NRS 434VN Week 2 Assignment Assessment Of The Child: Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet

NRS 434VN Week 2 Assignment Assessment Of The Child: Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet Details

Parents, educators, and health care providers optimize child development based on the information they have about a particular child. Since child development is multidimensional, the assessment should be broad and examine both typical and special needs as much as possible. A thorough evaluation should provide adequate information for supporting the child in all the deserved ways. This paper describes physical assessments and their modifications based on the needs of an eight-year-old girl while applying Piaget’s theory of development.

Physical Assessments among School-Aged Children

Physical assessments to obtain data vary with age. The modes of evaluation are also dynamic since the needs of five-year-old and twelve-year-old children differ profoundly. Also, their cooperation in the assessment is different. Growth charts are a reference point when physically observing a child. A health care provider can compare the details in a growth chart with the child’s visible state and make verifiable inferences. The observation method is also reliable. Here, a health care provider interacts with the child and makes deductions based on the child’s conduct. Standardized tests can also be used, although for children somewhat advanced in age and without special needs.

Since the assessment approaches cannot be effective if used universally, modification is necessary to match the age and developmental stage. For instance, if a health care provider was assessing a child using a standardized test, the best way to engage a five-year-old is to read out the questions and write answers for them. In the case of observations, children can be placed in an environment where they can move around, play, and interact with peers as their behavior and visible health problems get recorded.  Engaging parents and interpreters can also be considered modification since it eases collecting information and ensures that data is not collected and interpreted based on perceptions.

Choosing a Child

Health and developmental problems are typical in children. According to Moore et al. (2015), children’s developmental issues stem from the environment, access to health resources, and genetics, among other factors. Deborah, an eight-year-old girl, was born normally at thirty-eight weeks. She was not breastfed exclusively since her mother was supposed to travel back to Qatar due to job demands. As a result, the girl was left under the care of a nun as early as four months. Due to some inattention, Deborah was hospitalized for severe malnutrition when she was one-year-old, an issue thought to have contributed a lot to her developmental delays.

The typical development stages at her age include the concrete operational stage (ages 7 to 11) under Piaget’s stage of development. She is also in the industry vs. inferiority stage of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development. At the concrete operational stage, the social world expands, and children begin to take pride in their accomplishments as they interact with peers (Börnert-Ringleb & Wilbert, 2018). Important events at this stage include attending school, growth in confidence, and a high rate of physical growth and cognition.

Applying Theories

The most fitting theory in this scenario is Piaget’s stages of development. According to Piaget, children develop in four stages that follow each other: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational stages (Raeff, 2020). Deborah fits the concrete operational stage. To developmentally assess the child, the central focus should be their understanding of logic. Children are relatively good at using inductive reasoning in the concrete operational stage (Overton et al., 2015). They can understand reversibility and conservation. A suitable way of assessing whether Deborah has a developmental problem is cutting two candy bars of the same size into different pieces. One can be cut into two pieces and the other into four. The girl should know that both sizes are equal despite different pieces. I would offer explanations during the assessment through illustrations and active engagement. Active listening and engaging the child would help to gain cooperation. Potential findings include the child’s ability to apply inductive reasoning, awareness of external events, and expression of feelings.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the development assessment helps to obtain the necessary data about growth and development. It is a suitable reference of what needs to be done depending on the child’s physical, cognitive, and social-emotional needs. Deborah’s assessment can help identify mental and physical health problems and the interventions necessary depending on the severity of her problems. Active engagement is essential to ensure that the child cooperates to give as much information as possible.

 

 

References

Börnert-Ringleb, M., & Wilbert, J. (2018, May). The association of strategy use and concrete-operational thinking in primary school. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 3, p. 38). Frontiers. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2018.00038

Moore, T. G., McDonald, M., Carlon, L., & O’Rourke, K. (2015). Early childhood development and the social determinants of health inequities. Health promotion international30(suppl_2), ii102-ii115. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dav031

Overton, W. F., Molenaar, P., & Lerner, R. M. (2015). Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Theory and method, Vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Raeff, C. (2020). Exploring the complexities of human action. Oxford University Press.

In this assignment, you will be exploring actual and potential health problems in the childhood years using a functional health assessment and Erickson’s Stages of Child Development. To complete this assignment, do the following:

  1. Cite and reference any outside sources used in your answers. Include in your assessment a thorough discussion of Erickson’s Stages of Child Development as it pertains to the development age of the child.
  1. NRS 434VN Week 2 Assignment Assessment Of The Child: Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet Using the textbook, complete the “Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment.”
    NRS 434 Assessment of the Child Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet Paper
    NRS 434 Assessment of the Child Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet Paper

    Follow the instructions in the resource for completing the assignment

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

 

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Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult. In addition to describing the similar/different aspects of the physical assessment, explain how the nurse would offer instruction during the assessment, how communication would be adapted to offer explanations, and what strategies the nurse would use to encourage engagement.

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Physical assessment of the child and that of an adult is done similarly yet differently. The act of auscultation, palpation, taking the vital signs to get the objective data are done the same but the normal range limits are different. For example, the healthy adult blood pressure normal range is from 90/60 mmHg – 120/80 mmHg, pulse rate 60-100 beats per minute and temperature of 97.8 ‘F to 98.6″F whereas to a 1-11-year-old child has a heart rate of 70-120 bpm, blood pressure of 90-110 systolic and 55-75 diastolic.

In using Erikson’s theory, an adult’s stage of development is focused on the fear of loneliness if there is no long-lasting relationship and adult contemplates their contribution to society with their achievements or lack of, and for a school-aged child, the focus is more on establishing trust and self-esteem (Grand Canyon University, 2018).

Communication and approach with these two different age groups also differ. A caring and comfortable environment is needed for a school-aged child in order to extend their trust from their parents to the healthcare provider. The questions are also formulated so that the child is able to answer. Whereas for the adult, a more factual and straightforward questioning is done. Utilizing the evidence-based practice tools provided to the health care team, a thorough and effective assessment is done to promote health and have an effective nursing process.

References:

 

Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health assessment: Foundations for effective practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for-effective-practice/v1.1/

 

Medline Plus. Retrieved from: Vital signs: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

 

C.S.Mott Children’s Hospital .Retrieved from: Vital Signs in Children | CS Mott ChilVital Signs in Children | CS Mott Children’s Hospital | Michigan Medicinedren’s Hospital | Michigan Medicine

NRS 434V Week 3 Discussion 1

As adolescents separate from their parents and gain a sense of control, sometimes they are unable to balance stresses. As a result, depression may occur, and, at times, suicide may be the outcome. Choose the topic of either adolescent depression or adolescent suicide. Discuss contributing factors and signs and symptoms that may be observed or assessed in these clients. Describe primary, secondary, and tertiary methods of health prevention for this topic. Research community and state resources and describe at least two of these for your chosen topic. What nursing interventions could you use to assist an adolescent you suspect is depressed beyond referring the adolescent to a state or community resource?

NRS 434V Week 3 Discussion 2

Adolescent pregnancy is viewed as a high-risk situation due to the serious health risks that this creates for the mother, the baby, and society at large. Describe various risk factors or precursors to adolescent pregnancy. Research community and state resources devoted in adolescent pregnancy and describe at least two of these resources. Research the teen pregnancy rates for the last 10 years for your state and community. Has this rate increased or decreased? Discuss possible reasons for an increase or decrease.

Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child

Child development is the constant but predictably chronological biological, psychological, and emotional changes that occur in humans between birth and adolescence. The order of development is the same for all children and is defined in developmental milestones (Choo et al., 2019). This stage is characterized by gradual growth and development. This paper will discuss the physical assessments among school-aged children, outline the typical developmental stages of a 10-year-old, and apply the Erickson theory in assessing a child.

Physical Assessments among School-Aged Children

The physical assessment of school-aged children follows the same sequence: general appearance survey, vital signs, anthropometric measurement, pain assessment, and a head-to-toe exam. In the first contact with the school-age child, the nurse conducts a general survey to have an initial impression. The general survey provides information about a child’s age, sex, and race and provides clues about a child’s health status and behavior (Srinath et al., 2019). Vital signs, body temperature, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure, are obtained for all children. However, the normal ranges differ with the child’s age. Anthropometrics measurements include the child’s height and weight and plotting against the WHO growth chart to monitor the child’s growth (Srinath et al., 2019). The child’s cognitive ability determines methods of pain assessment.

The physical assessment in school-aged children involves the four basic techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. The assessment uses the head-to-toe approach, but the body part associated with pain is examined last (Srinath et al., 2019). Special assessments performed on this population include vision tests and dental screening since children at this age group are at a high risk of dental cavities and vision disturbances.

Assessment techniques would be adapted to match the child’s age and developmental stage by providing a quiet, private environment when performing the physical. A simple drape would be used over the underpants or a colorful examination gown since this is what children at this age enjoy. Besides, painful or discomforting procedures would be performed last for the child to be comfortable during the assessment (Choo et al., 2019). The physical assessment would be a great opportunity to educate the school-age child about the body and personal care.

Typical Developmental Stages of Children at 10 Years

Physical developmental milestones of a 10-year-old child are: Using both hands independently, throwing balls skillfully, participating in organized sports, and handling eating utensils skillfully (Choo et al., 2019). At ten years, a child enjoys all physical activities and continues to improve his motor coordination. The cognitive-developmental stages of a 10-year-old include functioning on a higher level in his mental ability (Choo et al., 2019). Cognitive milestones include having a greater ability to concentrate and engage in self-initiating quiet activities that challenge cognitive skills, such as playing computer and board games and reading. Expected findings in the emotional aspect include short bursts of anger, fears of injury to the body, and fear of the dark (Maguire et al., 2016). Social developmental milestones include becoming peer-oriented, improving relationships with siblings, and having greater self–control, confidence, and sincerity (Maguire et al., 2016). Besides, children at this age demonstrate increasing independence in decision-making and an increasing need for independence from family. A 10-year-old shows respect to parents and their role, joins formal and informal groups, and engages in tasks in the real world.

Applying Erickson Theory in Developmental Assessment

Children in the school-age population fall in the industry versus inferiority stage in Erickson’s developmental theory. The theory argues that school-age children are interested in learning how to do things correctly (Orenstein & Lewis, 2020). Their sense of industry develops when a child is encouraged to do, make, or create practical things and, when given an opportunity to complete the projects, commended, and rewarded for their achievement (Orenstein & Lewis, 2020). However, a sense of inferiority grows when their efforts are ridiculed or considered a mess. I would assess a child’s development using the Erickson theory by giving the child a task, such as stacking cubes. I would then assess their level of interest in doing the task correctly and their emotions when they do it as required. Besides, I would inquire from the caregiver about the child’s emotional reaction when he fails in doing a task correctly.

To gain cooperation during the physical assessment, I would answer the child’s questions openly and in simple terms. For the younger child, I would involve the caregiver as much as possible to lower anxiety. Besides, I would allow the child to handle safe, clean examination equipment, such as the stethoscope, to increase the chances of examining a cooperative child.

Conclusion

Physical assessments among school-aged children are similar in the approach and techniques use. It entails a general survey, obtaining vital signs and anthropometric measurements, head-to-toe exam, dental screening, and vision test.  The assessment should be performed in a quiet and private environment, and the painful procedures should come last.  Developmental milestones of a 10-year-old include physical, cognitive, emotional, and social aspects. The Erickson theory can be applied in assessing a school-age child by examining the child’s emotional reaction when they succeed or fail a task.

Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment across the childhood age groups.

As a child transitions from a toddler to school-aged child, they are presented with multiple obstacles to overcome. Development is dependent on the child’s environment and the influence of caregivers. Culture, religion and values have a significant impact on molding the child’s behavioral, emotional, and cognitive growth in these stages (Jarvis, 2012). NRS 434VN Assessment Of The Child: Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet.

When each developmental phase connects with each health assessment pattern, the differences are fairly evident. The focus of the toddler stage is on skill development, as providing structure and daily routine are important in assisting with a sense of security while helping the child develop self-discipline, thus teaching children how to control themselves and their environments. For the preschool-aged child, the focus is on growth in social and emotional skills, including the formation of peer relationships, the development of a sense of right and wrong, and identification of gender. School-aged children can use the learned behaviors and values to construct their own sense of identity, acquiring a sense of self-esteem as they mature into adolescents. An additional similarity is that children tend to aim towards autonomy and strive to verbally express themselves, and the child develops, they will understand when they engage in either acceptable or unacceptable behaviors (Jarvis, 2012).

 

Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural differences in your answer.

 

Due to a child’s increased activity level, short attention span, and fear of strangers, it can be difficult for a nurse to perform any form of physical assessment, examination, and education; a relaxed and informal setting in this circumstance can be ideal. During the introductory stage of the interview with the caregiver, the nurse should also include the child in the room to give the child the opportunity to observe the interaction, so that acceptance and trust established by the caregiver can be shared. NRS 434VN Assessment Of The Child: Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet. Also, the nurse must consider cultural differences during the exam, and tailor education and communication accordingly, such as language differences or cultural rules.

When performing the physical assessment, the child should sit on the laps of their caregivers, and the RN should always keep the child at eye level and praise them for their cooperation with the exam. When communicating with the child, the nurse should explain concepts in an easy to understand fashion. According to Jarvis (2012), sharing reading materials or media can help divert attention away from the nurse and make the exam go smoother. With the knowledge of Erikson’s developmental stages, a nurse can be enabled to give advanced and personalized care for an assessed child. NRS 434VN Assessment Of The Child: Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet.

References

Jarvis, C. (2012). Physical Examination & Health Assessment. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978-1-4377-0151-7/cfi/0!/4/2/2@0:0.131. NRS 434VN Assessment Of The Child: Functional Health Pattern Analysis Worksheet.