Assignment: Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

Assignment: Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

Assignment Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

Bullying among nurses is one of the workplace problems that is experienced in health. Evidence has shown that of all the cases of bullying in healthcare, more than 50% of them are reported by the nurses. New nurses are often the victims of bullying from other nurses due to their powerlessness in their organizations. Besides, female nurses are more likely to be bullied when compared to the male nurses. Bullying is associated with significant adverse outcomes. They include decline in productivity and quality of nursing care, increased risk of depression and intent of nurses to leave their jobs. As a result, it is important that responsive interventions be adopted to address this issue affecting newly employed nurses in healthcare settings. Consequently, this research paper is a critical appraisal of two research articles that were used to perform problem identification and development of PICOT statement.

Summary of Studies

The studies by Barchard et al., (2017) and Roter (2016) were selected for this critique. The study by Roter (2016) sought to investigate the experiences of registered nurses with dysfunctional leadership in a hospital setting. According to the author, dysfunctional leadership contributes to organizational issues that include bullying and workplace violence. However, she notes that few studies have explored the experiences of nurses in hospitals characterized by dysfunctional leadership. This research is significant to nursing because it provides insights into the negative effects of dysfunctional leadership to health organizations. It also provides insights into the ways in which the consequences of dysfunctional leadership can be averted in nursing and healthcare. as a result, it increases the need for the use of evidence-based leadership styles in nursing practice to promote health and wellbeing of the nurses. The research question in this research was not stated explicitly. However, it can be deduced from its aim that the question was, what are the experiences of registered nurses who have been exposed to dysfunctional leadership in hospital setting? The article will support my PICOT statement in two ways. Firstly, it will show that organizations have competencies to address the effects of dysfunctional leadership such as bullying and violence. Secondly, the article recognizes employee development as a way of addressing the challenges of dysfunctional leadership. Training is one of these strategies, hence, its application to my PICOT statement.

The research by Barchard et al., (2017) sought to explore the understanding of nurses about the concept of courage. According to the

Assignment Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations
Assignment Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

authors, nurses often experience situations that they perceive to be contrary to their expectations. As a result, it is important to explore the manner in which they are committed to expressing themselves to others in the workplace. The article is significant to nursing since it explored the concept of courage among nurses and ways it influences their practice. It also provides insights into the manner in which nurses can utilize the concept to lead change in their organizations. The research question for this research was not stated. However, it supports the nurse practice issue that was chosen by strengthening the need for the provision of opportunities to nurses that improve their courage to face their uncomfortable situations.

How the Articles will be Used to Answer PICOT Question

The articles will answer the PICOT question in a number of ways. Firstly, it will demonstrate that bullying among nurses is a vice that

Assignment Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations
Assignment Rough Draft Qualitative Research Critique and Ethical Considerations

can be prevented with the creation of awareness among them. The awareness is important in promoting the desired behavioral change in the nurses. As a result, the rate of bullying of new nurses is expected to decline. The articles will also be used to provide insight into the effectiveness of interventions that raise awareness about the effects of bullying in the workplace. The articles have demonstrated that the use of organizational support systems such as training is effective in building the desired assertiveness among the new nurses. Consequently, the articles will make it evident that bullying of new nurses can be prevented by providing training opportunities to nurses about it. The articles selected for the review did not explore directly the use of training to address the issue of bullying among nurses. However, the researchers recommended its use to increase the ability of the nurses to address the issue in their clinical practice. The anticipated outcomes for my PICOT question are varied. They include the increase in the level of awareness among the nurses on the effects of bullying and ways of addressing it. It will result in the reduction in the rates of bullying in the organization. The outcomes of the selected articles in this review compare with the anticipated outcomes in this project by showing that awareness programs are effective in reducing the rates of bullying. They show that organizational leadership is important in informing the need for the adoption of interventions that eliminate bullying in the workplace.

Methods of Study

The research by Roter (2016) utilized phenomenology approach of inquiry. According to Holloway (2017), this approach aims at investigating the experiences of the participants. The researcher obtains data from the participants and uses it to come up with universal meanings of their experiences. The method is premised on the assumption that every person has unique experiences, which have different meaning from the others. Therefore, the experience should be explored on individual basis to understand it better and its influence on the subjective assessment of a situation by the participant. One of the advantages of this method is that it provides in-depth understanding of a phenomenon under investigation. However, it is associated with disadvantage of poor reliability and validity due to its subjective nature.

The research by Barchard et al. (2017) utilized the grounded theory approach. According to Harvey (2015), this approach focuses on the use of collected and analyzed data to come up with a theory. It allows for the uncovering of the behaviors and social relationships of groups. One of the benefits of this approach is that it does not make assumptions on human behavior. Instead, researchers adopt a neutral view of the social contexts influencing human behavior. However, it has the disadvantage of failing to recognize the manner in which the researcher is embedded in the investigation. Therefore, the role of the researcher is not recognized.

Results of the Studies

The studies revealed that the leadership approach utilized in an organization influences the behaviors of the staffs. Accordingly, dysfunctional leadership increased the risk of undesired organizational behaviors such as bullying and violence. However, support systems such as the provision of training opportunities to the nurses increase their level of awareness about these behaviors, hence, the prevention of bullying (Yoder-Wise, 2019). The study outcomes also revealed that nurses are aware of the concept of courage. However, their ability to utilize it in responding to uncomfortable situations by taking risks and speaking out can be improved by raising their level of awareness through interventions such as training of the staffs.

Implications to Nursing Practice

The results of the selected articles demonstrate that bullying among nurses is a behavior that occurs due organizational influences such as infective leadership styles and low level of situational awareness among them. The articles have also shown that organizational behaviors such as bullying have adverse effects on healthcare providers, patients, and quality of care. Therefore, it is important that interventions that raise the level of awareness of the nurses concerning peer bullying are embraced. The right leadership should be embraced to promote the creation of safe environments for the new nurses. The organizations should create support systems that encourage nurses to speak up their experiences, thereby, their wellbeing.

Ethical Considerations

Scientific researches should be conducted with a consideration of ethics for them to demonstrate the desired rigor. One of the ethical considerations in research is seeking informed consent. It is essential that researchers obtain consent from the participants prior to conducting their studies. Informed consent implies that the participants have been informed about the research and its associated implications (Boswell & Cannon, 2020). The other research ethic that is important when undertaking scientific studies is privacy. Researchers are tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that the identity of the study participants is not revealed. This eliminates the possibility of victimization of the participants due to their participation in the research. Researchers promote this principle by ensuring anonymity of the study participants (Scott, 2017).  The ethical principles of informed consent and privacy have been taken into consideration in the selected articles for this critique. As shown by the authors, the participants gave their informed consent prior to participating in the research. The participation was also voluntary. The authors also did not reveal the identities of the study participants. The participants were assigned codes to identify them. Therefore, the studies were conducted with a consideration of research ethics.




Barchard, F., Sixsmith, J., Neill, S., & Meurier, C. (2017). 6Cs and ten commitments: nurses’ understanding and use of courage. Nursing Management23(10).

Boswell, C., & In Cannon, S. (2020). Introduction to nursing research: Incorporating evidence-based practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Harvey, M. (2015). Research methods for nurses and midwives: Theory and practice. Sage.

Holloway, I. (2017). Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell.

Roter, A. B. (2016). A phenomenological study: Understanding registered nurses experiences related to dysfunctional leadership in a hospital setting. Journal of Organizational Psychology16(1).

Scott, P. A. (2017). Key concepts and issues in nursing ethics. Cham, Switzerland: Springer.

Yoder-Wise, P. S. (2019). Leading and managing in nursing. New York, NY: Mosby.


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Topic 3 DQ 1

Aug 8-10, 2022

Provide examples of experimental and nonexperimental research design. Contrast the levels of control applied to each.

Replies to Krishna Turner

Experimental studies are controlled studies that are true experiments. The researchers multiplate one or more variables to determine how it has an effect other variable. Researchers uses random assignment, and it is less bias. Non-experimental research design measures the statistical relationship between two or more variable, and the cause and effect of the relationship. (GCU, 2018)

Non-experimental can be a survey or observation of one or more group of subjects. This study lacks element of control and is based on calculating simple prevalence rates. For instance, observing people that has a lung injury secondary to a blunt chest trauma. This study is done by multiple cross-sectional observation which can identify changes that are happening at different time intervals and looking at different samples. (Thompson & Panacek, 2007)


Experimental is done with a control group. The subjects are explained the risk and benefits of the study and must consent to participating in it. The participant must meet the criteria of the study, for instance a study that is conducted on changing children eating behaviours. The researcher provides the children with free fruits and vegetables and observes how taste can positively influence the children attitudes and eating behaviour. (DeCosta et al., 2017)




DeCosta, P., Møller, P., Frøst, M. B., & Olsen, A. (2017). Changing Children’s eating behaviour – a review of Experimental Research. Appetite, 113, 327–357.


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Nursing research: Understanding methods for best practice. Retrieved from


Thompson, C. B., & Panacek, E. A. (2007). Research study designs: Non-experimental. Air Medical Journal26(1), 18–22.

Kadija Tejan-deen

replied toKrishna Turner

Aug 12, 2022, 11:28 PM

Replies to Krishna Turner

Hello Krishna,

Good post. Experimental research is the type of research that uses a scientific approach towards manipulating one or more control variables and measuring their defect on the dependent variables, while non-experimental research is the type of research that does not involve the manipulation of control variables. Nonexperimental research designs provide Level IV evidence. The strength of evidence provided by nonexperimental designs is not as strong as that for experimental designs because there is a different degree of control within the study; that is, the independent variable is not manipulated, subjects are not randomized, and there is no control group (Glasofer & Townsend, 2020). Yet the information yielded by these types of studies is critical to developing a base of evidence for practice and may represent the best evidence available to answer research or clinical questions.


Glasofer, A., & Townsend, A. B. (2020). Determining the level of evidence: Nonexperimental research designs. Nursing2020 Critical Care15(1), 24-27.