NURS 6051 Portfolio Assignment: The Role of the Nurse Informaticist in Systems Development and Implementation

NURS 6051 Portfolio Assignment: The Role of the Nurse Informaticist in Systems Development and Implementation

NURS 6051 Portfolio Assignment: The Role of the Nurse Informaticist in Systems Development and Implementation

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Adopting healthcare technology requires the input of all involved stakeholders. Essential members of the team are nurses. Nurses have intimate knowledge of the shortcomings of paper records and numerous time spent on clinical documentation. The providers are involved in patient intake, information management efforts, and understand that well-designed IT systems make workflows efficient (Akhu‐Zaheya et al., 2019). The current organization intends to adopt a new nursing documentation system. To make the system usable and acceptable to nurses, a nurse leader has to be part of the implementation team. The purpose of this paper is to articulate the role of the nurse leader in line with the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) stages.

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System Development Life Cycle Stages

The system development life cycle is a model that outlines the various stages followed to bring a project from inception to completion. When adopting a nursing documentation system, it is crucial to follow the stages to optimize its effectiveness. The stages followed are planning and requirement definition, analysis, designing of the new system, implementation, and post-implementation support. The results from each stage guide the implementation of the next stage since requirements are converted into design while the design helps in coming up with the code (Lalband & Kavitha, 2019). The final stage then authenticates the results from the implementation stage. Akhu‐Zaheya et al. (2019) assert that it is essential to involve nurses to produce a clinical documentation system that enhances inter-professional communication, improves clinical outcomes, and supports patient care. The involvement requires a clear definition of nurse roles at each stage of the SDLC

Role of Nurse Informaticist in System Development

As technology advances and new systems are implemented to increase patient safety and workflow effectiveness, nurses’ roles and responsibilities are affected (Koivunen & Saranto, 2018). If we want to improve patient care, make wise decisions about care delivery, and create care plans, inter-professional collaboration and the use of health information technology (HIT) are paramount. Utilizing HIT will enhance patient care, care coordination, and access to patient health information (Ihsan & Kadir, 2018). When deploying a new information system in healthcare institutions, nurses must be involved at every level of the system development life cycle (SDLC). The purpose of this assignment is to talk about how a graduate nurse can direct the participation of a new HIT implementation team. The SDLC stages and duties state that nurses are essential to each level of the process.

Position Description

Planning and Definition of Requirements

The planning and requirement definition phase, which is the first step in the SDLC process, involves assessing the current system’s scope as well as providing a general overview of the new system that is being proposed and its goals. Cost, time, advantages, and other crucial system elements are taken into account. Stakeholders also take into account limitations, dangers, and security concerns related to the proposed system during this phase. The graduate-level nurse currently plays a substantial part in the SDLC process (Laureate Education, 2018). The nurse takes part in the interdisciplinary team to determine the needs of the system and the components of service delivery. The nurse concentrates on how the new system should suit the various care demands as the end user (Yen et al., 2017). To make sure that the new system meets all demands and standards, the graduate nurse can help test it and spot any design problems. To ensure that the system is tailored to address the new problems and care needs, the nurse ascertains the worries and needs of the frontline staff.

b). Evaluation

The system’s processes and workflows are established during the analysis stage. This step also includes determining whether the system meets the requirements and identifying any improvements that may be required. You can ensure that the system incorporates end-user requirements to meet expectations during this stage. The stage consists of creating a prototype for the new system and defining the requirements. The graduate nurse plays a critical role in generating potential fixes or alternatives from the team when working with the interdisciplinary team to identify important issues that the system may have for the end-user (Laureate Education, 2018b). The nurse and the developer discuss the elements of the old system that worked well in order to determine what should be changed and how it will affect the overall information infrastructure. Using the directives and inputs, the team ensures that a subpar system is not installed that falls short of the facility’s expectations.

Understanding databases, programs, and user interfaces is essential for the design process. These sections demonstrate how the system must function in order for effective delivery to occur. The team now creates reports, mockups, and prototypes to identify potential problems and ensure that the product meets the specifications (Wager et al., 2017). Because of the technical nature of this phase, the graduate nurse has only a limited role. The nurse, on the other hand, suggests a few operational strategies to improve the system’s performance. The nurse should determine whether the system is appropriate for meeting the informational needs of end users.

d). The Implementation Phase

This stage sees the bulk of the system code for the software, and it is also where the system is put into operation. Developer swaps out the existing system for the new one, then distributes and installs the new system for end users (Magnuson & Dixon, 2020). The graduate nurse and the interdisciplinary team collaborate to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. The nurse can also help in identifying redesigns when the evaluation suggests them. The nurse helps other nurses and staff members learn about and receive training for the new system.

After-Support Services (e).

The system that has been adopted is tested and maintained during the post-implementation phase. The system developer must test the system before submitting it to the organization. System testing’s objective is to confirm that the system achieves the anticipated outcomes and resolves the problems it was intended to. The graduate nurse is in charge of making sure that the output of the system satisfies the needs of the healthcare infrastructure, particularly the interface requirements and requirements of end-users (Mathews et al., 2019). A few of the system’s functions include gathering, storing, and retrieving data for sensible and well-informed decision-making. The graduate nurse makes sure that all post-implementation concerns are resolved and that there are plans in place for system developers to update and take into account the various organizational needs of the system.

Conclusion

It would be hard to create a new system based on the stages of the SDCL without a graduate nurse. In light of the rules, it is the nurse’s responsibility to guide the team and give instructions on how to best meet patient needs. Every stage of the process, from planning through implementation and beyond, includes nursing, ensuring that end-user nurses’ needs are fulfilled and that the system is improved.

References

Ihsan, S. N., & Kadir, T. A. A. (2018). Adoption of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Model in Games Development Framework for Serious Games Applications. Advanced Science Letters, 24(10), 7300-7304. https://doi.org/10.1166/asl.2018.12932

Koivunen, M., & Saranto, K. (2018). Nursing professionals’ experiences of the facilitators and

barriers to the use of telehealth applications: a systematic review of qualitative studies. Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 32(1), 24-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12445

Laureate Education (Producer). (2018). Systems Implementation [Video file]. Baltimore, MD:

Author.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2018b). Managing Health Information Technology [Video file].

Baltimore, MD: Author.

Mathews, S. C., McShea, M. J., Hanley, C. L., Ravitz, A., Labrique, A. B., & Cohen, A. B.

(2019). Digital health: a path to validation. NPJ digital medicine, 2(1), 1-9.

Magnuson, J. A., & Dixon, B. E. (Eds.). (2020). Public health informatics and information

systems. Springer Nature.

Wager, K. A., Lee, F. W., & Glaser, J. P. (2017). Health care information systems: a practical

approach for health care management. John Wiley & Sons.

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Yen, P. Y., Phillips, A., Kennedy, M. K., & Collins, S. (2017). Nursing informatics competency

assessment for the nurse leader: instrument refinement, validation, and psychometric analysis. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 47(5), 271-277. https://doi.org/10.1097/NNA.0000000000000478.

SAMPLE 2

The Role of the Graduate Nurse Implementing the System Development Life

Cycle.

 

The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) or Waterfall Model is an example of the

underlying process used to develop the software in the 1970s. It was first introduced by Royce

In 1970, was widely used during the 1980s and it is still used today. It remains relevant because

it was discovered in the 1960’s provides the basis of many well-known system developments

methodologies. The systems development life cycle, according to Elliott & Strachan & Radford

(2004), “originated in developing large scale functional business systems in an age of large scale

business conglomerates.

 

The Systems Development Life Cycle is a systematic approach which explicitly breaks down

the work into phases that are required to implement either new or modified Information System.

The phases are Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation, and Post-implementation of the

new system.

The involvement of nurses in every stage of the SDLC is critical when purchasing and implementing new health information technology systems. The primary implications associated with the failure are inclusive of the potential loss of engagement of the nurses who are the primary care providers since their attention is inadequately captured (East & Robinson, 2017).

 

Planning/Requirements Phase:

 

The first stage of the SDLC incorporates planning and conducting a feasible study. Crucial

outcome of the planning stage defines a clinical problem with inadequacies of the beginning of

the SDLC phase. The nurse leader will not understand the scope of the problem without

involvement of nurse in-depth knowledge, strengths, and limitation. Participation helps

overcome the challenges by allowing for the connection of the nurses to the delivery care

systems leading to personalized relationships and motivation when serving patient populations

(Chreim et al., 2020).

Planning includes adapting a current system to meet new needs or developing a completely new

system. This phase defines user requirements, identifies needed features, functions, and

customizations, and investigates overall capabilities. Consideration of time, cost, benefits are

critical components of the SDLC phase. At this stage, the graduate-level nurse has significant

roles in SDLC process. Laureate Education, 2018). The nurse also participates in the

interdisciplinary process to identify systems requirements for a successful system.

Analysis Phase:

An analysis strategy to work there should be a strong idea of what deficiencies exist in the

current structure and the goals for the new approach. A feasibility study determines if you can or

should accomplish the goals of the plan. Information is gathered and analyzed to identify what

technical assets, personnel, and training is already in place and utilized.

The study also inventories what is needed to augment or replace, and at what cost. During this

phase you determine the overall project scope, including economic, operational and human

factors, identify key personnel, and develop timelines. The analysis stage is an essential process

of workflow. It also involves determination, evaluation of the system requirements needed for

changes. These phases provide and incorporate system expectations of prototype of the new

system.

The graduate nurse explains, educate components needs adjustment of the overall impact of the

information infrastructures. While the nurse graduate inputs are of importance working with

interdisciplinary team to identify questions, and critical problems associated with the SDLC phases.

Kearney-Nunnery (2020) writes that all professionals are stakeholders in improving outcomes.

 

Design Phase:

Once you make the plan and identify costs, systems, and user requirements, a

detailed system design can begin that includes features and other documentation. The architects

can then build a sample framework. (New System): An approved design is the catalyst for

authorizing development for the new or augmented system. Some say that this is the most robust

part of the life cycle. During this phase, developers write code, and you construct and fine-tune

technical and physical configurations. This can mean recommending additional training,

procedures, or upgrades. This phase comprises of interfaces users, applications, and databases,

these components produce functional aspects of this phase. The nurse role plays a limited role

due to natural technical difficulties. However, the graduate nurse would recommend research

certain operational approaches to improve the SDLC functions. Also establish the

applicability for the new system’s informational needs. At this point, the team produces reports,

mockups, and prototypes to determine possible problems to ensure that it meets the requirements

(Wager et al., 2017).

 

Implementation Phase:

The implementation phase is the most critical, and most important aspect for the coding

production program. Firstly, to install the software in the production

environment and to bring it into operation, and secondly, to ensure that the software, as

developed Satisfies the functional requirements, Satisfies the business needs, adheres to all

mandates, physical constraints and service level agreements; and operates as described in the

User and Operator Manuals. The developer transfers data and components from old system to

new one and installs and rolls it out for end-users. (Magnuson & Dixon, 2020).

An effective System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) should result in a high-quality system

that meets customer expectations, reaches completion within time and cost evaluations, and

works effectively and efficiently in the current and planned Information Technolog

infrastructure.

System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a conceptual model which includes policies and

procedures for developing or altering systems throughout their life cycles.

Post-Implementation support:

Post-Implementation phase consists of testing, and maintenance of the adoption of the

new system. The graduate nurse ensures that the output offered by the system aligns with the

health care infrastructure needs, especially end-user requirements and interface (Mathews et al.,

2019) The cyclical nature of SDLC recognizes that the process of change and upgrading are

constant needs, especially end-user re role is to ensure the outputs. Carry out the replacement of

outdated hardware/software, security upgrades, and continuous improvement on a regular

basis. An often-overlooked element of any large-scale system roll-out is the evaluation process,

which supports the continuous improvement of the system. The team continuously reviews what

is working and what needs improvement. Graduate nurses are the primary final users of the new

health information system SDLC. With continuous support and dedication, it will meet a vital

predetermined goal of the new changes. Moreover, the SDLC system analysts cannot understand

the challenges and issues that nurse leaders are experiencing unless they are involved.

 

Conclusion

A graduate nurse plays an essential, significant role of the involvement, and development of all

five stages of the SDLC phases. Continuous support is vital to meet the expectation of

predetermined goals of the changes in all five SDLC phases. The nurse must offer unlimited

resources to those who are in knowledge deficit to technical system. Accessible practice centers,

twenty-four hours resources access to employees. Follow up with implementation stages with a

system analyst. I propose the need for a nurse informatics representative. The nurse represents

leadership stage involves the developing and the acquisition of the system according to its

detailed design specifications. After the development of the SDLC system phase a

comprehensive conceptual stage involves the impact of developing, acquisition of the system

according to its detailed design specifications to capture all four phases of SDLC: Planning,

Analysis, Design, Implementation, and Post Implementation. Further, participation helps

overcome the challenges by allowing for the connection of the graduate level nurses to the

delivery care systems leading to personalized relationships and motivation when

serving patient populations (Chreim et al., 2020)

References

Chreim, S., Williams, B. B., Janz, L., & Dastmalchian, A. (2020). Change agency in a primary   health care context: The case of distributed leadership. Health care management       review, 35(2), 187-199.

East, L., & Robinson, J. (2017). Change in the process: bringing about change in health care through action research. Journal of clinical nursing, 3(1), 57-61.

Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2020). Advancing your career: Concepts of professional nursing (7th ed.).

F.A. Davis.

Magnuson, J. A., & Dixon, B. E. (Eds). (2020). Public Health Informatics and Information  System.

Mathewss, S. C. McShea, M J. Hanley, C. L., Ravitz, A., Labrique, A,B., & Cohen, A. B.

Point Tutorials https://www.tutorialspoint.com/system_analysis_and_design/system_analysis_and_design_development_life_cycle.htm

Smart Sheet https://www.smartsheet.com/system-development-life-cycle-guide

University of Connecticut https://sdlc.uconn.edu/activity-8-implementation/

Assume you are a nurse manager on a unit where a new nursing documentation system is to be implemented. You want to ensure that the system will be usable and acceptable for the nurses impacted. You realize a nurse leader must be on the implementation team.

To Prepare:

  • Review the steps of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and reflect on the scenario presented.
  • Consider the benefits and challenges associated with involving a nurse leader on an implementation team for health information technology.

The Assignment: (2-3 pages)

In preparation of filling this role, develop a 2- to 3-page role description for a graduate-level nurse to guide his/her participation on the implementation team. The role description should be based on the SDLC stages and tasks and should clearly define how this individual will participate in and impact each of the following steps:

Read Also: NURS 6051 Healthcare Information Technology Trends

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Planning and requirements definition

Analysis

Design of the new system

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The Inclusion of Nurses in the Systems Development Life Cycle

     The Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) provides the foundation for how information is managed and delivered. The stages of the SDLC involve planning, design, implementation, evaluating, and maintaining (McGonigle and Mastrian, 2017). When a healthcare organization purchases and implements a new health information technology (HIT) system, it is important for nurses to be involved in the entire process. Just as every stage of the process is important, so is the input of the nurses who will be using the system.

    In the hospital environment, nurses utilize information technology the most (Zadvinskis et al., 2018). Nurses are at the bedside, electronically documenting and viewing patient data throughout their shift. They understand the components of the system, what needs to be changed, and what changes would be most effective. Without their knowledge and feedback, the organization leaves out the biggest component of patient care.

    The opportunity to be included can positively impact patient care (Thomas et al., 2016). The planning stage offers a chance for nurses to voice what outcome is most desired. When thinking about the HIT system, it would be crucial for nurses to plan what the most important components are in their workflow. This is true with the design of the system as well. During implementation, nurses can see first-hand how policies and procedures are affected and then evaluate what alterations must be made. For example, does the new system reflect the ability to pull up needed patient information and place orders when required. The last stage is maintenance which requires ongoing efforts of nurses and the IT support team to ensure the new system is functioning properly and any problems identified are fixed.

     Health information technology can improve nurse workflow and retrieve information (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, n.d.). Since nurses are the most affected, they must be included in each stage, from planning to maintenance. In the hospital where I began my nursing career, nurses made up most new HIT system builds. The organization attempted to have nurses on the build team that reflected each unit’s need. Being included was significant because nurses were familiar with their workflow and how changes would positively or negatively impact the unit.

References

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (n.d.). Workflow assessment for health IT toolkit. Retrieved January 22, 2022, from https://healthit.arhq.gov/health-it-tools-and-resources/evaluation-resources/workflow-assessment-health-it-toolkit

McGonigle, D. & Mastrian, K.G. (2017). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Thomas, T. W., Seifert, P. C., & Joyner, J. C. (2016, September). Registered nurses leading innovative changes. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. https://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol-21-2016/No3-Sept-2016/Registered-Nurses-Leading-Innovative-Changes.html

Zadvinskis, I. M., Garvey Smith, J., & Yen, P. (2018). Nurses’ Experience With Health      Information Technology: Longitudinal Qualitative Study. JMIR medical informatics, 6(2), e38. https://doi.org/10.2196/medinform.8734