week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

Assessment Description

The practice of health care providers at all levels brings you into contact with people from a variety of faiths. This calls for basic knowledge and understanding of different faith expressions. No matter what someone’s worldview is, death and dying is a difficult experience whether emotions are expressed or not. For the purpose of this assignment, the focus will be on the Christian worldview.

Read the “Case Study: End-of-Life Decisions” document or one provided by your instructor. Based on the reading of the case, the Christian worldview, and the worldview questions presented in the required topic Resources, you will complete an ethical analysis of situation of the individual(s) and their decisions from the perspective of the Christian worldview.

Based on your reading of “Case Study: End-of-Life Decisions” document (or one provided by your instructor) and topic Resources, complete the “Death and Dying: Case Analysis” document in a maximum of 2,000 words, in which you will analyze the case study in relation to the following:

  • Christian view of the fallen world and the hope of resurrection
  • Christian worldview of the value of life
  • Christian worldview of suffering
  • Empathy for the individual(s) as they are supported and cared, actions, and their consequences
  • Respect for the perspectives of individual(s) different from personal and professional values, conscious and unconscious biases related to human rights in health care practice, actions, and their consequences
  • Personal decision-making based on personal worldview

Support your response using only the following Topic 4 Resources:

  • Chapter 4 from the textbook Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Decision-Making in Health Care
  • “Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: Theological and Ethical Responses”
  • “Always Care, Never Kill: How Physician-Assisted Suicide Endangers the Weak, Corrupts Medicine, Compromises the Family, and Violates Human Dignity and Equality”

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

American Association of Colleges of Nursing Core Competencies for Professional Nursing Education
This assignment aligns with AACN Core Competencies 9.1, 9.2, 9.6

Attachments

Week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

Week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

The work of health care providers at different levels entails encountering people from diverse faiths with particular perspectives on how to deal with health matters, especially chronic or terminal illnesses. Imperatively, nurses should possess not only knowledge but also an understanding of a diversity of faith expressions. The implication is that from the knowledge, they can offer guidance to their patients and be in a better position to handle such situations (Choudry, Latif & Warburton, 2018). The diversity of faith, as well as cultural values, interact with the contemporary Christian worldview and modern trends to impact how individuals make decisions concerning different situations in their lives. In this case study about George, nurses need to understand how to analyze the end of life situations and make effective as well as appropriate decisions based on different perspectives; for instance, a Christian worldview.

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Interpretation of George’s Suffering in Light of Christian Narrative with Emphasis on the World’s fellness

When people seek medical attention to health care issues they face, it is possible that they would lose their Christian values based on the severity of their diagnoses and potential treatment interventions. Some may reject the diagnoses outright based on the Christian faith, especially when their faiths do not advocate for such interventions. In this case study, George has discovered through his physician that he has amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This condition gradually and progressively degenerates the ability of muscles to function optimally in the body. The disease is chronic or terminal and leads to death as it reduces like expectancy to between three and four years. George knows that in due time, he will not speak, move, or eat and even breathe because of the deterioration that his body muscle will endure in due course (Choudry et al., 2018). Unfortunately, George will know the things that will happen to him in the process of his slow death yet not in a position to discuss it with anyone. Because of this revelation, George contemplates voluntary euthanasia, yet he is a Christian and believes in the existence of God.

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Despite this belief in God, he also knows that the world has both good and evil ways and choices. Like other Christians, George needs to pray for strength and guidance from God. God is present in all situations and all the time. He surrounds believers and offers protection when they face difficult situations that are beyond their control. As a Christian, George should view God as the creator of the universe and giver of all situations (Devilliers, 2016). Imperatively, he should interpret his diagnosis from the perspective of God, trying to show his power and authority in his life. God opens his doors and blessings as well as miracles to those who are ready and have a firm belief in him in their lives. It is also important to note that all are created differently and uniquely based on their abilities and thinking. Therefore, human beings should take care of their lives and never take their life for granted. In this situation, George must be objective and cast his worries to God and follow the advice from his physician as a Christian.

George might interpret all these aspects and events as a trial of his belief and trust in God and his faith. The biblical story of Job and how he suffered is an inspiration for Christians when challenges with situations that test their faith and belief in God. George must seek God’s voice and consider his situation as temporary. Only God can intervene but based on his adherence to medication and not the contemplation of voluntary euthanasia since he has no power over his life (Choudry et al., 2018). George needs to understand that the world is full of both evil and good forces, which none can love to leave when faced with such eventualities. George should consider that even without the illness, he may have lived his full life based on God’s plan.

Interpretation Based on Christian Narrative with Emphasis on Hope of Resurrection

The hope of resurrection based on the Christian narrative arises due to Jesus’s death and subsequent rising from the dead. The basis of Christianity is the story of life and death, as well as the subsequent resurrection of Christ. Christians believe that they will also partake in the life and death of Christ and will live after their death. Further, they get new experiences after their death (Worldview, 2017). In this case, George is a Christian and believes that it is only the body that dies and the spirit. Imperatively, an individual’s life before death may dictate the destination of their souls upon their death. Christians believe that good deeds and a commitment of faith in God lead their souls to heaven. Christians believe that the dead will resurrect on the second coming of Christ. Because George is a committed Christian, he should believe that there is hope, and he shall resurrect on the second coming of Christ. George should interpret his diagnosis and the subsequent suffering that he will endure with the hope that he shall live again on the second coming of Christ. The hope is resurrecting is significant to allow him to live and endure for the time when it is expected that he will be alive.

Value of Life Based on the ALS Diagnosis for George

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a condition that affects nerve cells and makes one experience gradual degeneration of the body muscles and their ability to work effectively. The implication is that with time, George will not have the ability to execute many activities as before. In effect, his life and contribution to society based on what he does will be limited or reduced significantly. As such, he may feel that his life and contribution are valueless as he will depend on others for all activities of his life.

Despite this unfortunate situation, George should value his life as precious and sacredly given by God. No one should take their life away or of another person. In this sense, George needs to know that despite his suffering, he has a life and should endure pain as well as all experiences related to it. Christians and all human beings have the purpose of living their lives. However, it is God’s plan that determines the purpose and how people live their lives. Therefore, George should view the diagnosis of the detrimental disease as the trial on his faith because Christians believe their lives have value even when facing challenges. God’s love is greatest to all of us, and it is only Him who determines the situations that a Christian encounters because he knows they can conquer them. George needs to know that his life is still valuable as it was before the diagnosis because he has a family (EuroMed Info, 2016). Lives should never be valueless due to the hardships that we may face. George has impacted and touched many lives through his profession and other activities, which makes him more valuable.

Sorts of Values in Christian Worldview on Euthanasia

Christianity, as a religion, has expectations that its followers must adhere. On the issue of death, Christianity does not allow killing since it is a sin to take life. The fifth commandment asserts that “thou shall not kill.” Therefore, euthanasia is a form of murder or suicide, and Christians cannot take it as an option. Christians should face their sufferings because of the origin of sin as the pains and hard times are aimed at testing and strengthening our faith and providing lessons in life.

An analysis of George’s situation concerning his health from a religious, certain principle of biomedical ethics should be assessed. These include respect for autonomy, justice, non-maleficence, and beneficence. Christianity respects George’s dignity. The health concerns, as well as spiritual beliefs, must respect his decision for euthanasia as an option. However, Christianity is against euthanasia because of the principle of non-maleficence as Christians should not cause any harm to an individual. In regards to beneficence, the physician should respect and offer support to patients while adhering to their religious perspectives or wishes (Smith, 2018). On the principle of justice, George should not consider euthanasia because it violates Christian laws and beliefs that require people to live until they die naturally.

Morally Justified Options

Christians believe that all things are possible through God’s guidance. Consequently, George should take his treatment process and adhere to the guidelines from his physician. While he has a choice to either take the medication or not, it is important for him to believe in God and follow any assistance that shall be provided by the doctors. George’s condition has no cure and will lead to further deterioration of his nervous system to a point where he will not carry out his daily routines like family and professional responsibilities. Based on a Christian worldview, he should get guidance on how to endure the sufferings as preparation for his eventual demise. While he has opted for voluntary euthanasia, he needs to understand that this is unacceptable in Christianity because it is viewed as self-murder (Schweda et al., 2017). God requires people to live and die naturally. Christianity does not allow harm to self or others. George should know that death through euthanasia would be devastated and traumatizing for himself, his family, and those who know him. He should rely on his faith and family to attain support that he requires to survive the hard times.

The Decision if in George’s Situation

George’s situation is devastating and emotionally draining. The chronic illness with few years to live in a deteriorated state does not inspire anyone to make any sound and meaningful decision. George knows that his value in life would be limited and eventually become unsustainable. The implication is that he cannot support his decisions and choices. Based on these factors, I would opt for a more guided life and prepare for the diminished abilities to perform critical life functions. The decision to take medication would be the most effective over euthanasia. However, it would be influenced significantly by the support that I will attain from those close to me. Our lives revolve around families, friends, colleagues, neighbors, and the Christian community. Therefore, my worldview and decision to take medication as opposed to voluntary euthanasia would depend on the support and the advice from even the medical team and what my family thinks. If they can support the decision for euthanasia, it would be right because they may not want to witness my long-suffering. However, it is important to know that life is valuable and cannot be taken for granted. I will endure and face my God till death comes.

References

Choudry, M., Latif, A., & Warburton (2018). An overview of the spiritual importance of end-of-

life care among the five major faiths of the United Kingdom. Clinical Medicine, vol. 18, No.1, pp.23-31.

Devilliers, D. E. (2016). May Christians request medically assisted suicide and euthanasia? HTS

Theological Studies, Vol.72, No.4.

EuroMed Info. (2016). How culture influences health beliefs.  Retrieved from

How culture influences health beliefs

Schweda, M., Schicktanz, S., Raz, A., & Silvers, A. (2017). Beyond cultural stereotyping: views

on end-of-life decision making among religious and secular persons in the USA, Germany, and Israel. BMC Medical Ethics, Vol.18, No.13, pp. 1-11.

Smith, P. T. (2018). Ramsey on “Choosing Life” at the End of Life: Conceptual Analysis of

Euthanasia and Adjudicating End-of-Life Care Options. Christian bioethics: Non-Ecumenical Studies in Medical Morality, Volume 24, Issue 2, August 2018, Pages 151–172.

Worldview (2017). Helping you better understand the world’s cultures and belief systems.

Retrieved from http://www.worldviewu.org/

The practice of health care providers at all levels brings you into contact with people from a variety of faiths. This calls for knowledge and understanding of a diversity of faith expressions; for the purpose of this course, the focus will be on the Christian worldview.

Based on “Case Study: End of Life Decisions,” the Christian worldview, and the worldview questions presented in the required topic study materials you will

complete an ethical analysis of George’s situation and his decision from the perspective of the Christian worldview.

Provide a 1,500-2,000-word ethical analysis while answering the following questions:

  1. How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the fallenness of the world?
  2. How would  George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the hope of resurrection?
  3. As George contemplates life with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), how would the Christian worldview inform his view about the value of his life as a person?

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How George Would Interpret His Suffering In Light Of the Christian Narrative, With an Emphasis on the Hope of Resurrection

Apart from the curse made to Adam, the scripture continues to state that God was still merciful to man. In other words, despite the wrongdoing that lead to curse, God was still compassionate and merciful in dealing with His creation. The mercifulness of God is evident when he sent his only son, Jesus Christ to save the world from sin and to restore the positive relationship with the man. God sent his son Jesus Christ to provide the renewed relationship with the people. Christians community have a belief that Jesus was a subject of suffering, death and resurrection. From the above perspective, Christians always have a belief that tragedy is common and is always round the corner. Further, they have a strong belief that suffering is part of what man has to go through, it was a curse that was placed by God during the time of Adam. The suffering was also confirmed by Jesus Christ undergoing intense suffering and dying on the cross to save the world from sin. From Jesus’ life, suffering and death, Christian believers were promised the same (McLaughlin, 2019). The above scenario has been portrayed in George’s case; there is a belief that his suffering is attributed to the curse of God placed upon man and confirmed by Jesus Christ. Christians often experience different forms of suffering as also witnessed by Apostle Paul when he said that he had a suffering that is placed upon the honor of the name of God. Apostle Paul stated in his letter that the suffering he had to endure was in honor of God and to depict Christ’s life. As a result, Christians often seek to accomplish the glory of God through accepting the fact that tribulations are part of their purpose in life. As a result, the same way Jesus suffered, crucified, and resurrected after all He endured, Christians still have faith on what had been promised to them when Jesus suffered because of their sins. week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

https://onlinenursingessays.com/week-4-case-study-on-death-and-dying-2/

The same way Christians have a belief in the relief brought about by Jesus’s suffering, George is able to see his suffering as a hope in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. George also believes that after all the sufferings brought about by the diseases, there is no further suffering expected in the promised external life. Among the sacrifices that were made by Jesus, there was the fulfillment of the testament. As a result, George believes that through faith, it is possible to gain good health. Besides the treatment processes, there is the need to always have faith in God to facilitate the healing processes. The above faith can also make George happy as there is the future eternal peace for him. From the above scenario, it is clear that George has had faith that the terminal illness was not meant to last forever. For once, Jesus departed from the sin of the earth, there will be resurrection and the eternal life without more deaths and suffering. PHI-413V week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

  1. What sorts of values and considerations would the Christian worldview focus on in deliberating about whether or not George should opt for euthanasia?
  2. Given the above, what options would be morally justified in the Christian worldview for George and why?
  3. Based on your worldview, what decision would you make if you were in George’s situation?

Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required.

This assignment uses a rubric.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

1. Bioethics: A Primer for Christians

Read Chapters 6 and 12 in Bioethics: A Primer for Christians.

http://gcumedia.com/digital-resources/wm-b-eerdmans-publishing-co/2013/bioethics_a-primer-for-christians_ebook_3e.php
2. Called to Care: A Christian Worldview for Nursing

Read Chapters 10-12 in Called to Care: A Christian Worldview for Nursing.

http://gcumedia.com/digital-resources/intervarsity-press/2006/called-to-care_a-christian-worldview-for-nursing_ebook_2e.php

3. Defining Death: Medical, Legal and Ethical Issues in the Determination of Death

Read the Introduction and Chapters 1-3 of “Defining Death: Medical, Legal and Ethical Issues in the Determination of Death” by the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1984). PHI-413V week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/559345/defining_death.pdf?sequence=1

Rubric

  1. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials. 12%
  2. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials. 12%
  3. Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.12%
  4. Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials. 12%
  5. Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials. 12% PHI-413V week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying
  6. Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be make if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear, relevant, and insightful. 10%
  7. Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear. 7%
  8. Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative. 8%
  9. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. 5%
  10. All format elements are correct.5%
  11. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error. 5%

Case Study: End of Life Decisions: week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

George is a successful attorney in his mid-fifties. He is also a legal scholar, holding a teaching post at the local university law school in Oregon. George is also actively involved in his teenage son’s basketball league, coaching regularly for their team. Recently, George has experienced muscle weakness and unresponsive muscle coordination. He was forced to seek medical attention after he fell and injured his hip. After an examination at the local hospital following his fall, the attending physician suspected that George may be showing early symptoms for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease affecting the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The week following the initial examination, further testing revealed a positive diagnosis of ALS.

ALS is progressive and gradually causes motor neuron deterioration and muscle atrophy to the point of complete muscle control loss. There is currently no cure for ALS, and the median life expectancy is between 3 and 4 years, though it is not uncommon for some to live 10 or more years. The progressive muscle atrophy and deterioration of motor neurons leads to the loss of the ability to speak, move, eat, and breathe. However, sight, touch, hearing, taste, and smell are not affected. Patients will be wheelchair bound and eventually need permanent ventilator support to assist with breathing. PHI-413V week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

George and his family are devastated by the diagnosis. George knows that treatment options only attempt to slow down the degeneration, but the symptoms will eventually come. He will eventually be wheelchair bound and be unable to move, eat, speak, or even breathe on his own.

In contemplating his future life with ALS, George begins to dread the prospect of losing his mobility and even speech. He imagines his life in complete dependence upon others for basic everyday functions and perceives the possibility of eventually degenerating to the point at which he is a prisoner in his own body. Would he be willing to undergo such torture, such loss of his own dignity and power? George thus begins inquiring about the possibility of voluntary euthanasia.

PHI-413V Topic 4 Overview

Death, Dying, and Grief

Introduction

Death and dying are a bitter part of the reality of life, in general, and a particularly common experience for those called to health care. The nature and meaning of death is not simply biological or scientific, but rather involves deep philosophical and religious questions. Once again, medical technology has changed the scope, quality, and experience of death (or at least the dying process). It has even prompted a changing of the very definition of death. PHI-413V week 4 – Case Study on Death and Dying

Death in the 21st Century

One of the incredible benefits of modern science and its application in medical technology has been the ability to extend physiological life. In the 1960s, the development of CPR, ventilators, and the like allowed never-before-seen intervention in the process of dying, such that a “millennia-old general understanding of what it meant to be dead” was transformed (Veatch, Haddad, & English, 2010, pp. 390-391). In the field of biomedical ethics, the very definition of what it means to be dead is a controversial topic. In continuing with a fundamental theme running throughout this course, it should be noted that while the pathophysiological and scientifically detectable signs of death are crucial in this debate, they should not be taken to be determinative or comprehensive. This debate still crucially depends on the philosophical background of one’s anthropology (i.e., view of personhood) and in the resulting interpretation of these scientific and physiological signs. The medical definition of death is not a purely or irreducibly scientific question.

Worldview and the Meaning of Death

Two of the more controversial issues in bioethics are euthanasia and physician- assisted suicide. As you read and research the ethics surrounding these issues, consider how the Christian worldview would analyze the ethics of such actions. On a worldview level, the question of the medical definition of death is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of the broader significance and ultimate meaning of death. Whether or not there is any meaning to death and what it might be is a question of one’s worldview. Questions regarding whether or not there will be ultimate moral accountability for the way one lived life and whether there is an afterlife are key questions in this regard. The very phenomenon of the loss of (at the very least) physiological and perhaps conscious integrity and activity is a fact of life that calls for explanation.

Once again, an accurate understanding of religion and worldview is required. Furthermore, the distinctions among each religion must be appreciated and not collapsed into one another. The way in which both technology and religious background color the experience and meaning of death (both in dying and grieving) must also be appreciated. Whatever rituals or practices a religious or cultural group engages in are informed by a view regarding the nature and meaning of death that fits within an overarching worldview narrative.

Death in the Christian Worldview

Death takes on a particular meaning when seen within the Christian narrative. It is, in fact, not the greatest evil that could befall a human being and is furthermore transformed in the light of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The Christian teaching that “God died” essentially transforms the way in which death is seen and experienced (Sanders, 2007, pp. 6-8). Death is certainly a tragedy and an evil, but it is now a conquered enemy. It is a conquered enemy because in the Christian biblical narrative, death is a perversion of God’s original design plan. And yet, the Christian God constantly redeems that which is broken.

Loss and Grief

Death is a particularly traumatic and difficult experience for both family and caregivers. Understanding the process and stages of grieving is immensely beneficial for caregivers to assess the well-being of patients and families. There are numerous resources that can be of tremendous benefit for both caregivers and family. One of the most influential is the work of American psychiatrist Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. Perhaps the most influential insight of her work was to notice certain patterns or stages in the human experience of grief, especially after the loss of a loved one in death. She called these the five stages of grief. Briefly, they include the following: (a) denial, (b) anger, (c) bargaining, (d) depression, and (e) acceptance (as cited in HealGrief, 2016).

Expectations regarding an afterlife will in large part determine the manner in which patients and families welcome or spurn the prospect of death. Furthermore, the way in which a person experiences the stages of grief will be in the context of his or her worldview. Christian theologian Nicholas Wolterstorff’s (1987) memoir, Lament for a Son, is a personal reflection of his own personal grief after losing his 25-year-old son in a mountain climbing accident. As he engages with his own grief and experience, it becomes clear that everything is ultimately seen in the light of God’s loving control and the ultimate hope found in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

Why Did God Become Man? Incarnation, Atonement, andResurrection

Jesus was the Son of God before he was born into our world. The event of God taking on flesh and dwelling among us–the incarnation–is amazing and is celebrated all over the world at Christmas. The incarnation is proclaimed clearly throughout the New Testament (Luke 1:35; John 1:14; Phil. 2:5-7).

So why did God become man? The most famous verse in the Bible clearly tells us, “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life” (John 3:16 NIV). And Jesus knew what this would require of him. He stated in Matthew 20:28, “The Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”

God is both holy and just, so although he created humanity to be immortal, he could not accept them into his holy kingdom in their sinful state. So from the beginning God enacted and unfolded his plan for humanity, to redeem a people for himself (Titus 2:11-14), requiring that justice be upheld and sin punished. Therefore, a sacrificial lamb was needed–one that could atone for the sins of the world. Only the perfect and sinless Lamb of God would be sufficient. Yes, God himself would have to be the sacrifice somehow.

So the incarnation led inexorably to the cross, the torturous experience that had been prophesied nearly a thousand years earlier by David in Psalm 22. All four Gospels give vivid accounts of the crucifixion of Jesus, the most unjust execution ever to be carried out, as testified by the centurion there who said, “Certainly this man was innocent!” (Luke 23:47). But as unjust as the crucifixion was, Jesus willingly accepted it, for as the Son of God he could easily have been rescued (Matt. 26:53). Instead, Jesus bore the sins of the world on the cross. This is called the atonement–the reconciliation of humanity with God through the sufferings and sacrificial death of Christ.

It is interesting that the clearest account of the atonement is found in the prophecy of Isaiah 53: 5-12 (NKJV) where the atonement is specifically stated seven times:

He was wounded for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities…and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all…stricken for the transgression of my people…when his soul makes an offering for sin…and he shall bear their iniquities…yet he bore the sin of many.

God went out of his way to make the extent he would go to bring about reconciliation clear.

The resurrection of Jesus Christ is by far the climax of his life. .All four Gospels provide vivid accounts of this amazing miracle that conquered death. There have been many who looked at the history of the times, read the many accounts of what happened both in the Bible and in other sources, and came to the inevitable conclusion that there is no other explanation for what happened except that Jesus surely rose from the dead. After the crucifixion, the disciples gave up and went back to fishing–the 3 years of exhilarating ministry were over. But then the resurrection changed everything. It was not long before the disciples were accused of turning “the world upside down” (Acts 17:6). This world-changing event was not just a historical miracle, it was a sign of the promise that God gave to those who put their faith in him. Death is a conquered enemy because Jesus’s resurrection from the dead made a way of salvation, and also was a sign of the future that God has for those that have died “in Christ.”

The phrase “in Christ” is very common in the New Testament and crucial to understanding the gospel. To be “in Christ” means to place your “hope in Christ” (Eph. 1:12), or in other words, making Christ the object of your faith. Paul expresses the gospel message most succinctly in Galatians 2:16 where he says, “a person is not justified by works of the law, but through faith in Jesus Christ.”

Conclusion

Christianity is unlike virtually every other religion in the world. Other religions show you what they believe is a way to God by living in a certain manner, praying certain prayers, and many other religious customs. Christianity teaches that people are not capable of being good enough, which is precisely why God sent Jesus to be the Savior of the world. Other religions offer good advice, whereas Christ offers good news, the gospel–which is that by trusting in what he has already done for you, you are restored.

Other religions offer possible salvation (eternal life in heaven) through trusting in one’s own good works, while Christianity offers certain salvation through trusting in Christ’s good works. Paul makes this clear in Ephesians 2:8-9, “For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast” (ESV). The final chapter in the biblical narrative will involve a restoration of all creation, and those that died in Christ will be resurrected and receive imperishable bodies.

References

HealGrief. (2016). Understanding grief and loss: An overview. Retrieved from http:// http://healgrief.org/understanding-grief/

Sanders, F. (2007). Chalcedonian categories for the gospel narrative. In F. Sanders & K. Issler (Eds.), Jesus in trinitarian perspective (pp. 1-41). Nashville, TN: B&H Academic.

Veatch, R. M., Haddad, A., & English, D. (2010). Case studies in biomedical ethics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Verhey, A. (2011). The Christian art of dying: Learning from Jesus. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Wolterstorff, N. (1987). Lament for a son. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans     Publishing Company.

Topic 4: Optional Study Materials

Introduction to Euthanasia: Opposing Viewpoints

“Introduction to Euthanasia: Opposing Viewpoints,” edited by Torr, from Opposing Viewpoints in Context (2000).

https://link-galegroup-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/apps/doc/EJ3010134107/OVIC?u=canyonuniv&sid=OVIC&xid=e1aca972

Ethics and Life’s Ending: An Exchange

“Ethics and Life’s Ending: An Exchange,” by Orr and Meilaender, from First Things (2004).

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0001442679&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Always Care, Never Kill: How Physician-Assisted Suicide Endangers the Weak, Corrupts Medicine, Compromises the Family, and Violates Human Dignity and Equality

“Always Care, Never Kill: How Physician-Assisted Suicide Endangers the Weak, Corrupts Medicine, Compromises the Family, and Violates Human Dignity and Equality,” by Anderson, on The Heritage Foundation website (2015).

https://www.heritage.org/health-care-reform/report/always-care-never-kill-how-physician-assisted-suicide-endangers-the-weak

Pain Management Rather Than Assisted Suicide: The Ethical High Ground

“Pain Management Rather Than Assisted Suicide: The Ethical High Ground,” by Orr, from Pain Medicine (2001).

https://lopes.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=4883594&site=ehost-live&scope=site

The Higher-Brain Concept of Death: A Christian Theological Appraisal

“The Higher-Brain Concept of Death: A Christian Theological Appraisal,” by Roberts, from Ethics & Medicine (2017).

https://search-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/1953801344/8E15777163CE4CF4PQ/9?accountid=7374

Three End-of-Life Cases: Resolving Their Moral Dilemmas

“Three End-of-Life Cases: Resolving Their Moral Dilemmas,” by Mirkes, from Ethics & Medicine (2017).

https://search-proquest-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/docview/1901683914/fulltextPDF/79642D3CA804C4FPQ/8?accountid=7374

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End of Life and Sanctity of Life, Commentary 1

Rabbi Edward Reichman, MD
 
 

Case

Mrs. Jones is an 82-year-old nursing home resident with a longstanding history of heart failure, who is now hospitalized in the cardiac ICU for the third time this year. She is a retired teacher, with 4 children and 8 grandchildren. She did not list a religious preference when admitted to the hospital. The attending cardiologist, Dr. Rosenberg, is a heart failure specialist, and is an active member of an Orthodox Jewish congregation.

On day 3 of her hospitalization, Mrs. Jones developed a fever, which was subsequently determined to be caused by a MRSA line infection from a venous catheter. On day 4, her renal function began steadily deteriorating, until her serum potassium reached dangerous levels.

She has been unconscious for 2 days, and, according to hospital records and her children, she has no advance directives to guide end-of-life care. Dr. Rosenberg requests a family conference with Mrs. Jones’s children (her husband is deceased) to discuss their mother’s prognosis and the appropriate next steps in treatment.

“I’m afraid that your mother’s health is steadily deteriorating,” Dr. Rosenberg tells Mrs. Jones’s family. “She has a serious infection that has failed to respond to traditional antibiotics.”

“How did she get this infection, doctor?” Mrs. Jones’s daughter Jennifer asks.

“That’s a good question. It’s likely the result of an IV line we placed during her admission,” Dr. Rosenberg replies. “Your mother’s infection is caused by a resistant strain of staphylococcus that is common in intensive care units and hospitals, but we have more aggressive antibiotics we can use. I should also tell you that her kidneys are failing, and we’ll need to begin dialysis to ensure that her electrolytes and fluid status are kept at normal levels. Despite this, I think there’s a strong possibility she’ll pull through.”

At this point, Mrs. Jones’s eldest son Franklin interrupts. “Look, doctor,” he says, “My cousin was on dialysis for years, and, until he died, he was really miserable. I don’t want my mom to have to go through that at this age. I think enough is enough. She’s been in the hospital 3 times this year alone.”

“I understand your concern,” Dr. Rosenberg says, “but you should realize that your mother may not require long-term dialysis. Her kidneys may recover, but at this stage, dialysis is the only solution left to correct her electrolyte imbalances. If we don’t lower her potassium, she’ll likely develop a fatal arrhythmia.”

Franklin looks at the rest of the family, who are shaking their heads. “Honestly, I think you shouldn’t treat her any further. Even if it’s not permanent, starting dialysis just isn’t a path we want her to start on. And the ‘aggressive antibiotics’—I don’t see any reason to pour more substances into her already tired body. It’s obviously her time to go. Can’t you just give her something to make her comfortable?”

Dr. Rosenberg pauses for a moment and then tells Franklin. “We fully intend to keep her comfortable and continue treating her pain. As you know, I’m committed to doing what’s best for your mother. But in good conscience, I can’t stop treating your mother as long as there are reasonable courses of action that I could take to preserve her life. According to the principles that guide my practice of medicine, I cannot withhold life-saving treatment from any patient—especially antibiotic therapy and temporary dialysis, both treatments with uncontroversial efficacy.”

Commentary 1

One who sustains the life of but one human being is considered as if he has saved an entire world. —Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin, 37a.

As Dr. Rosenberg invokes Jewish law in his approach to his patient, it behooves us to discuss how Jewish law would address this case.

1) Would Jewish law indeed require dialysis for Mrs. Jones?
2) If the law requires dialysis for Mrs. Jones, can Dr. Rosenberg, according to Jewish law, impose his religious beliefs on others?
3) Does it matter that this patient is not of the same faith as Dr. Rosenberg and does not subscribe to the same religious teachings?

While the voice of Orthodox Judaism is not monolithic and, indeed, a plurality of approaches within accepted boundaries is the norm, one can nevertheless distill immutable principles and values deriving from the Bible, Talmud, and legal codes, which inform the discussion and guide the decisions of rabbinic authorities. Debate and nuanced textual interpretation are hallmarks of Jewish legal discourse. While herein we discuss particulars of a fictional case, any actual case of Jewish medical ethics must be presented to the proper rabbinic authority.

A number of legal principles serve as the foundation for decisions in the field of Jewish medical ethics. One such principle is the sanctity of life and the obligation to preserve it. The concept of quality of life has different meaning in the Jewish tradition, and life, be it sentient or not, is of infinite value. This does not mean that life need be perpetuated at all times and at all cost. According to many rabbinic authorities, there are limited circumstances where specific treatments may be withheld. A full treatment of this area of law is beyond the scope of this essay, but the discussions of withholding treatment are generally restricted to patients suffering from terminal, untreatable conditions, who are enduring intractable suffering. The specific treatments that can be withheld are debated, but all agree that nutrition, hydration, and oxygen (not necessarily intubation) should be provided to all patients and are not subject to refusal. One is therefore not permitted to withhold food, even if insertion of a feeding tube is required for its delivery, as this is considered basic human sustenance to be provided to all people. Terri Schaivo, for example, according to Jewish law, would not be considered to have a lesser quality of life than this writer. She did not suffer from a terminal, incurable disease, and withholding food would clearly not have been permitted according to orthodox Jewish tradition.

Mrs. Jones’s medical condition is not discussed in great detail, but for our purposes, I will assume that Mrs. Jones has an acute, potentially reversible infection complicated by renal failure, which could theoretically be reversed with antibiotics and temporary dialysis. In such a case, Jewish law would likely require that dialysis be performed, inasmuch as Mrs. Jones would surely die without it. If Mrs. Jones were suffering from end-stage metastatic cancer and developed irreversible renal failure, a strong case could be made according to Jewish law to refrain from dialysis.

Having established that according to Jewish law dialysis would be indicated, is Dr. Rosenberg obligated, according to this same law, to impose his beliefs on others? The answer here is a decided “no.” Even if the patient were of the same faith and subscribed to his religious beliefs, Dr. Rosenberg would not be required to coerce therapy. The reason is clear from another exercise in legal analysis: American law forbids treatment against a patient’s will, and Dr. Rosenberg could theoretically receive legal, ethical, and professional censure (not to mention the criminal consequences) for violating a patient’s rights and bodily integrity. This could lead to the loss of livelihood and profession for Dr. Rosenberg, and would preclude him from assisting in the aid and treatment of future patients. Furthermore, Jewish law places great emphasis on respect for the law of the land where one lives and would disapprove of the violation of American law, with some theoretical exceptions.

As stated above, Jewish law does not require a physician to coerce therapy, if it would result in the loss of profession and livelihood. This concept applies, however, only in a situation where Dr. Rosenberg performs no Jewish-legally prohibited actions that would lead to the demise of the patient. In this case, Dr. Rosenberg is simply refraining from performing dialysis, but performs no specific action that leads to the hastening of the patient’s death. He is permitted the nonaction to preserve his profession and livelihood.

One could envision a theoretical circumstance where Dr. Rosenberg is asked to perform an action to hasten the patient’s death. For example, if the family wishes to disconnect a patient from a ventilator, that is an action which will lead to the patient’s demise. Here, too, one might argue that Dr. Rosenberg should not impose his religious beliefs on the family, and he should therefore accede to the request and disconnect the ventilator. In this case, however, Jewish law would not allow Dr. Rosenberg to disconnect the ventilator, even if his profession were at risk, because this scenario requires Dr. Rosenberg to perform a Jewish-legally prohibited act. (While one could argue that disconnecting the ventilator is not hastening death but rather allowing nature to take its course, Jewish law thinks otherwise, and focuses on the causality. This action will undoubtedly lead to the death of the patient.)

Although coercion would be out of the question according to Jewish law, Dr. Rosenberg could suggest a compromise approach, whereby he encourages the family to allow antibiotics and dialysis on a trial basis. As the antibiotic therapy and the dialysis are discrete treatments, and not continuous, as is a respirator, there would be no problem for Dr. Rosenberg, as established above, to discontinue them if the family later requested such. Indeed, if the family is told that there is a chance of recovery with this regimen, but, if it fails, they will have the option to later discontinue the treatments, there might be greater chance of agreement between Dr. Rosenberg and the family. The family may take great comfort in the assurance that all efforts were made to treat their loved one, and the possible subsequent guilt of withholding potentially life-saving treatment would be alleviated.

Course Code Class Code Assignment Title Total Points
NRS-433V NRS-433V-O503 Case Study on Death and Dying 200.0

Criteria Percentage Unsatisfactory (0.00%) Less Than Satisfactory (65.00%) Satisfactory (75.00%) Good (85.00%) Excellent (100.00%)
Content 70.0%
Suffering and Fallenness of the World 12.0% Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Suffering and the Hope of Resurrection 12.0% Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Value of Life 12.0% Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Euthanasia 12.0% Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Morally Justified Options 12.0% Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Personal Decision 10.0% Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is insufficient. Reflection hypothesis of which choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is lacking a personal connection. Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear. Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear and thoughtful. Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be make if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear, relevant, and insightful.

Organization, Effectiveness, and Format 30.0%
Thesis Development and Purpose 7.0% Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear. Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose. Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

Argument Logic and Construction 8.0% Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative. Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) 5.0% Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) 5.0% Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent. Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct.

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) 5.0% Sources are not documented. Documentation of sources is inconsistent and/or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Case Study on Death and Dying – Rubri

Criteria Description

Suffering and Fallenness of the World

5. Excellent

24 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

4. Good

20.4 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

3. Satisfactory

18 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and supported by topic study materials.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

15.6 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

Criteria Description

Suffering and the Hope of Resurrection

5. Excellent

24 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

4. Good

20.4 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

3. Satisfactory

18 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and supported by topic study materials.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

15.6 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

Criteria Description

Value of Life

5. Excellent

24 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

4. Good

20.4 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

3. Satisfactory

18 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and supported by topic study materials.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

15.6 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

Criteria Description

Euthanasia

5. Excellent

24 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

4. Good

20.4 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

3. Satisfactory

18 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and supported by topic study materials.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

15.6 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

Criteria Description

Morally Justified Options

5. Excellent

24 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

4. Good

20.4 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

3. Satisfactory

18 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and supported by topic study materials.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

15.6 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

Criteria Description

Personal Decision

5. Excellent

20 points

Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be make if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear, relevant, and insightful.

4. Good

17 points

Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear and thoughtful.

3. Satisfactory

15 points

Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

13 points

Reflection hypothesis of which choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is lacking a personal connection.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is insufficient.

Criteria Description

Thesis Development and Purpose

5. Excellent

14 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

4. Good

11.9 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

3. Satisfactory

10.5 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

9.1 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

Criteria Description

Argument Logic and Construction

5. Excellent

16 points

Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

4. Good

13.6 points

Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.

3. Satisfactory

12 points

Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

10.4 points

Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

Criteria Description

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

5. Excellent

10 points

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

4. Good

8.5 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.

3. Satisfactory

7.5 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

6.5 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

Criteria Description

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

5. Excellent

10 points

All format elements are correct.

4. Good

8.5 points

Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

3. Satisfactory

7.5 points

Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

6.5 points

Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

Criteria Description

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

5. Excellent

10 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

4. Good

8.5 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

3. Satisfactory

7.5 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

6.5 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent and/or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Sources are not documented.

Rubric Criteria

Total 200 points

Criterion

1. Unsatisfactory

2. Less Than Satisfactory

3. Satisfactory

4. Good

5. Excellent

Documentation of Sources

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

0 points

Sources are not documented.

6.5 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent and/or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

7.5 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

8.5 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

10 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

0 points

Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

6.5 points

Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.

7.5 points

Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

8.5 points

Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

10 points

All format elements are correct.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

6.5 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.

7.5 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.

8.5 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.

10 points

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Value of Life

Value of Life

0 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

15.6 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

18 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and supported by topic study materials.

20.4 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

24 points

Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Argument Logic and Construction

Argument Logic and Construction

0 points

Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

10.4 points

Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.

12 points

Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.

13.6 points

Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.

16 points

Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

Personal Decision

Personal Decision

0 points

Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is insufficient.

13 points

Reflection hypothesis of which choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is lacking a personal connection.

15 points

Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear.

17 points

Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear and thoughtful.

20 points

Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be make if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear, relevant, and insightful.

Euthanasia

Euthanasia

0 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

15.6 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

18 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and supported by topic study materials.

20.4 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

24 points

Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Thesis Development and Purpose

Thesis Development and Purpose

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

9.1 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

10.5 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

11.9 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

14 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

Morally Justified Options

Morally Justified Options

0 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

15.6 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

18 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and supported by topic study materials.

20.4 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

24 points

Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Suffering and the Hope of Resurrection

Suffering and the Hope of Resurrection

0 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

15.6 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

18 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and supported by topic study materials.

20.4 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

24 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Suffering and Fallenness of the World

Suffering and Fallenness of the World

0 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials.

15.6 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials.

18 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and supported by topic study materials.

20.4 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials.

24 points

Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.

Rubric Criteria

Total200 points

Criterion1. Unsatisfactory2. Insufficient3. Approaching4. Acceptable5. Target
1. Christian Worldview of Suffering and Fallenness of the WorldAnalysis of how the individual(s) might interpret their suffering in light of the Christian view of the fallen world and the hope of resurrection0 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) might interpret their suffering in light of the Christian view of the fallen world and the hope of resurrection does not demonstrate knowledge of the concepts as presented in the textbook chapter and topic Resources, or analysis is not provided.26 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) might interpret their suffering in light of the Christian view of the fallen world and the hope of resurrection is a copy of information from the textbook chapter and topic Resources that demonstrates a poor understanding of the related concepts.30 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) might interpret their suffering in light of the Christian view of the fallen world and the hope of resurrection demonstrates a basic understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.34 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) might interpret their suffering in light of the Christian view of the fallen world and the hope of resurrection demonstrates a clear understanding extending beyond the surface of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.40 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) might interpret their suffering in light of the Christian view of the fallen world and the hope of resurrection demonstrates a thorough, concise, and exceptional understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.
2. Christian Worldview of Value of Life as a PersonAnalysis of how the individual(s) would use the Christian worldview to inform their view about the value of life as a person0 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) would use the Christian worldview to inform their view about the value of life as a person does not demonstrate knowledge of the concepts as presented in the textbook chapter and topic Resources, or analysis is not provided.26 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) would use the Christian worldview to inform their view about the value of life as a person is a copy of information from the textbook chapter and topic Resources that demonstrates a poor understanding of the related concepts.30 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) would use the Christian worldview to inform their view about the value of life as a person demonstrates a basic understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.34 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) would use the Christian worldview to inform their view about the value of life as a person demonstrates a clear understanding extending beyond the surface of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.40 pointsAnalysis of how the individual(s) would use the Christian worldview to inform their view about the value of life as a person demonstrates a thorough, concise, and exceptional understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.
3. Christian Worldview Informed ChoiceAnalysis of how the concept of suffering in a Christian worldview informs their deliberations about the choices they will make0 pointsAnalysis of how the concept of suffering in a Christian worldview informs their deliberations about the choices they will make does not demonstrate knowledge of the concepts as presented in the textbook chapter and topic Resources, or analysis is not provided.26 pointsAnalysis of how the concept of suffering in a Christian worldview informs their deliberations about the choices they will make is a copy of information from the textbook chapter and topic Resources that demonstrates a poor understanding of the related concepts.30 pointsAnalysis of how the concept of suffering in a Christian worldview informs their deliberations about the choices they will make demonstrates a basic understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.34 pointsAnalysis of how the concept of suffering in a Christian worldview informs their deliberations about the choices they will make demonstrates a clear understanding extending beyond the surface of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.40 pointsAnalysis of how the concept of suffering in a Christian worldview informs their deliberations about the choices they will make demonstrates a thorough, concise, and exceptional understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.
4. Demonstration of EmpathyAnalysis of how to come alongside and demonstrate empathy for the individual(s) as support and care are provided for them0 pointsAnalysis of how to come alongside and demonstrate empathy for the individual(s) as support and care are provided for them does not demonstrate knowledge of the concepts as presented in the textbook chapter and topic Resources, or analysis is not provided.13 pointsAnalysis of how to come alongside and demonstrate empathy for the individual(s) as support and care are provided for them is a copy of information from the textbook chapter and topic Resources that demonstrates a poor understanding of the related concepts.15 pointsAnalysis of how to come alongside and demonstrate empathy for the individual(s) as support and care are provided for them demonstrates a basic understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources, and reflection on personal actions and their consequences.17 pointsAnalysis of how to come alongside and demonstrate empathy for the individual(s) as support and care are provided for them demonstrates a clear understanding extending beyond the surface of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources, and reflection on personal actions and their consequences.20 pointsAnalysis of how to come alongside and demonstrate empathy for the individual(s) as support and care are provided for them demonstrates a thorough, concise, and exceptional understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources, and reflection on personal actions and their consequences.
5. Display of RespectAnalysis of how to respect the perspectives of the individual(s) that may be different from personal and professional values0 pointsAnalysis of how to respect the perspectives of the individual(s) that may be different from personal and professional values does not demonstrate knowledge of the concepts as presented in the textbook chapter and topic Resources, or analysis is not provided.13 pointsAnalysis of how to respect the perspectives of the individual(s) that may be different from personal and professional values is a copy of information from the textbook chapter and topic Resources that demonstrates a poor understanding of the related concepts.15 pointsAnalysis of how to respect the perspectives of the individual(s) that may be different from personal and professional values demonstrates a basic understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources, consideration of conscious and unconscious biases in relationship to human rights in health care practice, and reflection on personal actions and their consequences.17 pointsAnalysis of how to respect the perspectives of the individual(s) that may be different from personal and professional values demonstrates a clear understanding extending beyond the surface of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources, consideration of conscious and unconscious biases in relationship to human rights in health care practice, and reflection on personal actions and their consequences.20 pointsAnalysis of how to respect the perspectives of the individual(s) that may be different from personal and professional values demonstrates a thorough, concise, and exceptional understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources, consideration of conscious and unconscious biases in relationship to human rights in health care practice, and reflection on personal actions and their consequences.
6. Personal Worldview and Personal DecisionAnalysis of how personal worldview informs what decision to make if in their situation0 pointsAnalysis of how personal worldview informs what decision to make if in their situation does not demonstrate knowledge of the concepts as presented in the textbook chapter and topic Resources, or analysis is not provided.13 pointsAnalysis of how personal worldview informs what decision to make if in their situation is a copy of information from the textbook chapter and topic Resources that demonstrates a poor understanding of the related concepts.15 pointsAnalysis of how personal worldview informs what decision to make if in their situation demonstrates a basic understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.17 pointsAnalysis of how personal worldview informs what decision to make if in their situation demonstrates a clear understanding extending beyond the surface of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.20 pointsAnalysis of how personal worldview informs what decision to make if in their situation demonstrates a thorough, concise, and exceptional understanding of the concepts. Explanation is supported with references to relevant textbook chapter and topic Resources.
Mechanics of WritingIncludes spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, language use, sentence structure, etc.0 pointsErrors in grammar or syntax are pervasive and impede meaning. Incorrect language choice or sentence structure errors are found throughout.7.8 pointsFrequent and repetitive mechanical errors are present. Inconsistencies in language choice or sentence structure are recurrent.9 pointsOccasional mechanical errors are present. Language choice is generally appropriate. Varied sentence structure is attempted.10.2 pointsFew mechanical errors are present. Suitable language choice and sentence structure are used.12 pointsNo mechanical errors are present. Appropriate language choice and sentence structure are used throughout.
Format/DocumentationUses appropriate style, such as APA, MLA, etc., for college, subject, and level; documents sources using citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., appropriate to assignment and discipline.0 pointsAppropriate format is not used. No documentation of sources is provided.5.2 pointsAppropriate format is attempted, but some elements are missing. Frequent errors in documentation of sources are evident.6 pointsAppropriate format and documentation are used, although there are some obvious errors.6.8 pointsAppropriate format and documentation are used with only minor errors.8 pointsNo errors in formatting or documentation are present.

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