NURS 6050 Discussion 1 Evidence Base in Design SAMPLE

NURS 6050 Discussion 1 Evidence Base in Design SAMPLE

NURS 6050 Discussion 1 Evidence Base in Design SAMPLE

The selected policy for this discussion is the S. 610: Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act of 2021 sponsored by Junior Senator for Virginia Timothy Kaine. The purpose of the bill is to mandate the federal government through the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to create grants and require facilities to develop other activities to enhance mental and behavioral health among health care providers – NURS 6050 Discussion 1 Evidence Base in Design SAMPLE. The agency must award grants to healthcare facilities, medical professional associations, and other healthcare entities for interventions to promote mental health and resiliency among healthcare workers (GovTrack.US., 2021). The agency should also offer relevant mental and behavioral health training for health care students, residents and professionals.

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The issue of mental and behavioral health is essential as many healthcare workers suffer from mental health problems. The proposed legislation will ensure that health care organizations and employers prioritize mental and behavioral health for their employees. Through the bill, more providers will gain access to mental health services and enhance their overall performance. The bill also encourages health care providers to seek support and treatment for mental and behavioral health concerns. It also implores them to disseminate best practices to prevent suicide and improve their mental health resiliency, especially when handling public health emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic.

Evidence exist to support the proposed policy as many health care workers face mental and behavioral health issues. The increased demand for healthcare services and nursing shortage are some of the issues that place constraints on healthcare workers and the need for mental health services and support. Studies by Lai et al. (2020) and Spoorthy, Pratapa, and Mahant (2020) show that the COVID-19 pandemic has placed increased stress on healthcare workers and they need interventions to help them navigate the new challenges. As such, evidence exists to demonstrate the need for mental and behavioral services for healthcare workers as proposed by this bill.

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GovTrack.US. (2021). S. 610: Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act.

Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., … & Hu, S. (2020). Factors associated with

mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA network open, 3(3), e203976-e203976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

Spoorthy, M. S. Pratapa, S. K. & Mahant, S. (2020). Mental health problems faced by healthcare

workers due to the COVID-19 pandemic–A review. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51: 102119. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102119

Hi, I…

I agree with your post. Healthcare providers need support mentally and physically as patients, yet those are the people who seek less help for their health. Our busy work schedule sometimes causes us to neglect to take care of our health. If this bill passes, we may have more time and access to healthcare for our mental and physical health.

The nursing shortage has been a big problem in the healthcare system. Nurses are the largest segment of healthcare providers, yet not enough nurses are out there. According to World Health Organization, There are 28 million nurses worldwide, but there is still around a 6 million nursing shortage overall. They also predict that 1 out of 6 nurses will be retiring in the next ten years.

I also found an interesting article about the correlations between burnout and the self-stigma of seeking help among healthcare professionals. Endriulaitiene et al. researched two different countries (Lithuania and the US) among healthcare provider attitudes toward seeking help – NURS 6050 Discussion 1 Evidence Base in Design SAMPLE . Lithuania is a Post-Soviet country and has its challenges socially and economically. In contrast, America is known for its norms of strong masculinity. Their study found that the two completely different countries have similar attitudes regarding seeking help, and show the same link between higher levels of self-stigma related to seeking help and higher scores on burnouts. If we have more access to seek help like the bill you suggested in your post, it will prevent healthcare providers’ burnouts, thus erasing some shortfalls of nursing shortage.


Endriulaitienė, A., Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, K., Pranckevičienė, A., Markšaitytė, R., Tillman, D. R., & Hof, D. D. (2019). Self-stigma of seeking help and job burnout in mental health care providers: The comparative study of Lithuanian and the USA samples. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 34(2), 129–148.

World Health Organization. (2020, April 7). Retrieved from WHO and partners call for urgent investment in nurses:

RE: Discussion – Week 7


Conservations regarding nursing ratios to patients are highly debated in most healthcare entities.  Nurses have been required to take care of more patients in the last few years than ever before.  In hospitals, nurses average six to eight patients each and two to three ICU patients – NURS 6050 Discussion 1 Evidence Base in Design SAMPLE .  Nurses are not able to provide the best care possible when ratios are this high.  In healthcare settings, nurses’ workload, burnout, and job satisfaction are associated with the patient-nurse ratio  (Chen, 2019). Every patient deserves a single standard of high-quality care. Decades of research have documented how safe staffing reduces patient mortality, re-admission to the hospital post-discharge, and recovery.

Senate bill S. 1567 was introduced on May 11, 2021.  The bill was introduced and has been read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.  The bill’s purpose is to amend the Public Health Service Act to establish direct care registered nurse-to-patient staffing ratio requirements in hospitals and for other purposes – NURS 6050 Discussion 1 Evidence Base in Design SAMPLE .  Recent changes in health care delivery systems that have resulted in higher acuity levels among patients in health care facilities increase the need for improved quality measures to protect patient care and reduce the incidence of medical errors. (S. 1567- Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient Safety and Quality Care Act of 2021).   Requirements for direct care registered nurse staffing ratios will help address the registered short nurse age in the United States by aiding in recruiting new registered nurses and improving retention of a registered nurse who is considering leaving direct patient care because of demands created by inadequate staffing.

The United States has one of the most sophisticated health care systems globally concerning innovation, health information technology, and the preparation of health care professionals. However, in many health indites designed to evaluate the overall health, the United States’ rates are comparatively low (Milstead & Short, 2019).


Chen, Y. C. (2019). Patient-Nurse Ratio is Related to Nurses’ Intention to Leave Their Job through Mediating Factors of Burnout and Job Dissatisfaction. Int J Environ Res Public Health., 16(23), 4801. doi:10.3390/ijerph16234801

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient Safety and Quality Care Act of 2021. (2021, May 11). Retrieved from S. 1567:

RE: Discussion – Week 7

In early September, the Biden Administration announced a policy requiring all employers that employ more than 100 workers to require the COVID-19 vaccine or require weekly COVID-19 testing. Also in early September, the Biden Administration announced vaccine mandates for nearly 17 million healthcare workers who worked in settings where they received funding for Medicare and Medicaid. All federal employees must also receive the vaccine. According to the new policy, weekly COVID-19 testing is no longer an acceptable substitution for not receiving the vaccine (Massey, 2021).
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed the plan for the new emergency rule regarding vaccine mandates for those employers employing more than 100 workers. It was announced that violations of this policy could result in fines reaching up to $14,000 per violation. Contrary to popular belief, it is completely legal per federal law that employers require vaccinations (Massey, 2021).
As a result of the new vaccination mandate, multiple states have pushed for legislation banning COVID-19 requirements. Multiple states have already passed such legislation such as Texas, Montana, Arizona, and North Dakota (NASHP, 2021).
I am very torn on my position regarding vaccination mandates. While I personally am pro vaccine, and believe in doing the greatest good for the greatest amount of people, I am uncomfortable with taking away individuals ‘ freedom of choice regarding their healthcare.
Massey, Stephen. September 10, 2021. White House Unveils Sweeping New Vaccine Mandates for Employers. Retrieved October 12, 2021 from
NASHP. October 1, 2021. State Efforts to Ban or Enforce COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates and Passports. Retrieved October 12, 2021 from 6050 Discussion 1 Evidence Base in Design SAMPLE

The prevalence of burnout and stress among are healthcare professionals date way before the COVID-19 pandemic. The reality of the US health care environment before the arrival of COVID-19 was already concerning due to shortages of nurses, doctors, respiratory therapists, and other healthcare workers (Ross, 2020). Most healthcare providers are working very long hours with less staffing. The media focus at the beginning of the pandemic was mainly on the number of ventilators and hospital beds, and completely lacking in those discussions was the question of available qualified, healthy healthcare professionals to care for the rest of the population (Ross, 2020). According to Shah et al. (2021), the covid 19 pandemic worsened burnout by worsening the already existing healthcare worker shortages in facilities and hospitals. The lack of nurses and other healthcare providers put so much pressure on the remaining few professionals to shoulder all the responsibility of providing care. The Covid 19 pandemic exacerbated the burnout rates in the healthcare workforce to the extent of suicide for some (Kaine, 2021). This discussion will review a policy that can affect all of us directly or indirectly as healthcare providers, the Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act. The Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act addresses behavioral health and well-being among health care professionals (, 2021). Healthcare professionals’ stress and burnout have been studied throughout the nation, especially with the pandemic exacerbating the problem. (Kaine 2021).

Description of the health policy

The Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act was introduced in 2020 by Senator Kaine, who has been leading the talks on the mental health impact of the pandemic on health care workers (, 2021). This policy aims to provide the resources for healthcare providers to get the needed care now during the pandemic and in the future (Kaine 2021). The policy calls for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to award grants to hospitals, medical professional associations, and other healthcare facilities for programs to promote mental health and resiliency among health care professionals (, 2021). It is also calling for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to launch a campaign encouraging health care workers to seek support and treatment for mental and behavioral health concerns without consequence (Congress. Gov, 2021). As Kaine (2021) stated, the trauma that most healthcare workers are subjected to through the pandemic will leave lifelong emotional and physical damage. Thus, the need for setting this resource for the healthcare workers who risked their lives daily to save others. The grants from HHS are to provide relevant mental and behavioral health training of health care students, residents, or professionals with evidence-informed strategies to reduce and prevent suicide, burnout, mental health conditions, and substance use disorders (Kaine, 2021). In summary, the policy will focus on removing barriers to accessing care and treatment and identifying strategies to promote resiliency, thereby improving mental and behavioral health amongst healthcare providers (, 2021).

Evidence bases to support the proposed policy

The U.S. Senate Passage of the Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act has been praised by many organizations, including the American Medical Association (AMA), American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the American Psychiatric Association (APA), American Nurses Association (ANA), and The Physicians Foundation (THE LEGISLATION, n.d.). American Nurses Association (ANA) (2021) applauded the timely and unanimous passage of the Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act by the United States Senate on August 6th, 2021. ANA (2021) states that this critical legislation will help reduce and prevent mental and behavioral health conditions, suicide, and burnout among health care professionals who continue to be overwhelmed by the COVID-19 response and recovery efforts. The bipartisan sponsorship of this policy is evidence base to support its proposal. Given the information above, this bill is a national plea for all healthcare workers to get the resources needed to manage mental health and burnout.


ANA Enterprise. (2021, August 11). ANA Applauds U.S. Senate Passage of the Dr. Lorna Breen

Health Care Provider Protection Act.

Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act, S.610, 117th Cong. (2021-2022)

Kaine, T. (2021, March 4). Kaine Leads Colleagues in Bipartisan, Bicameral Legislation to

Support Health Care Workers’ Mental Health amid COVID-19. United States Senator from Virginia

Ross, J. (2020). The Exacerbation of Burnout During COVID-19: A Major Concern for

Nurse Safety. Journal of Peri Anesthesia Nursing.

Shah, M.K., Gandrakota, N., Cimiotti, J.P., Ghose, N., Moore, M. & Ali, M.K. (2021, February 4).

Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Nurse Burnout in the US. JAMA.


THE LEGISLATION. (n.d.). The Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act.

The policy in focus is the Protecting America’s First Responders Act (PAFRA) of 2020 that was introduced by U.S. Representative Bill Pascrell, Jr. and U.S. Senator Charles Grassley. This bill sought to provide payment of death or disability benefits to the first responders who gets injured or seriously disabled in the line of duty (, 2021). This bill is a continuation of the Public Safety Officers Benefits Program (PSOB) of 1976 that was established by the Congress to provide death benefits to the survivors of the officers who perished in line of duty. This law was continuously amended over the years to provide education and disability benefits and to increase the pool of officers who are qualified for these benefits.  However, the initiative has been characterized by the delays in settling of the disability and adjudication claims. Moreover, lack of clear guidelines from the department of justice to adjudicate these disability claims has led to inconsistent results (Pascrell, 2021).

Essentially, there is scanty evidence base to support the proposed policy since many studies only focus on the general public and hardly subpopulation such as police officers or firefighters. However, this policy is critical in ensuring that officers who cannot permanently secure significant gainful employment after a disastrous injury in the line of duty remain qualified for benefits to avoid living a desperate life. According to GovTrack (2021), the bill is also critical in the present times characterized by devastating Covid-19 strike by enabling the families of the first responders who are permanently disabled or die as a result of Covid-19 to get the similar federal benefits extended to the first responders injured or killed in the line of duty.

References (2021). S.3607 – 116th Congress (2019-2020): Safeguarding America’s First Responders Act of 2020.

GovTrack. (2021). Safeguarding America’s First Responders Act of 2020 (2020 – H.R. 7031).

Pascrell, B. (2021). Pascrell, Grassley Introduce Bipartisan Legislation for First Responders.

The H. RES. 590 recognizes the month of August as the “National Healthcare Awareness Month” that was introduced to the Congress on August 21st of this year. It is an essential policy, especially this time of the pandemic. People globally have become more health-conscious since the pandemic comes. Health care is not a priority in most of the countries around the globe before the pandemic. However, due to the pandemic, people recognize the importance of eating healthy and staying fit thru exercise.

Although the United States has a better healthcare system than other nations, Americans are still considered unhealthy. According to a new study, few Americans have a lifestyle that is deemed to be healthy. According to new research published in the journal Mayo Clinic Proceedings, less than 3 percent of Americans meet the measurable characteristics that reduce a person’s risks for heart disease (Krans, 2016). Researchers found that only 2.7 percent of the 4,745 participants ages 20 to 85 met all four criteria to be considered for living a healthy lifestyle. Those included: not smoking, eating a diet that aligns with nutritional guidelines, exercising at least 150 minutes a week, or 30 minutes five times a week, keeping a BMI below 20 percent for men and 30 percent for women (Krans, 2016).

Health literacy is defined as “the capacity of individuals to obtain, interpret and understand basic health information and service, and the competence to use such information and services in ways that enhance health” (Vermont, n.d.).The lack of health awareness is a key component to declining health care. People are unaware of the use of their health insurance in the prevention of illnesses. Furthermore, mental health issues are avoided, and people refuse to acknowledge them.

In evidence-based practice, health education interventions effectively affect culturally and linguistically diverse populations, particularly at improving objective, distal outcomes. These interventions may be equally effective in enhancing proximal patient-reported outcomes (Elsevier, 2021).

If the H. RES. 590 will be passed, it will be a massive help for the government to improve health promotion. Some of the essential highlights from the policy are: to educate Americans on ways health care affects the national community and individual life,  to be more cognizant due to covid 19 pandemic, inform the Americans on the work of their elected representatives in protecting and expanding healthcare and every person should have access to education around health care literacy, be empowered to advocate for health care, and use their voice to make a difference (Congress, n.d.). These are only a few of the advocacy of the said policy.

References (n.d.). Retrieved September 20, 2018, from

Krans, B. (2016). Less Than 3 Percent of Americans Have Healthy Lifestyle. Healthline. Retrived from

Elsevier. (2021). Patient Education and Counseling. Retrieved from

Vermont. (n.d.). Health Education. Retrieved from

The Healthcare Policy and the Problem

The S.121 – Fair Prescription Drug Prices for Americas Act is a bill that tackles the high cost of prescription medication in the US. It proposes that the retail list price for certain drugs and biological products may be, at most, the average retail list price for the drug or biological products among certain nations like Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom ( The issue of prescription drug prices in the United States has been a concern for many Americans due to the high cost of medications. Spending on prescription drugs is much higher per capita in the United States thanin most other industrialized nations, including France (Raimond et al., 2021). Policymakers seeking to lower drug spending often suggest benchmarking prices against other countries. In 2018, if Medicare had paid French prices for the brand‐name drugs in our cohort, the agency would have saved $5.1 billion.(Raimond et al, 2021). This lot of money would have been used for other things. There is an estimate that the US spent about 47 percent more per capita on prescription drugs than Canada in 2018 and 160 percent more than the UK. (Hannah, 2019)

The social Determinant 

The high cost of drugs affects the socioeconomic status of the people. Due to the high cost, many Americans cannot buy the drugs necessary to treat their health. Almost a quarter of American patients have trouble affording their prescriptions (Hannah, 2019). Some 43 percent of US adults under 65 are on “high deductible” plans, so their insurance only kicks in after they have spent thousands of dollars. (Hannah, 2019). This forces Americans to choose between having light in the house and buying the much-needed medication they need to survive, in addition to increased emergency room visits from acute exacerbation resulting from inconsistency in their medication.

Evidence to support the proposed policy.

There is enough evidence to support that the high cost of medication affects the health of Americans, and this policy will help curb this crisis. Rapidly rising prescription drug costs in the United States represent a significant challenge to patients, providers, and the health care system. For example, among patients currently taking a prescription medication, 19% report that they or a family member have cut pills in half or skipped doses, while 24% report that they or a family member have failed to fill a prescription because of cost. (Murimi-Worstell, 2019). Modeling a proposal that would cap U.S. prices at 120% of what is paid in six other nations, researchers found that such a move would have cut U.S. spending on insulins and 50 top brand-name drugs by 52% during 2020, a savings of $83.5 billion (Rand , 2021). High prescription drug prices have essential implications for the American healthcare system, driving up overall costs, burdening some patients with high copays, and causing many people to forgo needed medications.


All information (except text) for s.1218 – (n.d.-a).

Links to an external site.

Counting the cost of America’s soaring drug prices: The prices of prescription drugs in the US are so high some patients travel to Canada to buy life-saving medication. Hannah Kuchler reports on a key election issue [Usa Region]. (2019, Sep 21). Financial Times

Links to an external site.

Murimi-Worstell, I., Ballreich, J. M., Seamans, M. J., & Alexander, G. C. (2019). Association between US Pharmacopeia (USP) monograph standards, generic entry and prescription drug costs. PLoS One, 14(11)

Links to an external site.

Raimond, V, C. Feldman, W. B., Rome, B. N & Kesselheim, A.S (2012) Why France Spends Less Than the United States on Drugs: A Comparative Study of Drug Pricing and Pricing  Regulation. Milbark Qarterly , 99(1), 240-272.

Rand: Linking U.S. Prescription Drug Prices to Those in Other Nations Could Cut Costs in Half. (2021, Sep 11). Targeted News Service

Links to an external site.

Robert Pear The New York Times. (2000,Apr 06). Senator Takes on Prices of Prescription Drugs Cost in U.S. Higher than In Other Countried. [Broward Metro Edition].Sun  Sentinel/ Https:// Links to an external site.-prices-prescription-drugs-costs/docview/388024003/se-2

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