NRS 451 Topic 2: Roles and Responsibilities in Leadership and Management Tasks

NRS 451 Topic 2: Roles and Responsibilities in Leadership and Management Tasks

NRS 451 Topic 2: Roles and Responsibilities in Leadership and Management Tasks

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NRS 451 Topic 2 Assignment: Benchmark – Effective Approaches in Leadership and Management

Replies

For my executive summary, my idea for quality improvement in my workplace is the reduction of conflicts in the workplace. I work in a skilled health care organization that involves several health care professionals that are often vulnerable to conflicts. Workplace conflicts refers to disagreements encountered in work area often caused by differences between professionals and even personal issues (Kalter et al., 2018). Personally, I think there are numerous ways to cut down workplace conflicts such as educating on team work and its importance in achieving the goals of an organization. Health care professionals should be engaged in educational programs on conflicts and anger management programs (Shakoor, 2020). Conflicts in the workplace area derail the efforts of attaining the goals, values, and mission of any given organization and thus should be addressed in a timely manner.

References

Kalter, M., Bollen, K., & Euwema, M. (2018). The Long-Term Effectiveness of Mediating Workplace Conflicts. Negotiation Journal34(3), 243-265. https://doi.org/10.1111/nejo.12227

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Shakoor, R. (2020). Workplace Conflicts and its Effect on Employee Productivity: A Mediating Role of Workplace Politics. International Journal Of Psychosocial Rehabilitation24(3), 2774-2783. https://doi.org/10.37200/ijpr/v24i3/pr2020313

In this assignment, you will be writing a 1,000-1,250 word paper describing the differing approaches of nursing leaders and managers to issues in practice. To complete this assignment, do the following:

  1. Select an issue from the following list: bullying, unit closers and restructuring, floating, nurse turnover, nurse staffing ratios, use of contract employees (i.e., registry and travel nurses), or magnet designation.
  2. Describe the selected issue. Discuss how it impacts quality of care and patient safety in the setting in which it occurs.
  3. Discuss how professional standards of practice should be demonstrated in this situation to help rectify the issue or maintain professional conduct.
  4. Explain the differing roles of nursing leaders and nursing managers in this instance and discuss the different approaches they take to address the selected issue and promote patient safety and quality care. Support your rationale by using the theories, principles, skills, and roles of the leader versus manager described in your readings.
  5. Discuss what additional aspects mangers and leaders would need to initiate in order to ensure professionalism throughout diverse health care settings while addressing the selected issue.
  6. Describe a leadership style that would best address the chosen issue. Explain why this style could be successful in this setting.

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Re: Topic 2 DQ 3
A medication error occurs when a healthcare provider, patient, or consumer makes a mistake with a medicine and, as a result, the medication is misused or the patient is injured (Hughes & Blegen, 2008). Nurses are constantly challenged to ensuring that patients receive the proper drug at the right time due to poor nursing education, heavy workloads and staffing deficiencies, defective dispensing methods, and difficulties with labeling of drugs (Hughes & Blegen, 2008). Improved communication in the medicine delivery process will be the focus of the planned quality improvement program. Medication errors will be significantly reduced, patient mortality and morbidity will be reduced, communication between health care providers and their patients will be improved, continuous error monitoring will be ensured, clinicians will have information tools and medication labeling will be standardised, and these are all goals of the initiative. Medication mistakes can happen in any context, but the risks of adverse drug events are higher when medications are delivered in specialty settings or with complicated dose regimens. Those who work in the delivery unit at Southern New Hampshire Medical Center, including pharmacy and administrative employees, will be the primary audience. Patients are at risk of injury if drug therapy is used incorrectly, which is increasingly common as the primary treatment for most disorders. It is only if this project is a success that patients will reap the benefits of mediation in the form of better health care and fewer mistakes (Hughes & Blegen, 2008). Patients’ safety will be protected by only using proven methods, thanks to the program.
https://onlinenursingessays.com/nrs-451-topic-2-roles-and-responsibilities-in-leadership-and-management-tasks/
https://onlinenursingessays.com/nrs-451-topic-2-roles-and-responsibilities-in-leadership-and-management-tasks/This project will necessitate interprofessional cooperation. Registered nurses on the floor, clinical supervisors, unit managers, physicians, pharmacy staff and pharmacist, director of education, director of research, and head of nursing services will be part of the

NRS 451 Topic 2 Roles and Responsibilities in Leadership and Management Tasks
NRS 451 Topic 2 Roles and Responsibilities in Leadership and Management Tasks

high-performance and successful team. The members of this group will be participating at every stage of the project. Patients will be a part of the implementation and evaluation processes because their input is critical. This project’s budget will be justified by the reality that today’s healthcare is both value- and cost-driven. Healthcare providers are constantly working to deliver the best possible care at the lowest possible cost. Hospitals are willing to pay the price to undertake quality improvement programs in order to maximize payment for the quality of services they give. There is a need for this endeavor because of an increase in drug mistakes.

the total number of medication administration errors made by nurses; the rate over the study; the number of errors related to high alert medications like Pitocin, potassium chloride, and magnesium sulfate; the number and rate of errors related to the administration route, the wrong drug, wrong patient, wrong time, and time of the occurrence; and the time of the occurrence of the errors. The degree to which patients and healthcare professionals (such as nurses, doctors, and pharmacists) are pleased with the initiative that was put in place. When it comes to patient and nurse satisfaction, it will be based on the ease with which the process is implemented, as well as how much time is saved. The NRS 451 Topic 2: Leadership and Management Roles and Responsibilities

References:

Hughes, R. G, & Blegen, M. A. (2008). Medication safety. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Chapter 37. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2656/#!po=98.9796

Use at least three peer-reviewed journal articles other than those presented in your text or provided in the course.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

RN to BSN

1.1:       Exemplify professionalism in diverse health care settings.

1.3:       Exercise professional nursing leadership and management roles in the promotion of patient safety and quality care.

3.4:       Demonstrate professional standards of practice.

Topic 2 DQ 1

One of the five elements of emotional intelligence is self-awareness. Explain why emotional intelligence is crucial for effective leadership. Discuss what behaviors someone with a high degree of self-awareness would demonstrate within the context of leading and managing groups. Provide an example.

Topic 2 DQ 2

Discuss the purpose of strategic planning in a health care environment. Explain what factors affect future planning in an organization and what tools can be used for future planning.

Select a topic for your Topic 3 Executive Summary assignment. Post your idea and basic thoughts about the topic using the assignment details from Topic 3. You should provide thoughts to your peers about their topics and ideas that may assist them in completing their projects.

Re: Topic 2 DQ 3
A medication error is any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is under the healthcare professional’s, patient’s, or consumer’s control (Hughes & Blegen, 2008). With insufficient nursing education about patient safety and quality, excessive workloads and staffing shortages, flawed dispensing systems, and drug labeling issues, nurses are constantly challenged to ensure that patients receive the right drug at the right time (Hughes & Blegen, 2008). The proposed quality improvement initiative will focus on reducing medication errors through improved communication during the medication administration process. The initiative’s goals will be to significantly reduce medication errors, lower patient mortality and morbidity, improve communication between providers and patients, ensure continuous error monitoring, provide clinicians with information tools, and standardize medication labeling and drug-related information. Medication errors occur in all settings, but those with complex dosing regimens and administered in specialty areas have an increased risk of adverse drug events. The target population will be healthcare professionals, including pharmacy staff and administrative staff at Southern New Hampshire Medical Center’s delivery unit. Medication therapy is increasingly being used as the primary intervention for most illnesses, exposing patients to potential harm when errors occur. The success of this initiative will ensure that patients only benefit from mediation through effective management of their illnesses and better outcomes, with few, if any, errors (Hughes & Blegen, 2008). In addition, the initiative will ensure that only evidence-based practices are used to ensure patient safety.This project will necessitate interprofessional collaboration. Registered nurses on the floor, clinical supervisors, unit managers, physicians, pharmacy staff and pharmacist, director of education, director of research, and head of nursing services will be part of the high-performance and effective team. This group will be present throughout the process. Patients will be involved in the implementation and evaluation phases because their feedback is important. This project’s budget will be justified by the fact that healthcare today is value-based and cost-driven. Healthcare organizations strive to provide the best care at the lowest possible cost. With reimbursement for service quality, hospitals are willing to pay the price to implement quality improvement projects that will ensure maximum reimbursement. Increased drug errors indicate poor quality care, necessitating this initiative. NRS 451 Topic 2: Leadership and Management Roles and ResponsibilitiesThe total number of medication administration errors made by nurses; the rate of the errors over the study period; the number and rate of errors related to high alert medications such as Pitocin, potassium chloride, and magnesium sulfate; the number and rate of errors related to omission, administration route, wrong drug, wrong patient, and wrong time; the time of the occurrence and identification of the errors; the time of the occurrence and identification of the errors Patient and clinical staff (nurses, physicians, and pharmacy staff) satisfaction with the implemented initiative. The level of satisfaction will be determined by how user-friendly the process is, the amount of time saved, and how safe both nurses and patients feel during the medication administration process. NRS 451 Topic 2: Leadership and Management Roles and Responsibilities

References:

Hughes, R. G, & Blegen, M. A. (2008). Medication safety. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Chapter 37. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2656/#!po=98.9796

Executive Summary – Rubric

Criteria Description

Purpose of the Quality Improvement Initiative

5. Excellent

21 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, is provided in detail, and demonstrates higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

4. Good

18.69 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

3. Satisfactory

16.59 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative is provided and meets the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

15.75 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative is incomplete, missing relevant information.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative is not provided.

Criteria Description

Target Population or Audience

5. Excellent

18.2 points

The target population or audience meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

4. Good

16.2 points

The target population or audience meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

3. Satisfactory

14.38 points

The target population or audience is provided and meet the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

13.65 points

The target population or audience is incomplete, missing relevant information.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The target population or audience is not addressed.

Criteria Description

Benefits of Quality Improvement Initiative

5. Excellent

18.2 points

The benefit of the quality improvement initiative meet all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

4. Good

16.2 points

The benefit of the quality improvement initiative meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

3. Satisfactory

14.38 points

The benefits of the quality improvement initiative are provided and meet the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

13.65 points

The benefits of the quality improvement initiative are incomplete, missing relevant information.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The benefits of the quality improvement initiative are not provided.

Criteria Description

Interprofessional Collaboration Required to Implement the Quality Improvement Initiative

5. Excellent

18.2 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement initiative is clearly discussed and meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

4. Good

16.2 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement is discussed and meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

3. Satisfactory

14.38 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement is discussed and meets the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions

2. Less Than Satisfactory

13.65 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement initiative is incomplete, missing relevant information.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement initiative is not discussed.

Criteria Description

Cost or Budget Justification

5. Excellent

18.2 points

The cost or budget justification issue meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated by the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

4. Good

16.2 points

The cost or budget justification issue meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

3. Satisfactory

14.38 points

The cost or budget justification is provided and meets the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

13.65 points

The cost or budget justification is incomplete, missing relevant information.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The cost or budget justification is not provided.

Criteria Description

Basis Upon Which the Program or Project Will Be Evaluated

5. Excellent

18.2 points

The basis, upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated as indicated by the assignment instructions, is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

4. Good

16.2 points

The basis upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated is provided in detail.

3. Satisfactory

14.38 points

The basis upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated meets the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

13.65 points

The basis upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated is incomplete, missing relevant information.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

The basis upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated is not provided.

Criteria Description

Thesis Development and Purpose

5. Excellent

7 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

4. Good

6.23 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

3. Satisfactory

5.53 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

5.25 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

Criteria Description

Paragraph Development and Transitions

5. Excellent

7 points

There is a sophisticated construction of paragraphs and transitions. Ideas progress and relate to each other. Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader. Paragraph structure is seamless.

4. Good

6.23 points

A logical progression of ideas between paragraphs is apparent. Paragraphs exhibit a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Topic sentences and concluding remarks are appropriate to purpose.

3. Satisfactory

5.53 points

Paragraphs are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization and/or in their relationships to each other.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

5.25 points

Some paragraphs and transitions may lack logical progression of ideas, unity, coherence, and/or cohesiveness. Some degree of organization is evident.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Paragraphs and transitions consistently lack unity and coherence. No apparent connections between paragraphs are established. Transitions are inappropriate to purpose and scope. Organization is disjointed.

Criteria Description

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

5. Excellent

7 points

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

4. Good

6.23 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.

3. Satisfactory

5.53 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

5.25 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

Criteria Description

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

5. Excellent

2.8 points

All format elements are correct.

4. Good

2.49 points

Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

3. Satisfactory

2.21 points

Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

2.1 points

Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

Criteria Description

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

5. Excellent

4.2 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

4. Good

3.74 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

3. Satisfactory

3.32 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

2. Less Than Satisfactory

3.15 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

1. Unsatisfactory

0 points

Sources are not documented.

Total 140 points

Rubric Criteria

Total 140 points

Criterion

1. Unsatisfactory

2. Less Than Satisfactory

3. Satisfactory

4. Good

5. Excellent

Interprofessional Collaboration Required to Implement the Quality Improvement Initiative

Interprofessional Collaboration Required to Implement the Quality Improvement Initiative

0 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement initiative is not discussed.

13.65 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement initiative is incomplete, missing relevant information.

14.38 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement is discussed and meets the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions

16.2 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement is discussed and meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

18.2 points

The interprofessional collaboration that would be required to implement the quality improvement initiative is clearly discussed and meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

0 points

Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

2.1 points

Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.

2.21 points

Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

2.49 points

Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

2.8 points

All format elements are correct.

Cost or Budget Justification

Cost or Budget Justification

0 points

The cost or budget justification is not provided.

13.65 points

The cost or budget justification is incomplete, missing relevant information.

14.38 points

The cost or budget justification is provided and meets the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

16.2 points

The cost or budget justification issue meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

18.2 points

The cost or budget justification issue meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated by the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

Basis Upon Which the Program or Project Will Be Evaluated

Basis Upon Which the Program or Project Will Be Evaluated

0 points

The basis upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated is not provided.

13.65 points

The basis upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated is incomplete, missing relevant information.

14.38 points

The basis upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated meets the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

16.2 points

The basis upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated is provided in detail.

18.2 points

The basis, upon which the quality improvement initiative will be evaluated as indicated by the assignment instructions, is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

5.25 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.

5.53 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.

6.23 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.

7 points

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Thesis Development and Purpose

Thesis Development and Purpose

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

5.25 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

5.53 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

6.23 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

7 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

Documentation of Sources

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

0 points

Sources are not documented.

3.15 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

3.32 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

3.74 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

4.2 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Purpose of the Quality Improvement Initiative

Purpose of the Quality Improvement Initiative

0 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative is not provided.

15.75 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative is incomplete, missing relevant information.

16.59 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative is provided and meets the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

18.69 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

21 points

The purpose of the quality improvement initiative meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, is provided in detail, and demonstrates higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

Target Population or Audience

Target Population or Audience

0 points

The target population or audience is not addressed.

13.65 points

The target population or audience is incomplete, missing relevant information.

14.38 points

The target population or audience is provided and meet the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

16.2 points

The target population or audience meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

18.2 points

The target population or audience meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

Benefits of Quality Improvement Initiative

Benefits of Quality Improvement Initiative

0 points

The benefits of the quality improvement initiative are not provided.

13.65 points

The benefits of the quality improvement initiative are incomplete, missing relevant information.

14.38 points

The benefits of the quality improvement initiative are provided and meet the basic criteria for the assignment as indicated in the assignment instructions.

16.2 points

The benefit of the quality improvement initiative meets all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail.

18.2 points

The benefit of the quality improvement initiative meet all criteria for the assignment, as indicated in the assignment instructions, and is provided in detail, while demonstrating higher level thinking by incorporating prior learning or reflective thought.

Paragraph Development and Transitions

Paragraph Development and Transitions

0 points

Paragraphs and transitions consistently lack unity and coherence. No apparent connections between paragraphs are established. Transitions are inappropriate to purpose and scope. Organization is disjointed.

5.25 points

Some paragraphs and transitions may lack logical progression of ideas, unity, coherence, and/or cohesiveness. Some degree of organization is evident.

5.53 points

Paragraphs are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization and/or in their relationships to each other.

6.23 points

A logical progression of ideas between paragraphs is apparent. Paragraphs exhibit a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness. Topic sentences and concluding remarks are appropriate to purpose.

7 points

There is a sophisticated construction of paragraphs and transitions. Ideas progress and relate to each other. Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader. Paragraph structure is seamless.

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