NURS 6512 Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children

NURS 6512 Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children

NURS 6512 Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children

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Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

One of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the US continues to be obesity. The high incidence of obesity continues to put a pressure on the American healthcare system since it is a major contributor to death, morbidity, disability, healthcare utilization, and costs (Obesity Society, 2016). Obesity affects more than one-third (39.8%) of adults in the United States (CDC, 2018). In 2008, the projected yearly medical cost of obesity in the United States was $147 billion. Obese people’s medical costs were $1,429 greater than those of those of normal weight (CDC, 2018).

Patients are continually subjected to evaluations, yet they might not yield helpful data. Nurses should become familiar with test-specific characteristics that may affect the validity, reliability, and utility of these instruments in order to ensure that health assessments give pertinent data.

The rate of juvenile obesity has tripled over the past 30 years, with an estimated 13.7 million children and adolescents being fat, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (CDC, 2018). Body measurements might offer a useful viewpoint when trying to understand the general health and nutritional status of a patient. With pediatric patients, this is especially critical. Weight and height measurements can assist identify potential health issues and forecast how youngsters will react to illness. In order to assess nutrition-related health risks and pediatric development while being mindful of other factors that may affect these measures, nurses must be skilled at using evaluation tools like the Body Mass Index (BMI) and growth charts. The adult body mass index and health are also predicted using the BMI.

You will look at numerous diagnostic tests and evaluation tools this week that are used to learn more about the conditions of patients. You will investigate the accuracy and dependability of various tests and instruments. Additionally, you’ll look at assessment methods, health risks and issues, and recommendations for treatment involving patient weight, development, and nutrition.

The assessment tools help in the diagnosis of various health conditions. A good tool should have a high level of accuracy and reliability. The burden of breast cancer continues to increase in the current era and so better and accurate tools need to be developed to increase the screening and diagnostic accuracy. The current study explores the effectiveness of mammogram tests in detecting breast cancer.

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The Purpose of the Test

A mammogram can be termed as a screening tool specifically used for diagnostic purposes that provides enough imaging to detect breast carcinoma. If performed in its earlier stages, there is a higher chance of getting a good prognosis which in turn is beneficial for an increased chance of patient survival (Le & Adler, 2020). It is essentially an x-ray of the breast. This imaging technique uses a low x-ray dose to produce a pictorial presentation of the breast. Women are encouraged to have the test done regularly to help in the early detection of breast cancer considering that cancer is among the leading killer diseases in women (Seely & Alhassan, 2018). Late diagnosis results in poor prognosis since the cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body and so become difficult to treat. The mammogram aims to help in identifying the changes in the breast tissue. The test can detect micro-calcifications of less than 100 micrometres; therefore, it can detect the possibility of a patient having cancer before even the palpable lumps form. Furthermore, the test involves one or two views of the breast tissues and so provides an accurate visualization of the breast. Alternatively, the test is also done in symptomatic cases to help in the pre-surgical localization.

NURS 6512 Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children

Many experts predict that genetic testing for disease susceptibility is well on its way to becoming a routine part of clinical care. Yet many of the genetic tests currently being developed are, in the words of the World Health Organization (WHO), of “questionable prognostic value.”

—Leslie Pray, PhD

NURS 6512 Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children
NURS 6512 Assessment Tools, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurement, and Nutrition in Adults and Children

Learning Objectives

Students will:

  • Evaluate validity and reliability of assessment tools and diagnostic tests
  • Analyze diversity considerations in health assessments
  • Apply concepts, theories, and principles related to examination techniques, functional assessments, and cultural and diversity awareness in health assessment
  • Apply assessment skills to collect patient health histories

Learning Resources

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)

 

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

  • Chapter 3, “Examination Techniques and Equipment”

This chapter explains the physical examination techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. This chapter also explores special issues and equipment relevant to the physical exam process.

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  • Chapter 8, “Growth and Nutrition”

In this chapter, the authors explain examinations for growth, gestational age, and pubertal development. The authors also differentiate growth among the organ systems.

 

  • Chapter 5, “Recording Information”  (Previously read in Week 1)

This chapter provides rationale and methods for maintaining clear and accurate records. The text also explores the legal aspects of patient records.

Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Student checklist: Health history guide. In Seidel’s guide to physical examination (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line:  Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination, 9th Edition by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2019 by Elsevier Health Sciences. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Health Sciences via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Childhood overweight and obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood

 

This website provides information about overweight and obese children. Additionally, the website provides basic facts about obesity and strategies to counteracting obesity.

 

Chaudhry, M. A. I., & Nisar, A. (2017). Escalating health care cost due to unnecessary diagnostic testing. Mehran University Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, (3), 569.

 

This study explores the escalating healthcare cost due the unnecessary use of diagnostic testing. Consider the impact of health insurance coverage in each state and how nursing professionals must be cognizant when ordering diagnostics for different individuals.

Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2019). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line: Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care, 6th Edition by Dains, J.E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. Copyright 2019 by Mosby. Reprinted by permission of Mosby via the Copyright Clearance Center.

 

 

This chapter introduces the diagnostic process, which includes performing an analysis of the symptoms and then formulating and testing a hypothesis. The authors discuss how becoming an expert clinician takes time and practice in developing clinical judgment.

 

Gibbs , H., & Chapman-Novakofski, K. (2012). Exploring nutrition literacy: Attention to assessment and the skills clients need. Health, 4(3), 120–124.

 

This study explores nutrition literacy. The authors examine the level of attention paid to health literacy among nutrition professionals and the skills and knowledge needed to understand nutrition education.

Martin, B. C., Dalton, W. T., Williams, S. L., Slawson, D. L., Dunn, M. S., & Johns-Wommack, R. (2014). Weight status misperception as related to selected health risk behaviors among middle school students. Journal of School Health, 84(2), 116–123. doi:10.1111/josh.12128

Credit Line: Weight status misperception as related to selected health risk behaviors among middle school students by Martin, B. C., Dalton, W. T., Williams, S. L., Slawson, D. L., Dunn, M. S., & Johns-Wommack, R., in Journal of School Health, Vol. 84/Issue 2. Copyright 2014 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center.

 

Noble, H., & Smith, J. (2015) Issues of validity and reliability in qualitative research . Evidence Based Nursing, 18(2), pp. 34–35.

 

Seidel, H. M., Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2011). History subjective data checklist. In Mosby’s guide to physical examination (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Credit Line: Mosby’s Guide to Physical Examination, 7th Edition by Seidel, H. M., Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier via the Copyright Clearance Center.

 

This History Subjective Data Checklist was published as a companion to Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination (8th ed.) by Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., & Flynn, J.A. Copyright Elsevier (2015). From https://evolve.elsevier.com

 

Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis.

  • Chapter 2, “The Comprehensive History and Physical Exam” (Previously read in Week 1)
  • Chapter 5, “Pediatric Preventative Care Visits” (pp. 91 101)

Shadow Health Support and Orientation Resources

Use the following resources to guide you through your Shadow Health orientation as well as other support resources:

Frey, C. [Chris Frey]. (2015, September 4). Student orientation [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rfd_8pTJBkY

Document: Shadow Health Support and Orientation Resources (PDF)

Shadow Health. (n.d.). Shadow Health help desk. Retrieved from https://support.shadowhealth.com/hc/en-us

Document: Shadow Health. (2014). Useful tips and tricks (Version 2) (PDF)

Document: Shadow Health Nursing Documentation Tutorial (Word document)

 

Optional Resource

LeBlond, R. F., Brown, D. D., & DeGowin, R. L. (2014). DeGowin’s diagnostic examination (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical.

 

  • Chapter 3, “The Physical Screening Examination”
  • Chapter 17, “Principles of Diagnostic Testing”
  • Chapter 18, “Common Laboratory Tests”

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)

 

Taking a Health History
How do nurses gather information and assess a patient’s health? Consider the importance of conducting an in-depth health assessment interview and the strategies you might use as you watch. (16m)

Assessment Tool, Diagnostics, Growth, Measurements, and Nutrition in Adults and Children – Week 3 (11m)

Assignment 1: Case Study Assignment: Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children

When seeking to identify a patient’s health condition, advanced practice nurses can use a diverse selection of diagnostic tests and assessment tools; however, different factors affect the validity and reliability of the results produced by these tests or tools. Nurses must be aware of these factors in order to select the most appropriate test or tool and to accurately interpret the results.

Not only do these diagnostic tests affect adults, body measurements can provide a general picture of whether a child is receiving adequate nutrition or is at risk for health issues. These data, however, are just one aspect to be considered. Lifestyle, family history, and culture—among other factors—are also relevant. That said, gathering and communicating this information can be a delicate process.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images

For this Assignment, you will consider the validity and reliability of different assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You will explore issues such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. You will also consider examples of children with various weight issues. You will explore how you could effectively gather information and encourage parents and caregivers to be proactive about their children’s health and weight.

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources and consider factors that impact the validity and reliability of various assessment tools and diagnostic tests. You also will review examples of pediatric patients and their families as it relates to BMI.
  • By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to one of the following Assignment options by your Instructor: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests (option 1), or Child Health Case (Option 2). Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignments from your Instructor.
  • Search the Walden Library and credible sources for resources explaining the tool or test you were assigned. What is its purpose, how is it conducted, and what information does it gather?
  • Also, as you search the Walden library and credible sources, consider what the literature discusses regarding the validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, ethical dilemmas, and controversies related to the test or tool.
  • If you are assigned Assignment Option 2 (Child), consider what health issues and risks may be relevant to the child in the health example.
    • Based on the risks you identified, consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
    • Consider how you could encourage parents or caregivers to be proactive toward the child’s health.

The Assignment

Assignment (3–4 pages, not including title and reference pages):

Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests:
Include the following:

  • A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
    • What is its purpose?
    • How is it conducted?
    • What information does it gather?
  • Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Include references in appropriate APA formatting.

Assignment Option 2: Child Health Case:
Include the following:

  • An explanation of the health issues and risks that are relevant to the child you were assigned.
  • Describe additional information you would need in order to further assess his or her weight-related health.
  • Identify and describe any risks and consider what further information you would need to gain a full understanding of the child’s health. Think about how you could gather this information in a sensitive fashion.
  • Taking into account the parents’ and caregivers’ potential sensitivities, list at least three specific questions you would ask about the child to gather more information.
  • Provide at least two strategies you could employ to encourage the parents or caregivers to be proactive about their child’s health and weight.

By Day 6 of Week 3

Submit your Assignment.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

  • Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.
  • Click the Week 3 Assignment 1 link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.
  • Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “WK3Assgn1+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.
  • If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.
  • Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 3 Assignment 1 Option 1 Rubric

To access your rubric:

Week 3 Assignment 1 Option 2 Rubric

To check your Assignment draft for authenticity:

Submit your Week 3 Assignment 1 draft and review the originality report.

 

Submit Your Assignment by Day 6 of Week 3

To participate in this Assignment:

Week 3 Assignment 1

 

Assignment 2: Digital Clinical Experience (DCE): Health History Assessment

A comprehensive health history is essential to providing quality care for patients across the lifespan, as it helps to properly identify health risks, diagnose patients, and develop individualized treatment plans. To effectively collect these heath histories, you must not only have strong communication skills, but also the ability to quickly establish trust and confidence with your patients. For this DCE Assignment, you begin building your communication and assessment skills as you collect a health history from a volunteer “patient.”

Photo Credit: Sam Edwards / Caiaimage / Getty Images

To Prepare

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources as well as the Taking a Health History media program, and consider how you might incorporate these strategies. Download and review the Student Checklist: Health History Guide and the History Subjective Data Checklist, provided in this week’s Learning Resources, to guide you through the necessary components of the assessment.
  • Access and login to Shadow Health using the link in the left-hand navigation of the Blackboard classroom.
  • Review the Shadow Health Student Orientation media program and the Useful Tips and Tricks document provided in the week’s Learning Resources to guide you through Shadow Health.
  • Review the Week 4 DCE Health History Assessment Rubric, provided in the Assignment submission area, for details on completing the Assignment.

DCE Health History Assessment:

Complete the following in Shadow Health:

Orientation (Required, you will not be able to access the Health History without completing the requirements). 

  • DCE Orientation (15 minutes)
  • Conversation Concept Lab (50 minutes, Required)

Health History

  • Health History of Tina Jones (180 minutes)

Note: Each Shadow Health Assessment may be attempted and reopened as many times as necessary prior to the due date to achieve total score of 80% or better(includes BOTH DCE and Documentation), but you must take all attempts by the Week 4 Day 7 deadline.

Submission and Grading Information

No Assignment submission due this week but will be due Day 7, Week 4.

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 4 Assignment 2 DCE Rubric

 

What’s Coming Up in Module 3?

Photo Credit: [BrianAJackson]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

In Module 3, you will examine advanced health assessments using a system focused approach.

Next week, you will specifically explore how to assess the skin, hair, and nails, as well as how to evaluate abnormal skin findings while conducting health assessments. You will also complete your first Lab Assignment: Differential Diagnosis for Skin Conditions as well as complete your DCE: Health History Assessment in the simulation tool, Shadow Health.

Week 4 Required Media

Photo Credit: [fergregory]/[iStock / Getty Images Plus]/Getty Images

Next week, you will need to view several videos and animations in Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination as well as other media, as required, prior to completing your Lab Assignment. There are several videos in varied lengths. Please plan ahead to ensure you have time to view these media programs to complete your Assignment on time.

Next Module

To go to the next module:

Module 3

Name: NURS_6512_Week_3_Assignment_1_Rubric_Option_1

Excellent Good Fair Poor
In 3–4 pages, address the following:

A description of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test you were assigned is used in healthcare.
o What is its purpose?
o How is it conducted?
o What information does it gather?

Points Range: 30 (30%) – 35 (35%)
The response clearly, accurately, and with specific detail describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
Points Range: 24 (24%) – 29 (29%)
The response accurately describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
Points Range: 18 (18%) – 23 (23%)
The response vaguely and/or with some inaccuracy describes how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 17 (17%)
The response is inaccurate or missing descriptions of how the assessment tool or diagnostic test assigned is used in healthcare, including its purpose, how it is conducted, and what information it gathers.
Based on your research, evaluate the test or the tool’s validity and reliability, and explain any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values.
Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)
The response accurately and thoroughly evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with clear sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is clear, accurate, and appropriate for the evaluation.
Points Range: 39 (39%) – 44 (44%)
The response accurately evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is somewhat clear, accurate,and appropriate for the evaluation.
Points Range: 33 (33%) – 38 (38%)
The response vaguely and/or with some inaccuracy evaluates the test or tool’s validity and reliability, and explains any issues with some sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is vague or inaccurate for the evaluation.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 32 (32%)
“The response is inaccurate and/or missing evaluations of the test or tool’s validity and reliability, with explanations of any issues missing or lacking sensitivity, reliability, and predictive values. Student’s research is missing, inaccurate, or lacking for the evaluation.
Written Expression and Formatting – Paragraph Development and Organization:
Paragraphs make clear points that support well-developed ideas, flow logically, and demonstrate continuity of ideas. Sentences are carefully focused–neither long and rambling nor short and lacking substance. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement and introduction are provided that delineate all required criteria.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity. A clear and comprehensive purpose statement, introduction, and conclusion are provided that delineate all required criteria.
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 80% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are stated, yet are brief and not descriptive.
Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity 60%–79% of the time. Purpose, introduction, and conclusion of the assignment are vague or off topic.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Paragraphs and sentences follow writing standards for flow, continuity, and clarity < 60% of the time. No purpose statement, introduction, or conclusion were provided.
Written Expression and Formatting – English writing standards:
Correct grammar, mechanics, and proper punctuation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation with no errors.
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors that interfere with the reader’s understanding.
Written Expression and Formatting – The paper follows correct APA format for title page, headings, font, spacing, margins, indentations, page numbers, running heads, parenthetical/in-text citations, and reference list.
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Uses correct APA format with no errors.
Points Range: 4 (4%) – 4 (4%)
Contains a few (1 or 2) APA format errors.
Points Range: 3 (3%) – 3 (3%)
Contains several (3 or 4) APA format errors.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 2 (2%)
Contains many (≥ 5) APA format errors.
Total Points: 100