NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations Essay

NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations

NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations Essay

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Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations Paper Details:

The public health model for diabetes prevention and treatment has a tendency to continue focusing on getting people to change their behavior with regard to diet and levels of physical activity or to be “compliant” with recommended actions and medications for diabetes maintenance, despite research regarding broader factors involved in disease and disparity (Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group 2002). (Bahati, Guy, and Gwadry-Sridhar 2012). In public health research, it is typically avoided to broaden the focus to include more extensive factors like historical and structural racism, changing relationships in the global economy that affect employment, housing policy that defines neighborhood residence, immigration policy, or government subsidies to industrial agriculture. These factors are generally regarded as being outside the scope of study. Nevertheless, a focus on social determinants of health is increasingly considered as being more appropriate than a focus on individual behavior for managing diabetes due to the expanding diabetes “epidemic” (Lam and LeRoith 2012). (Fisher, Chesla, Mullan, Skaff, and Kanter 2001; Peyrot, McMurry Jr, and Kruger 1999; Schulz, Zenk, Odoms-Young, Hollis-Neely, Nwankwo, Lockett, Ridella, and Kannan 2005). Syme 2005) and how “social forces ‘get into the body’ to produce disease” (Kawachi and Bruce 2006; Marmot and Bell 2009; Syme and Frohlich 2002) helped to focus on disease mechanisms that had not previously been well understood or even anticipated.

Chronic stress is more common in low-income communities (Cohen, Doyle, and Baum 2006; Kopp, Skrabski, Székely, Stauder, and Williams 2007), which is now recognized as having significant and cumulative effects on health and health disparities (Davey Smith 2003; Evans and Schamberg 2009; Raphael, Anstice, Raine, McGannon, Rizvi, and Yu 2003). The social determinants approach contends that health behavior is influenced by factors other than an individual’s desire or intention to change (Caban and Walker 2006; Cabassa, Hansen, Palinkas, and Ell 2008; Mendenhall, Seligman, Fernandez, and Jacobs 2010). The extent to which individual action is enmeshed in circumstances outside of individual authority and shaped by institutionalized interactions, surroundings, and policies is now well-documented in the literature on social determinants (CSDH 2008). This has increased interest in environmental and policy change (e.g., http://www.cdc.gov/prc/about-prc-program/contributions/environment.htm & http://www.rwjf.org/applications/solicited/cfp.jsp?ID=20804), as well as the requirement to support “community empowerment” (Brennan Ramirez, Baker, and Metzler 2008).

Also Check Out: Assignment: Academic Success a Professional Development Plan Part 4: Research Analysis

Analyze the health status of a specific minority group. Select a minority group that is represented in the United States (examples include: American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander.)

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In an essay of 750-1,000 words, compare and contrast the health status of the minority group you have

NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations
NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations

selected to the national average. Consider the cultural, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical barriers to health. How do race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and education influence health for the minority group you have selected? Address the following in your essay:

1. What is the current health status of this minority group?

2. How is health promotion defined by the group?

3. What health disparities exist for this group?

Describe at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that is likely to be the most effective given the unique needs of the minority group you have selected. Provide an explanation of why it might be the most effective choice. Cite a minimum of three references in the paper.

You will find important health information regarding minority groups by exploring the following Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) links:

NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations Essay

1. Minority Health: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealt/index.html

2. Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealt/populations/remp.html

NRS 429V Week 2 Discussion 2

Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education? How do health care providers overcome differing points of view regarding health promotion and disease prevention? Provide an example.

NRS 429V Week 2 Discussion 1

According to the assigned article, “Health Disparity and Structural Violence: How Fear Undermines Health Among Immigrants at Risk for Diabetes,” narratives tell the story of the interconnectedness between fear and health. Thematically, the issue of fear is a dominant feature that affects how an individual approaches day-to-day living and health. Explain the relationship between fear and health identified by the researchers in the article. Do you agree that structural violence perpetuates health disparity?

Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations Paper

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center. NRS 429V Week 2 Assignment Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations Essay

Adapting health promotion interventions for ethnic minority groups: a qualitative study

NRS 429V Week 2 Discussion 1

According to the assigned article, “Health Disparity and Structural Violence: How Fear Undermines Health Among Immigrants at Risk for Diabetes,” narratives tell the story of the interconnectedness between fear and health. Thematically, the issue of fear is a dominant feature that affects how an individual approaches day-to-day living and health. Explain the relationship between fear and health identified by the researchers in the article. Do you agree that structural violence perpetuates health disparity?

NRS 429V Week 2 Discussion 2

Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education? How do health care providers overcome differing points of view regarding health promotion and disease prevention? Provide an example.

Abstract

Diabetes is a national health issue, and the disease’s burden and consequences disproportionately affect Hispanics. While models of social determinants of health have improved our understanding of how certain contexts and environments influence an individual’s ability to make healthy choices, a structural violence framework goes beyond traditional unidimensional analysis. Thus, a structural violence approach is capable of revealing social practice dynamics that operate across multiple dimensions of people’s lives in ways that may not appear to be related to health at first glance. Working with a Hispanic immigrant community in Albuquerque, New Mexico, we show how structural forces directly inhibit access to appropriate healthcare services while also instilling fear in immigrants, further undermining health and fostering disparity. Although fear is not normally associated with diabetes health outcomes, participant narratives in the community where we conducted this study discussed fear and health as interconnected.

Keywords: Diabetes, Latino Immigrant Health, Structural Violence, Health Disparity

Introduction

Diabetes has become an epidemic problem in the U.S. (; ). Approximately 8.3% of the population (or 25.8 million people) suffer from diabetes in the U.S., with the majority (nearly 95%) having type-2 diabetes (). In addition, nearly one-fourth of the population has been diagnosed as pre-diabetic () and trends suggest that diabetes prevalence may increase to as many as 1-in-3 adults by 2050 (). These data demonstrate that diabetes is a compelling national problem, but the risk of diabetes is not uniform. There are significant disparities associated with diabetes based on race and ethnicity. Minority populations have a higher prevalence of diabetes as compared to non-Hispanic whites (; ). Hispanics are 66% more likely, and Mexican Americans are 87% more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes (). In Albuquerque, New Mexico, diabetes is the sixth leading cause of mortality (). In the Hispanic immigrant neighborhood where this study was conducted, our preliminary research found that the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes among those sampled was 56%, with 29% of those undiagnosed and unaware of their compromised health status ().

Although ethnicity is one risk factor (; ), research has demonstrated a broad range of factors influences diabetes risk. Moreover, the findings of an Institute of Medicine report, (2002) identify the complicity of “policies and practices of health care systems…[with]…racial bias, discrimination, stereotyping and clinical uncertainty” (, p. 993) as core factors in the creation and maintenance of disease and disparity. The etiology of diabetes, then, involves the complex intersection of multiple risk factors, some of which are not traditionally the focus of public health research. This reality has implications for prevention and treatment. Since the cause of diabetes is multidimensional, preventing it or treating it from a purely biomedical perspective is rarely effective; but without a comprehension of the relationship between health and broader social forces that produce disparity, efforts to improve health are not likely to result in meaningful change.

However, understanding of the social dynamics involved in the mechanisms and pathways of chronic disease continues to lag (; ). It has become clear that curtailing the alarming rise in diabetes will require a more nuanced understanding of the broader social determinants of health if evidence-guided strategies for individuals at high risk for developing the disease are to be effective. Yet, conceptual frameworks from public health theory, while enlightening in many respects, have not sufficiently embraced the true vision of social determinants thinking (; ; ; ). Current approaches tend to be insufficient for revealing the multi-dimensionality of the relationship between social determinants, chronic disease and health disparity (; , p. 13). The move toward a perspective on social determinants of health has necessitated a broader conceptualization of factors influencing health, but rarely does research seek to go beyond identifying immediate barriers and promoters of disease to explore or address the inequitable power dynamics and the root causes involved. argue that public health operates from this incomplete knowledge base because there is an “acute need for theoretical innovation” (p. 591). Moira (2010) similarly suggests that because theory is not sufficiently incorporated into public health research, the focus fails to go beyond the specifics of what people say or do to developing a coherent interpretation exploring “the meanings and processes associated with the categories of behavior observed” (p. 287)—in other words, an interpretation of the data. As such, we have yet to develop a more complete and integrated understanding of the way that health and illness are “produced as a social phenomenon.” Like and Moira (2010), we believe that public health frameworks tend to be under-theorized, and that by expanding our theoretical repertoire to include conceptual approaches from social theory, we can not only illuminate dynamics underpinning the production of health disparity that are poorly understood in the public health literature, but can offer new perspectives to expand our ability to prevent and reduce health disparity.

Using data collected with a Hispanic, immigrant population in Albuquerque, New Mexico, we apply a structural violence framework (; ; ; ; ) to develop the concepts presented in this article. When analyzing processes related to disease, a structural violence framework takes into consideration the extent to which people’s lives are embedded in, reflect, and are limited by institutionalized inequality. Social inequality, whether current or past, is produced by historical processes that create inequitable relationships, environments, and policies, influencing and often governing individual experience. The multi-dimensional nature of social inequality means that its influence in people’s lives is cross-cutting; institutionalized inequality affecting one realm of a person’s life (e.g., low educational attainment) spills over into other dimensions (e.g., health status) (; ). Although not commonly employed in public health, a theoretical framework based on structural violence offers a useful tool for analyzing this spill over. Using this approach can provide insights for understanding the landscape of diabetes disparities.

NRS 429V Week 1 Discussion 2

In the assigned reading, “How to Write Learning Objectives That Meet Demanding Behavioral Criteria,” Kizlik explained that “objectives that are used in education, whether they are called learning objectives, behavioral objectives, instructional objectives, or performance objectives are terms that refer to descriptions of observable behavior or performance that are used to make judgments about learning.” How do health providers design educational programs to clearly articulate objectives to engage both patients as well as families?

According to the family systems theory, a member of a family has to change its behaviors and influence everyone in the family to follow along and change to promote health and wellness. An example is a family member with a history of obesity decides to lose weight and creates a diet plan and exercise regimen and encourages the rest of the family to join him in the journey of losing weight. Behavioral changes when an individual decides to change for the better and act on it.

The family systems theory helps in teaching behavioral changes because once a family member is involved in the plan of care and already decides to take part in the process of helping to live a better lifestyle, it is much easier to influence the rest of the family.

According to the ebookHealth Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum, variables that affect the ability to learn are race, ethnicity, immigration status, disabilities, sex/gender/sexual orientation, environmental threats, poverty, access to health care, and lack of education can be barriers that affect a patient’s ability to learn and move forward with the behavioral changes.

A patient’s readiness to learn to change their lifestyle for a better life improves the learning outcomes because once a patient understands the reasoning behind the need for the change, it is easier to change its bad habits to new habits and live a healthy lifestyle.

References

Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs429vn/health-promotion-health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum/v1.1/

Response

This is an outstanding response Ronald. I agree with it. Health conditions tend to emanate from intricate factors such as those advanced by social, economic, and political determinants. Health is determined by the manner in which societies are structured and how health policy agendas are influenced by the political nature in the society (Laverack, 2017). Health promotion interventions that address behavioral risks are capable of supporting policies to enhance health or uphold inequalities in a society. This is attributed to the fact that behavioral change models have insignificant impact on wider conditions that result in poor health. Therefore, any health promotion model intended to initiate behavioral changes should be adopted as a component of a winder, inclusive policy framework. Ensuring a comprehensive and multi-component health promotion model is appropriate in changing bad behaviors that can cause negative health effects (Laverack, 2017). Advancing health promotion model through a strong policy framework is crucial in giving people greater control over their lives instead of instructing them on what to do.

References

Laverack, G. (2017). The challenge of behaviour change and health promotion. Challenges, 8(2), 25.