changes.
Obtaining, Application & Use in Decision-Making
Nurse practitioners are taught to depend on objective, evidence-based data in research and practice. Statistical knowledge entails a significant part of the evidence-based model that one takes when working in a large metropolitan institution (Ocakoğlu et al., 2019). Further, in such facilities, one gets statistical data from medical records, claims and disease registries as well as peer-reviewed literature. Further, as a large metropolitan facility, statistics come from emergency room visits and through patient charting. The use of system-wide computer programming and databases to share information allows healthcare providers to access information and statistical data for effective decision-making.
The collected data is critical in analysis and sharing with multidisciplinary and inter-professional collaboration teams. The data ensures that the facility understand trends and patterns among its clients to develop effective diagnostic and prognosis interventions (NCHS, 2019). The analyzed data is formatted into reports and give to the administration and management for effective decision-making and planning to enhance care quality in the facility.
As a nurse practitioner, health care statistics are essential for quality care delivery and planning, especially when dealing with patient safety issue. The use of seasonal data trend on certain condition or disease affecting patients can inform if there is need for diagnostic testing. The insight from such analysis also helps formulate effective non-pharmacological interventions to enhance preventive care.
Statistics are an important part of healthcare delivery and allows providers, management and patients to make informed decisions on the most effective interventions to deal with a disease or condition. Healthcare providers like physicians and nurses leverage statistics to improve care quality and reduce the prevalence of certain disease conditions. Statistical knowledge and understanding enables such entities to address challenges in care delivery and improve health promotion practices.
Fowler, J., Jarvis, P., & Chevannes, M. (2021). Practical statistics for nursing and health care.
John Wiley & Sons.
Kim, M., Mallory, C., & Valerio, T. (2020). Statistics for evidence-based practice in nursing.
Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Lin, L. Y., Warren-Gash, C., Smeeth, L., & Chen, P. C. (2018). Data resource profile: the
National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Epidemiology and health, 40.
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (2019). Health, United States, 2018. Hyattsville
(MD): National Center for Health Statistics (U.S).
Ocakoğlu, G., Kaya, M. O., Can, F. E., Atış, S., & Macunluoğlu, A. C. (2019). Nursing
professionals’ attitudes toward biostatistics: an international web-based survey. The European Research Journal, 5(2), 326-334. https://doi.org/10.18621/eurj.383180
Statistical application and the interpretation of data is important in health care. Review the statistical concepts covered in this topic. In a 750-1,000 word paper, discuss the significance of statistical application in health care. Include the following:
- Describe the application of statistics in health care. Specifically discuss its significance to quality, safety, health promotion, and leadership.
- Consider your organization or specialty area and how you utilize statistical knowledge. Discuss how you obtain statistical data, how statistical knowledge is used in day-to-day operations and how you apply it or use it in decision making. HLT 362 Application of Statistics in Health Care Assignment Essauys
Application of Statistics
Statistics is important when it comes to the development of models that can be used to predict the future trends including patient flow and the best medication and treatment strategies. In the process of operation, healthcare workers often engages in the collection of data from the time a patient is admitted into the hospital to the time when they are discharged. From the point of admission, biodata is taken to
record the identity of the patients and their conditions. Also, in the process of treatment, all the data including time are recorded for future references. All the above processes requires statistical knowledge, which most healthcare workers possess. The statistical concept are mostly used in the analysis of these data to reveal trends and what needs to be done to improve areas of weaknesses. Therefore, the use of statistics is essential in determining the processes that are required to improve medication and treatment processes. Whether considering disease incidences, cure rates, accidents, hospital and physician fees, mortality rates, malpractice, treatments, drugs or medical devices, the application of statistical concepts is important (Kros & Rosenthal, 2016).
Internationally, drug testing is a critical part of the healthcare processes that ensures the establishment of an effective vaccine or drugs to counter certain diseases. The processes of drug test often require the use of statistics to study the effects of placebo and the real drugs. The study objectives in these research requires models based on the available data from the participants. Application of statistics in the healthcare system is essential as it aids in providing guidance to the decision makers and the general healthcare professionals (Pett, 2015). The healthcare institutions to gauge performance as well as the results of the medical performance commonly apply statistical analysis. In most cases, government and human service agencies apply statistical information to define the well-being as well as the overall health of the population. Pharmaceutical companies and hospitals usually engages in the analysis of the patients in order to identify risks linked to specific disorders, measure the effectiveness of different treatments and assess the symptoms. Healthcare organizations struggle every single day to effectively deliver quality services and medical products to the patients. Application of statistics therefore enable companies to gauge successes and failures in their performance (Kros & Rosenthal, 2016). In the hospitals and other healthcare settings, managers in charge of quality improvements often develop standards of benchmarks and service excellence to determine the future results. Reliable statistical information, i.e., statistics obtained from the analysis of raw data can be used to determine the viability as well as the overall growth in a given medical facility. These data can also be used to plot diminish risks associated with the trade-offs and create innovative approaches in the treatment procedures. The data obtained from the patients during their stay in the hospital can be used in clinical trials for the new technologies in treatments in order to determine the benefits alongside the risks. HLT 362 Application of Statistics in Health Care Assignment Essauys
With the emergence of the diseases, scientist are always looking for the best treatment and medication approaches. With statistics, mathematicians, computer scientists and medical professionals often analyze the data to identify the best treatment approaches that needs to be undertaken in case there is a diseases outbreak (Kros & Rosenthal, 2016). The use of statistics is also common in the epidemiological research as it helps in determining the study methods to take against a given diseases. Also, the emergence of diseases often lead to the overcrowding in the medical facilities; therefore, with the statistics, the data taken can be used to enhance quality, health promotion, safety and leadership. In general, the use of statistics in healthcare system is meant to enhance quality, safety, and general effective outcome within the healthcare settings.
Three peer-reviewed, scholarly or professional references are required. Application of Statistics in Health Care Assignment
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
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Welcome to HLT-362V – Applied Statistics for Health Care Professionals!
The video below goes over some unique aspects of how I teach this course and how to get help:
Note: You may need to right click on the link above and open in new window to watch the video.
How does this course fit into your program of study?
This course is designed to prepare you to take the nursing research course and to complete your capstone project. You will be exposed to the role of statistics in appraising evidence in the nursing practice. There is coverage of both qualitative and quantitative methods to put the subject of nursing research into perspective.
Things to do this week:
- Participate– In additionto answering the discussion questions, post at least three days with a minimum of two Substantial posts on those three days. For a post to be substantial, it needs to genuinely add something new to the conversation. Please view the attached file for a breakdown of participation scoring.
- Read the Syllabus-Please follow the instructions on the ***this site*** in accessing the syllabus for the course. Please reach out to me if you have any concerns and remember any technical issues should be addressed by contacting GCU technical support at 602-639-7200.
- Course Material-Look over the Topic 1/Week 1 course material, which includes the textbook reading, and several other resources provided in the “Path” menu, then under Topic 1 > Study Materials. Also, be sure to watch my videos I provide in this announcement, which are also located in the thread each week in the QIF forum.
- Post Bio- Visit the Class Wall under the “Connect” tab and introduce yourself to the class.
- Assignment: Application of Statistics in Health Care– You can find the activity in the “Path” menu, then under Topic 1 > Tasks. Please follow the instructions carefully and submit this paper by Sunday night. ***Here is a video*** I created that will give you some guidance of what I am looking for on this paper and in the second half of the video, keep in mind what I mention about using first person pronouns.
- Quiz 1– You can find the quiz in the “Path” menu, then under Topic 1 > Tasks. Please follow the instructions carefully and complete the quiz by Sunday night. You have just one attempt at the quiz and it must be completed in one sitting. There are 10 questions that must be answered in 20 minutes before Sunday night. This quiz tests your knowledge on the statistical concepts presented in this first week’s topic as mentioned in the instructions. You can find the study material as mentioned previously in this announcement and you should be familiar with this material before taking the quiz. If you have any technical issues with the quiz, then please contact me and let me know. I can view what you have attempted and reset the quiz to give you an additional attempt.
- Post Questions from Assignments!!! (Optional)- Please start looking at the course material early in the week, so that you can start on the assignments ASAP. If you find that you cannot figure out part of any of the graded activities from homework, then please post questions in the Questions to Instructor Forum under the appropriate Topic. (Example: If you have a question about anything from Week 2, then you should ask a question in the “Week 2 Questions? ***Reply Here***” topic.) Also, remember any technical issues should be addressed by contacting GCU technical support at 602-639-7200.
I look forward to meeting you and again, welcome to the course!
Application of Statistics in Health Care Assignment
No of Criteria: 7 Achievement Levels: 5CriteriaAchievement LevelsDescriptionPercentage1: Unsatisfactory0.00 %2: Less Than Satisfactory65.00 %3: Satisfactory75.00 %4: Good85.00 %5: Excellent100.00 %Content70.0 Application of Statistics in Health Care (quality, safety, health promotion, leadership)40.0Application of statistics in health care is omitted or incomplete. The significance to quality safety, health promotion, and leadership is omitted.Application of statistics in health care is summarized. The significance to quality, safety, health promotion, and leadership is partially presented. One or more criteria are missing. There are inaccuracies. Significant information or rationale is needed.Application of statistics in health care is generally described. The significance to quality, safety, health promotion, and leadership is generally described for all criteria. There are minor inaccuracies. More information or rationale is needed to fully illustrate the application of statistics overall.Application of statistics in health care is described. The significance to quality, safety, health promotion, and leadership is described for all criteria. Some minor information or rationale is needed to fully illustrate the application of statistics to health care and the specific areas.Application of statistics in health care is described in detail. The significance to quality, safety, health promotion, and leadership is described thoroughly for all criteria. Strong information and rationale is provided to fully illustrate the application of statistics, and its significance, to health care and the specific areas.Application of Statistical Knowledge to Organization or Specialty Area30.0Application of statistical knowledge to organization or specialty area is omitted. More than one criterion regarding how statistical data are obtained, used in day-to-day operations, or applied in decision making are omitted.Application of statistical knowledge to organization or specialty area is summarized. How statistical data are obtained, used in day-to-day operations, and applied in decision is unclear; one criterion is missing. More information is needed.Application of statistical knowledge to organization or specialty area is generally discussed. How statistical data are obtained, used in day-to-day operations, or applied in decision making is summarized. .Application of statistical knowledge to organization or specialty area is discussed. How statistical data are obtained, used in day-to-day operations, or applied in decision making is described. Some information or detail is needed for clarity.Application of statistical knowledge to organization or specialty area is thoroughly discussed. How statistical data are obtained, used in day-to-day operations, or applied in decision making is described in detail. The ability to understand and apply statistical data is clearly demonstrated.Organization and Effectiveness20.0 Thesis Development and Purpose7.0Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.Argument Logic and Construction8.0Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.Argument is orderly but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)5.0Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.Format10.0 Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)5.0Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.All format elements are correct.Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)5.0Sources are not documented.Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.
HLT 362V Module 4 ANOVA Excel Worksheet
SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS
The following table contains a random sample of 40 women partitioned into three groups:
Group 1: ages below 20
Group 2: ages 20 through 40
Group 3: ages over 40
The values in the table are the systolic blood pressure levels
The hypothesis test:
H1: at least one of the treatment means is different
Use the Excel Analysis ToolPak to create an Anova – Single Factor table. Is there sufficient evidence to support the claim that women in the different age categories have different mean blood pressure levels? Give reasons for your decision.
HLT 362V Module 4 Exercise 36
The researchers found a significant difference between the two groups (control and treatment) for change in mobility of the women with osteoarthritis (OA) over 12 weeks with the results of F(1, 22) 9.619, p 0.005. Discuss each aspect of these results.
State the null hypothesis for the Baird and Sands (2004) study that focuses on the effect of the GI with PMR treatment on patients’ mobility level. Should the null hypothesis be rejected for the difference between the two groups in change in mobility scores over 12 weeks? Provide a rationale for your answer.
The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant, and if so at what probability?
If the researchers had set the level of significance or = 0.01, would the results of p 0.001 still be statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
If F(3, 60) 4.13, p 0.04, and = 0.01, is the result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. Would the null hypothesis be accepted or rejected?
Can ANOVA be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations between variables in a single group? Provide a rationale for your answer.
If a study had a result of F(2, 147) 4.56, p 0.003, how many groups were in the study, and what was the sample size?
The researchers state that the sample for their study was 28 women with a diagnosis of OA, and that 18 were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 10 were randomly assigned to the control group. Discuss the study strengths and/or weaknesses in this statement.
In your opinion, have the researchers established that guided imagery (GI) with progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) reduces pain and decreases mobility difficulties in women with OA?
The researchers stated that this was a 12-week longitudinal, randomized clinical trial pilot study with 28 women over 65 years of age with the diagnosis of OA. What are some of the possible problems or limitations that might occur with this type of study?
HLT 362V Module 5 Correlation Regression and Chi Square Excel Worksheet
SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE OF FEMALES
The following table represents systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements of 40 females.
- A) Use the Excel Analysis ToolPak to find the linear correlation coefficient for the systolic and diastolic measurements.
- B) Use the Excel Analysis ToolPak to determine the linear regression equation that uses the systolic pressure to predict the diastolic pressure.
- C) What is the best predicted value for diastolic pressure given that a woman has a systolic level of 100?
HLT 362V EXERCISE 11 Questions to be Graded
- What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement?
- What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate?
- What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- What was the marital status mode for the subjects in the experimental and control groups? Provide both the frequency and percentage for the marital status mode for both groups.
- Could a median be determined for the education data? If so, what would the median be for education for the experimental and the control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Can the findings from this study be generalized to Black women? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- If there were 32 subjects in the experimental group and 36 subjects in the control group, why is the income data only reported for 30 subjects in the experimental group and 34 subjects in the control group?
- Was the sample for this study adequately described? Provide a rationale for your answer.
HLT 362V EXERCISE 18 Questions to be Graded
- In comparing men and women, which group had higher body image scores? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Men had higher variability in weight change over the last 12 months when compared to women. Is this statement true or false? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- What are the X_and SD values for men’s body weight ratio?
- Assuming that the distribution of scores is normal, calculate the scores where 95% of values around the mean lie for women with weight change over the last 3 months. Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Assuming that the distribution of body weight ratio is a normal curve, 95% of the men lie between which two values of body weight ratio around the mean? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Assuming that the distribution of womens’s body image scores is normal, 99% of women’s body image scores around the mean lie between what two values? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Assuming that the distribution is a normal curve, 99% of men were between what ages? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Assuming that the distribution is a normal curve, 95% of men were between what ages? Round your answer to two decimal places.
- Did HIV-positive participants have signifi cantly higher body image scores than those with AIDS? Provide a rationale for your response.
HLT 362V Exercise 20
- Which patient scored the highest on the preoperative CVLT Acquisition? What was his or her T score?
- Which patient scored the lowest on postoperative CVLT Retrieval? What was this patient’s T score?
- Did the patient in Question 2 have more of a memory performance decline than average on the CVLT Retrieval? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- What is the mean ( ) and standard deviation (SD) for preoperative T score for CVLT Acquisition?
- Is the preoperative Retrieval T score for Patient 5 above or below the mean for the norm of the group? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Assuming that the distribution of the preoperative CVLT Retrieval T scores is normal, the middle 68% of the patients had T scores between what two values?
- Assuming that the distribution of scores for the postoperative CVLT Retrieval T scores is normal, the middle 68% of the patients had T scores between what two values?
- The researchers state that it appears that the functional integrity of the left temporal lobe, despite evidence of structural abnormality, plays a considerable role when it comes to memory outcomes following left ATL. Can the findings from this study be generalized to a larger population? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- If a patient had a raw score = 30, what would his/her postoperative CVLT Retrieval T score be?
- Did patients demonstrate more postoperative memory declines among CVLT Retrieval T scores than CVLT Acquisition T scores? Provide a rationale for your answer.
HLT 362V EXERCISE 23 Questions to be Graded
- What is the r value for the relationship between Hamstring strength index 60Â°/s and the Shuttle run test? Is this r value significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Consider r = 1.00 and r = -1.00. Which r value is stronger? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Describe the direction of the relationship between the Hamstring strength index 60Â°/s and the Shuttle run test.
- Without using numbers, describe the relationship between the Hamstring strength index 120Â°/s and the Triple hop index.
- Which variable has the weakest relationship with the Quadriceps strength index 120Â°/s? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Which of the following sets of variables has the strongest relationship?
- Hamstring strength index 120Â°/s and the Hop index
- Quadriceps strength index 60Â°/s and the Carioca test
- Quadriceps strength index 120Â°/s and the Side step test
- Quadriceps strength index 60Â°/s and the Triple hop index
- In Table 5, two r values are reported as r = -0.498 and r = -0.528. Describe each r value in words, indicating which would be more statistically significant, and provide a rationale for your answer.
- The researchers stated that the study showed a positive, significant correlation between Quadriceps strength indices and pre- and postoperative functional stability. Considering the data presented in the Table 5, do you agree with their statement? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- The researchers stated that no significant relationship could be described between Hamstring strength indices 60Â°/s and functional stability. Given the data in Table 5, explain why not.
- Consider the relationship reported for the Quadriceps strength index 120Â°/s and the Hop index (r = 0.744**, p = 0.000 ). What do these r and p values indicate related to statistical significance and clinical importance?
HLT 362V EXERCISE 24 Questions to be Graded 80
- What is the r value listed for the relationship between variables 4 and 9?
- Describe the correlation r = -0.32** using words. Is this a statistically significant correlation? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Calculate the percentage of variance explained for r = 0.53. Is this correlation clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- According to Table 2, r = 0.15 is listed as the correlation between which two items? Describe this relationship. What is the effect size for this relationship, and what size sample would be needed to detect this relationship in future studies?
- Calculate the percentage of variance explained for r = 0.15. Describe the clinical importance of this relationship.
- Which two variables in Table 2, have the weakest correlation, or r value? Which relationship is the closest to this r value? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Is the correlation between LOT-R Total scores and Avoidance-Distraction coping style statistically significant? Is this relationship relevant to practice? Provide rationales for your answers.
- Is the correlation between variables 9 and 4 significant? Is this correlation relevant to practice? Provide a rationale for your answer.
- Consider two values, r = 0.08 and r = -0.58. Describe them in relationship to each other. Describe the clinical importance of both r values.
- Examine the Pearson r values for LOT-R Total, which measured Optimism with the Task and Emotion Coping Styles. What do these results indicate? How might you use this information in your practice?
One of the study goals was to examine the relationship between optimism and psychopathology. Using the data in Table 2, formulate an opinion regarding the overall correlation between optimism and psychopathology. Provide a rationale for your answer.
Statistics is a broad term that refers to numerical data gathered through measurements or observations of a certain phenomenon, organization, or population sample. Statistics can be used for a range of purposes, from giving descriptive features to monitoring performance results (History of Statistics in Public Health, 2022). Health Statistics provide information for understanding, monitoring, improving and planning the use of resources to improve the lives of people, provide services and promote their well-being. Numerical data is widely used in health care because of its objectivity and ability to provide data-driven strategies that can maximize efficiency and measure the health of large populations (NIH, 2020). Florence Nightingale used a statistical approach to decrease the mortality rate of British troops in Crime. In 1854, Florence and 38 nurses set out for a British military hospital on the outskirts of Constantinople to care for British service members (Dhillon et al, 2022). Florence visited the colonies and saw how soldiers were dumped on the ground, and doctors struggled to treat them in a dirty, undeveloped hospital with no supplies. She also kept track of the mortality rate at the hospital using her mathematical knowledge. According to the statistics, 600 out of every 1,000 injured troops died from infectious diseases (Dhillon et al, 2022). She was a pioneer in the gathering, compilation, analysis, and graphical presentation of descriptive and inferential statistics because of her meticulous records.
Health care organizations increasingly often utilize statistical analysis to monitor their development. Hospitals and other large service providers use data-driven efforts to operate as efficiently as possible. Statistics are frequently used for quality measurement and improvement, as well as for systematic process control (NIH, 2020). Data on performance and quality indicators is gathered over time and examined to identify specific trends or responses to initiatives.
Data-driven statistics were traditionally used to identify patient care trends and develop and utilize evidence-based practices to improve patient outcomes and ensure quality care. (Ambrose. 2018). Mathematical statistics have been used in health care to analyze data. Statistics contributed to the development of methods, directions, and results. Epidemiology was developed through data analysis. Currently, because of this rich development, the enormous amount of health care data collected from electronic medical records can help answer questions through data analysis. This includes biostatistics, satisfaction surveys, birth weights, mortality rates, diagnoses, and testing results.
Statistics aid birth epidemiology. The use of mathematical methods and statistics in epidemiology and public health is essential to identifying disease causes, transmission modes, control and prevention measures, and prioritizing and evaluating activities (Stroup, 2011). The use of data facilitates policy making, planning, and evaluation. During the 20th century, routine immunization of children was an example of how the application of statistics has greatly influenced or changed health care operations and practices. A number of vaccines have been developed by researchers in the health care field in order to prevent diseases such as Covid 19, chicken pox, measles, polio, and others. A statistically designed clinical trial and a statistical quality control process are usually used to determine the safety and efficacy of these lifesaving vaccines.
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