PICOT Statement and Research Critiques

PICOT Statement and Research Critiques

PICOT Statement and Research Critiques

Nurse burnout is a common phenomenon characterized by reduced energy levels in the nursing workforce. According to Tran et al. (2019), the common sources of nurse burnout include high workload, the emotional impact of caring, lack of recognition, lack of shift rotation, and complex interpersonal relationships in the work setting. This paper seeks to discuss nurse burnout in relation to an evidence-based solution, nursing intervention, patient care, health care agency, and nursing practice.

Evidence-Based Solution

Recognizing and preventing nurse burnout plays a major role in improving nurses’ physical and mental health and wellbeing, and thus improves the quality of patient care. My proposed evidence-based solution to address nurse burnout is providing psychological interventions, such as meditation, yoga, and mindfulness interventions (Aryankhesal et al., 2019). The interventions have been attributed to a significant increase in self-care and a reduction in stress, and burnout, emotional exhaustion, among health providers (Aryankhesal et al., 2019). Psychological interventions has established as effective in improving nurses’ empathy, attention, and presence with patients.

Nursing Intervention

The nursing intervention to address nurse burnout is to train nurses on psychiatric interventions to reduce emotional exhaustion and improve their mental wellbeing. Janssen et al. (2018) established that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) decreased the degree of psychological distress, emotional stress, depression, and occupational stress. Lin et al. (2019) also proved that an MBSR program effectively reduced stress and negative affect and increased positive affect and resilience among nurses. Consequently, training of nurses on psychiatric strategies reduces emotional exhaustion can burnout levels and ultimately reduce turnover and shortage.

Patient Care

Burnout may negatively impact the quality and safety of patient care due to increased medical errors and missed nursing care. High levels of nurse burnout are associated with unfavorable health outcomes, patient dissatisfaction, and increased patient and family complaints (Tran et al., 2019). Besides, nurses experiencing burnout are often negative in their work, predisposing them to more agitated or aggressive attitudes toward patients and their colleagues (Tran et al., 2019). Therefore, it is crucial that nurse burnout be addressed to improve patient care quality and safety, enhance health outcomes, and increase patient satisfaction.

Health Care Agency

Burnout lowers nurses’ performance level, quality of life, and organizational commitment increasing their intention to leave the job.

PICOT Statement and Research Critiques
PICOT Statement and Research Critiques

This leads to high turnover rates, worsening the existing nursing shortage (Lin et al., 2019). The reduced work commitment and high turnover rate lead to the unsustainability of healthcare agencies since they spend lots of resources hiring new nurses. Reducing nurse burnout is thus essential to reduce the resources spent in recruiting temporary and permanent nurses and strengthen the sustainability of healthcare agencies.

Nursing Practice

Nurse burnout adversely impacts nursing practice considering that nurses experience the highest levels of burnout. It contributes to mental and physical exhaustion, sleep disturbances, and depression among nurses (Lin et al., 2019). As a result, nurses develop feelings of dread about work and the nursing profession at large. Besides, nurse burnout leads to compassion fatigue, evidenced by nurses disengaging from their patients. Burnout limits nurses from providing standard nursing care, which further impacts nursing practice.


Nurses with burnout have emotional exhaustion, decreased job motivation, and feelings of frustration, contributing to a significant decrease in work efficacy. The evidence-based solution provides nurses with psychological interventions, including meditation, yoga, and mindfulness interventions. Nurses will be trained on these interventions to reduce emotional exhaustion, improve mental wellbeing, and reduce the intention to leave. Reduced burnout will improve the quality and safety of patient care and patient satisfaction.




Aryankhesal, A., Mohammadibakhsh, R., Hamidi, Y., Alidoost, S., Behzadifar, M., Sohrabi, R., & Farhadi, Z. (2019). Interventions on reducing burnout in physicians and nurses: A systematic review. Medical journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran33, 77. https://doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.33.77

Janssen, M., Heerkens, Y., Kuijer, W., van der Heijden, B., & Engels, J. (2018). Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on employees’ mental health: A systematic review. PloS one13(1), e0191332. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191332

Lin, L., He, G., Yan, J., Gu, C., & Xie, J. (2019). The effects of a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction program for nurses: A randomized controlled trial. Workplace health & safety67(3), 111-122.

Mudallal, R. H., Othman, W. M., & Al Hassan, N. F. (2017). Nurses’ Burnout: The Influence of Leader Empowering Behaviors, Work Conditions, and Demographic Traits. Inquiry : a journal of medical care organization, provision and financing54, 46958017724944. https://doi.org/10.1177/0046958017724944

Tran, T. T. T., Nguyen, N. B., Luong, M. A., Bui, T. H. A., Phan, T. D., Ngo, T. H., … & Nguyen, T. Q. (2019). Stress, anxiety, and depression in clinical nurses in Vietnam: a cross-sectional survey and cluster analysis. International journal of mental health systems13(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-018-0257-4

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There are numerous similarities and differences between phenomenology and grounded theory. Phenomenology is a research methodology that attempts to understand subjective human experiences while grounded theory is a research methodology that involves the discovery of emerging patterns in data (pediaa.com).

Both approaches are used when the researcher seeks to explore real-life situations and require high degree of interaction between the researcher and the individual, group or situation being examined. Furthermore, they both take an interpretivist approach. Phenomenology and grounded theory seek to collect and analyze data from participant’s perspective and try to ensure that their findings are not influenced by preconceived ideas. This is achieved by involving participants in data analysis to make findings trustworthy.


Phenomenology emerged from philosophy and it aims to describe and explore experiences. It is undertaken by collecting data from individuals who lived through them. Data is often limited to interviews while findings are descriptions of the experience, drawing on characteristics identified during data analysis. On the contrary, grounded theory developed in sociology. It aims to describe and explain a phenomenon. Grounded theorists seeks to include all data sources that might contribute to theory development. Interviews are commonly used, observations,diaries, images and past literature may be included as well.


An example of phenomenologacal sudy is of registered nurse perspective for caring for adolescent females with anorexia nervosa. (Halcomb, Salamonson, Raymond, & Knox, 2012), research regarding new graduates perception of preparedness to work in the intensive care unit setting is an example of grounded theory.


Halcomb, J., Salamonson, Y., Raymond, D., & Knox, N.(2012). Graduating nursing students perceived preparedness for working in critical care areas. Journal of advanced nursing, 68(10), 2229-2236.

What is the difference between phenomenology and grounded theory.

What is the Difference Between Phenomenology and Grounded Theory

  • Replies

The similarities among the types of qualitative research make their differences slightly glaring, I mean, being so similar in the modes with which they collect data, it becomes really obvious when there is something different in the total process one is supposed to take as against the other (Liamputtong, 2020). Funny enough, sometimes it is these same similarities that make the differences so subtle that they are almost hard to notice. I think it depends on the researcher looking for similarities and or differences.


Liamputtong, P. (2020). Qualitative research methods.

  • Replies to Calorine Mahungana

Hello Amanda,

Thanks for your insightful post. I agree that ethnographic research is conducted to contest or sustain stereotypes of particular groups by telling the stories of the lived experiences of individuals. However, phenomenology emerged from philosophy, it aims to describe and explore experiences, which can only be done by collecting data from individuals who have lived through those experiences while grounded theory is a qualitative methodological approach in which the aim is to generate a qualitative researcher with guidelines to describe and explain the phenomenon under study (Wimpenny & Gass, 2020). Contrary to phenomenology research which data are often limited to interviews, grounded theory seeks to include all data sources that might contribute to theory development.


Wimpenny, P., & Gass, J. (2020). Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference?. Journal Of Advanced Nursing31(6), 1485-1492. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01431.x