NRS 428 Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
NRS 428 Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
The topic of focus for community teaching is secondary prevention of osteoporosis in elderly patients admitted to long-term nursing homes. Osteoporosis is a public health concern among elderly patients, which predisposes them to adverse events such as fractures. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, osteoporosis occurs due to loss of bone density, which leads to the weakening of the bone structure, tissue, and strength. The changes increase the risk of fractures. Factors such as low bone mass, inadequate intake of dietary calcium, age, gender, body frame size, and having a family history predispose patients to osteoporosis (Shi et al., 2019).
A wealth of evidence on issues facing elderly patients in long-term nursing facilities has focused on the prevention of fractures and their associated morbidities. The studies largely ignore the fact that osteoporosis could be the leading factor contributing to fractures due to changes in bone density, structure, and tissue with the advancing age. As a result, implementing interventions that aim at improving bone health in elderly patients could reduce the risk and rate of fractures among them in long-term facilities. Secondary prevention is an effective approach to preventing fractures among this population since they are already affected or at risk of developing osteoporosis and its associated adverse effects. Secondary prevention promotes lifestyle and behavioral modification in the elderly population. It also increases their awareness of the causes, risks, effects, and prevention of osteoporosis in the elderly populations (Pflimlin et al., 2019). Therefore, it is anticipated that outcomes that include patient empowerment and sustained improvement in outcomes related to osteoporosis prevention will be achieved in the proposed educational plan.
Epidemiological Rationale for Topic (Statistics Related to Topic):
Osteoporosis is a common problem among the elderly population in the USA. According to CDC, more than 10.2 million people aged above 50 years and above had osteoporosis while 43.3 million people had low bone density in 2010 in the USA. The age-adjusted prevalence for osteoporosis in 2017-2018 showed that its prevalence was higher in adults aged 65 years and above (17.7%) compared to 12.6% seen in those aged 50 years and above. Osteoporosis affects women more than men. For example, the observed prevalence in women aged 65 years and above was 27.1% versus 5.7% in men. Women also have a high low bone mass prevalence compared to men. The increased prevalence of osteoporosis in women is attributed to hormonal changes that occur during the post-menopausal period. The analysis of data on osteoporosis trends shows that the age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis in adults aged 50 years and above increased from 9.4% (2007-2008) to 12.6% (2017-2018) in women with no significant change in men 3.7%-4.4% in the same period. Osteoporosis predisposes elderly patients to adverse health outcomes. Its effects include fractures and perioperative complications in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery (CDC, 2021). In addition, its complications increase healthcare costs due to prolonged hospital stay for the affected populations.
Teaching Plan Criteria
Your teaching plan will be graded based on its effectiveness and relevance to the population selected. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Struggling to Meet Your Deadline?
Get your assignment on NRS 428 Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal done on time by medical experts. Don’t wait – ORDER NOW!
Nursing Diagnosis: Deficient knowledge related to osteoporosis prevention as evidenced by the low utilization of osteoporosis prevention interventions by elderly patients in long-term nursing care homes.
The priority nursing diagnosis that guides the proposed teaching plan is deficient knowledge among the elderly patients affected and at risk of osteoporosis. Patients should be aware of the lifestyle and behavioral interventions that reduce the risk of osteoporosis and its associated complications. Enhanced awareness promotes lifestyle and behavioral modifications that enhance their health and wellbeing. Secondary prevention is an effective approach to osteoporosis among these patients. The focus is on preventing osteoporosis progression and the development of its associated complications. Lack of knowledge about osteoporosis predisposes elderly patients to behaviors that increase the risk of its worsening and complications (Porter et al., 2022). Therefore, interventions that raise their understanding of its causes, prevention, and management enhance the treatment outcomes in long-term care nursing homes.
Readiness for Learning: Identify the factors that would indicate the readiness to learn for the target aggregate. Include emotional and experiential readiness to learn.
The elderly population should be ready to learn for them to benefit from the teaching plan. Several factors will be used as indicators of their readiness to learn. One of them is asking questions. The target audience demonstrates its readiness to learn by seeking clarifications and further insights into osteoporosis. Asking questions also enhances the adoption of the proposed interventions against osteoporosis. The other indicator of readiness to learn by the elderly patients is explaining issues related to osteoporosis and secondary prevention in their own words. This ability implies that the elderly patients can make connections between their experiences with the content of the teaching session. The other indicator is justifying their rationales. The elderly patients will be ready to learn if they can provide evidence to support their decisions (Kiberu et al., 2019). The implication will be their enhanced ability to use creative and critical thinking in making informed decisions on issues related to their health.
The other factor that will be used as an indicator of readiness to learn by elderly patients affected by and at risk of osteoporosis is implementing strategies related to the teaching session. The ability of the elderly patients to put into practice the recommended interventions translate into their readiness to learn. By doing so, they play a proactive role in addressing their health needs. Reflection is the other indicator that will be used to determine readiness to learn. Reflection entails the ability of the elderly patients to explore aspects of their lifestyle and behaviors and make informed decisions on ways of improving them. The target population will also be considered ready to learn if they hold discussions among themselves and other healthcare providers on issues related to osteoporosis. The use of discussions increases their understanding of osteoporosis and the required interventions to minimize its effects (Mather & Cummings, 2019). Therefore, the different types of indicators for readiness to learn will be used to inform the teaching session in this project.
Click here to ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT on NRS 428 Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
I will adopt the teach-back theory in educating the elderly patients affected and at risk of osteoporosis in the long-term care nursing home. The teach-back method of patient education aims at ensuring understanding of the concepts by asking them to re-state in their own words about secondary prevention of osteoporosis. The method ensures that the educator uses approaches that the patient understands in the teaching process. The Teach-back method is appropriate for the proposed educational session because it improves adherence and understanding of the patients. The use of patient-centered educational strategies increases understanding and promotes treatment adherence in the secondary prevention of osteoporosis (AHRQ, 2022). The intervention also improves patient satisfaction since the educational sessions are tailored to address their unique needs.
One of the ways in which the teach-back method will be used will be by educating the patients about osteoporosis and then asking them to restate concepts according to their understanding. I will use the information that they give to determine the effectiveness of the teaching session. The other intervention will be reinforcing their understanding. I will use their feedback to identify their strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities that should be explored to enhance their understanding. An example will be the adoption of culturally appropriate interventions to ensure the teaching session addresses the diverse cultural needs, values, and practices of elderly patients. The other strategy that will be adopted is ensuring consistency. I will repeat the most important concepts related to secondary prevention of osteoporosis to enhance the understanding of elderly patients. I will also demonstrate the aspects of health education to ensure patients adopt best practices for improving their health and outcomes (AHRQ, 2022). A mixture of learning strategies such as discussion, demonstration, and use of videos will be adopted to address the diverse learning needs of elderly patients.
Goal: Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) objective(s) utilized as the goal for the teaching. Include the appropriate objective number and rationale for using the selected HP2020 objective (use at least one objective from one of the 24 focus areas). If an HP2020 objective does not support your teaching, explain how your teaching applies to one of the two overarching HP2020 goals.
Secondary prevention of osteoporosis among elderly patients in long-term nursing homes relates to Healthy People 2020 objectives. It relates to the objective of ensuring the population attains high-quality lives by reducing their risk of osteoporosis which is associated with adverse outcomes. The promotion of lifestyle and behavioral modifications also contributes to high-quality, longer lives free from preventable diseases, injury, and disability for the elderly populations. The teaching session also promotes the realization of the Healthy People 2020 objective of achieving health equity. The teaching session aims at reducing the disproportionate access to high-quality care by the elderly populations in long-term nursing homes. Factors such as age and decline in physical performance often predispose the elderly to poor access to the care that they need. Teaching about secondary prevention of osteoporosis will enhance their access to and utilization of the best services in the community. The proposed teaching on secondary prevention of osteoporosis also improves the health of all the groups in society. The teaching promotes optimum health for the elderly patients affected and at risk of osteoporosis. It also eliminates the disease burden associated with osteoporosis and its complications to patients, their families, and society as a whole (CDC, 2018). Therefore, the intervention underpins the realization of Healthy People 2020 objectives.
How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives
The above Health People 2020 objectives are related to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives. First, the promotion of the Healthy People 2020 objectives through the teaching plan promotes the optimum health of the elderly patients at risk and affected by osteoporosis. The teaching session ensures the patients’ right to access high-quality care to achieve their optimum health outcomes, hence, Alma Ata’s goal of promoting the highest possible health for all. Healthy People 2020 objectives also address inequalities in healthcare. By preventing secondary osteoporosis, the elderly are assured high-quality care that prevents any form of harm or injury, eliminating disparities due to age. The objectives also strengthen Alma Ata’s goal of ensuring patients participate in the planning and implementation of strategies that address their care needs. The teaching session will empower elderly patients with knowledge and skills in secondary prevention of osteoporosis (Hone et al., 2018). The patients will have the opportunity to explore how they can transform their lifestyles and practices to minimize the risks of osteoporosis and its complications.
Develop Behavioral Objectives (Including Domains), Content, and Strategies/Methods:
and DomainExample – Third-grade students will name one healthy food choice in each of the five food groups by the end of the presentation. (Cognitive Domain)
(be specific)Example – The Food Pyramid has five food groups which are….
Healthy foods from each group are….
|Strategies/Methods(label and describe)
Example – Interactive poster presentation of the Food Pyramid. After an explanation of the poster and each food category, allow students to place pictures of foods on the correct spot on the pyramid. Also, have the class analyze what a child had for lunch by putting names of foods on the poster and discussing what food group still needs to be eaten throughout the day.
|1.Elderly patients with or at risk of osteoporosis will name the different types of calcium supplementations recommended to minimize and prevent osteoporosis||1. Dietary supplementation of calcium is an effective approach to preventing and minimizing the progression of osteoporosis. Exposure to sunlight also increases bone formation.||1. Discussion and explanation of the available calcium supplements will be offered. Posters of the recommended food types will also be offered. Culturally-diverse dietary supplements will be offered.|
|2.Elderly patients with or at risk of osteoporosis will name the different types of exercises that prevent or minimize complications of osteoporosis||2. Physical activity improves bone formation, density, and structure, which minimizes osteoporosis. Elderly patients require regular, moderate physical activity to improve bone strength, density, and structure.||2. Elderly patients will be educated about the different types of exercises they should engage in to strengthen bone strength. They will be provided with video presentations to enhance their understanding.|
|3.Elderly patients will explain the importance of medications in treating and preventing osteoporosis and its complications||3. Calcium supplements and hormonal replacement therapy are effective in reducing osteoporosis and its progression.||3. Elderly patients will be educated about the importance of seeking medical care should they experience any bone-related problems. They will be educated about symptoms such as bone pain, fractures, weakness, and easy fatigability.|
|4.Elderly patients with or at risk of osteoporosis will explain the importance of medical checkups for bone disorders||4. Regular medical check-ups for bone-related problems facilitate early identification and treatment of osteoporosis.||4. Elderly patients will be educated about the importance of regular checkups for bone problems. They will be educated about the schedules of bone checkups to enhance outcomes.|
Creativity: How was creativity applied in the teaching methods/strategies?
Creativity will be promoted in the teaching session using several strategies. One of them will be combining different teaching strategies. Methods such as lectures, presentations, and discussions will be used to enhance the understanding of the patients. The use of varied methods also addresses the diverse learning needs of healthcare providers. The other strategy that will be considered to promote creativity is encouraging patient participation. Patients will be actively involved in the teaching session to enhance their retention of the essential concepts and skills. Lastly, creativity will be promoted through brainstorming (Cho & Kim, 2018). Brainstorming will be used to ensure the patients retain the most crucial information related to secondary prevention of osteoporosis.
Planned Evaluation of Objectives (Outcome Evaluation): Describe what you will measure for each objective and how.
- Patients’ understanding of the different approaches to calcium supplementation to prevent osteoporosis. The measures will include the ability of the patients to name and identify different dietary supplements for calcium. It will also include the incorporation of the supplements into their diets.
- Patient’s understanding and ability to engage in different physical activities to prevent osteoporosis. The measures will include their ability to name, engage, and frequency of engaging in physical activities.
- Patient’s understanding of the importance of treatment adherence to prevent and treat osteoporosis. The measures will include adherence to osteoporosis treatment.
- The understanding of patients about the importance and frequency of medical checkups for bone-related problems. Measures will include the frequency of utilization of bone screening services.
Planned Evaluation of Goal: Describe how and when you could evaluate the overall effectiveness of your teaching plan.
The evaluation of the overall effectiveness of the teaching plan will be done at the end of the session. Questions will be asked to determine the understanding of the patients about secondary prevention of osteoporosis. Questionnaires will also be administered to obtain an objective and subjective assessment of the effectiveness of the teaching plan.
Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher (Process Evaluation):
Questionnaires aiming at determining the perceptions of the patients towards my effectiveness in teaching will be administered. The assessment by patients will enable me to have a better understanding of my effectiveness as a teacher. The lesson will be evaluated based on the coverage of the key concepts and their ability to address the needs of the target audience.
Barriers: What are potential barriers that may arise during teaching and how will those be handled?
One of the potential barriers that may arise during teaching is the lack of attention by the patients. Factors such as boredom and lack of preparedness may contribute to the participants not being willing to participate in the session. Interventions such as ensuring their active involvement, mixing different learning strategies, and asking focused questions will be used to address the barrier. The other barrier is inadequate time. Planning before the teaching session will be done to address this barrier. The last barrier is the language barrier (Du Plessis, 2019). Translators will be incorporated to address language barriers during the teaching session.
4.2 Communicate therapeutically with patients.
I will begin my presentation with a hook statement to capture the interest of my audience. One of the activities that I will use with the audience to ensure active listening is the question-answer approach. I will ask questions related to the educational session after a specific interval to ensure the audience is attentive. I will conclude the presentation by summarizing the main points of the presentation (Harris & Panozzo, 2019). I will use nonverbal communication techniques such as gestures, eye contact, and body movements to enhance the effectiveness of the teaching session.
AHRQ. (2022). Use the Teach-Back Method: Tool #5. https://www.ahrq.gov/health-literacy/improve/precautions/tool5.html
CDC. (2018, October 31). Healthy People 2020|About DHDSP|DHDSP|CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/hp2020.htm
CDC. (2021, May 13). Products—Data Briefs—Number 405—March 2021. https://doi.org/10.15620/cdc:103477
Cho, H., & Kim, H. K. (2018). Promoting creativity through language play in EFL classrooms. Tesol Journal, 9(4), 1–9.
Du Plessis, A. E. (2019). Barriers to effective management of diversity in classroom contexts: The out-of-field teaching phenomenon. International Journal of Educational Research, 93, 136–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2018.11.002
Harris, B. A., & Panozzo, G. (2019). Therapeutic alliance, relationship building, and communication strategies-for the schizophrenia population: An integrative review. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 33(1), 104–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2018.08.003
Hone, T., Macinko, J., & Millett, C. (2018). Revisiting Alma-Ata: What is the role of primary health care in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals? The Lancet, 392(10156), 1461–1472.
Kiberu, V. M., Scott, R. E., & Mars, M. (2019). Assessing core, e-learning, clinical and technology readiness to integrate telemedicine at public health facilities in Uganda: A health facility – based survey. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 266. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4057-6
Mather, C. A., & Cummings, E. (2019). Developing and sustaining digital professionalism: A model for assessing readiness of healthcare environments and capability of nurses. BMJ Health & Care Informatics, 26(1). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjhci-2019-100062
Pflimlin, A., Gournay, A., Delabrière, I., Chantelot, C., Puisieux, F., Cortet, B., & Paccou, J. (2019). Secondary prevention of osteoporotic fractures: Evaluation of the Lille University Hospital’s Fracture Liaison Service between January 2016 and January 2018. Osteoporosis International, 30(9), 1779–1788. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-019-05036-0
Porter, J. L., Varacallo, M., & Castano, M. (2022). Osteoporosis (Nursing). In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568781/
Shi, L., Min, N., Wang, F., & Xue, Q.-Y. (2019). Bisphosphonates for Secondary Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures: A Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. BioMed Research International, 2019, e2594149. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2594149
Identification of Focus for Community Teaching
I selected the topic of infant nutrition through breastfeeding since there is an increased prevalence of women declining to breastfeed, especially new mothers. There is an increased trend of new mothers opting to feed their infants with formula milk. Breastfeeding has long been established as the optimal method of infant feeding. The USPSTF recommends exclusive breastfeeding of infants for the first six months (Bibbins-Domingo et al., 2016). This should be continued breastfeeding alongside the introduction of complementary foods for at least one year.
Epidemiological Rationale for Topic
According to the CDC 2018 Breastfeeding Report Card, among infants born in 2015 in the United States, 4 out of 5 (83.2%) started to breastfeed. Over half (57.6%) of the infants were breastfeeding at six
months, and over one-third, 35.9% were breastfeeding at 12 months (CDC, 2018). Nevertheless, despite the recommendation on exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months, less than 50% of infants were exclusively breastfed in the first three months, with about 25% were exclusively breastfed through 6 months (CDC, 2018). Furthermore, approximately 1 in 6 (17.2%) breastfed infants born in 2015 received formula supplementation within the first two days of life.
Today, more women in the United States are breastfeeding their babies than in modern history. While the rate of breastfeeding has increased in all demographic groups, certain populations of women are less likely to breastfeed (Bibbins-Domingo et al., 2016). These include women below 25 years, mothers with a low income, primiparas, African Americans, and those with a high school education or less (Anstey, Chen, Elam-Evans & Perrine, 2017). This has resulted in poor health outcomes of children from mothers from these populations.
Teaching Plan Criteria
Nursing Diagnosis: Knowledge deficit related to insufficient health provider education on breastfeeding, as evidenced by mothers’ lack of awareness on the importance of breastfeeding.
Readiness for Learning
Factors that will indicate readiness to learn among the postnatal mothers include having a perception that their infant needs optimal nutrition, which can only be achieved by their efforts to breastfeed. Factors that would show experiential readiness to learn include asking questions about infant nutrition, demonstrating an open body language, engaging in the discussion by answering questions, and accepting to participate in demonstrations.
Goal: The teaching plan is based on the Healthy People 2020 goal of:
Improve the health and well-being of women, infants, children, and families (US Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2016).
Objectives: Infant breastfeeding falls under the Healthy People Objective:
MICH-21: Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed (US DHSS, 2016).
The objective is further divided into sub-objectives, namely:
MICH-21.1: Increase the proportion of infants who are ever breastfed.
MICH-21.2: Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed at six months.
MICH-21.3: Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed at one year (US DHSS 2016).
MICH-21.4: Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed exclusively through 3 months
MICH-21.5: Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed exclusively through 6 months
Rationale for Using Objective MICH-21:
I used the Healthy People 2020 objective MICH -21 because there is substantial evidence that breastfeeding provides significant health benefits for children. The USPSTF also recommends breastfeeding since there is adequate evidence that breastfeeding provides moderate health benefits for the breastfeeding woman (Bibbins-Domingo et al., 2016). Nonetheless, about half of all mothers in the US who initially breastfeed discontinue doing so by 6 months. This has led to substantial disparities in breastfeeding rates among younger mothers and in disadvantaged communities.
How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives?
The Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives focuses on primary health care as a way of achieving health for all. The guiding principles to attaining health for all include community participation, community needs and priorities, values, and vision for a health care system (Pandey, 2018). MICH-21 relates to the Alma Ata’s health for all since it promotes health for infants by promoting nutrition through breastfeeding. Consequently, community participation is mandatory through the mothers taking the initiative to breastfeed infants exclusively for the first six months and continuing to breastfeed until the first birthday.
The benchmark assesses the following competency:
4.2 Communicate therapeutically with patients.
The RN to BSN program at Grand Canyon University meets the requirements for clinical competencies as defined by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), using nontraditional experiences for practicing nurses. These experiences come in the form of direct and indirect care experiences in which licensed nursing students engage in learning within the context of their hospital organization, specific care discipline, and local communities. NRS 428 Concepts in Community and Public Health
Note: The teaching plan proposal developed in this assignment will be used to develop your Community Teaching Plan: Community Presentation due in Topic 5. You are strongly encouraged to begin working on your presentation once you have received and submitted this proposal.
Select one of the following as the focus for the teaching plan:
- Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
- Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
- Environmental Issues
Use the “Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal” resource to complete this assignment. This will help you organize your plan and create an outline for the written assignment.
- After completing the teaching proposal, review the teaching plan proposal with a community health and public health provider in your local community.
- Request feedback (strengths and opportunities for improvement) from the provider.
- Complete the “Community Teaching Experience” form with the provider. You will submit this form in Topic 5.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.
Topic 3 DQ 1
Compare vulnerable populations. Describe an example of one of these groups in the United States or from another country. Explain why the population is designated as “vulnerable.” Include the number of individuals belonging to this group and the specific challenges or issues involved. Discuss why these populations are unable to advocate for themselves, the ethical issues that must be considered when working with these groups, and how nursing advocacy would be beneficial.
the health care delivery system was described as a “cottage industry.” The main characteristic of a cottage industry is that it comprises many units operating independently, each focused on its own performance. Each unit has considerable freedom to set standards of performance and measure itself against metrics of its own choosing. In addition, cottage industries do not generally attempt to standardize or coordinate the processes or performance of Unit A with those of Units B, C, and so on.
Indeed, this is an apt characterization of the current health care delivery system. Even in many hospitals, individual departments operate more or less autonomously, creating so-called “silos.” Many physicians practice independently or in small groups, and ambulatory clinics, pharmacies, laboratories, rehabilitation clinics, and other organizations—although part of the delivery system—often act as independent entities. We often call this arrangement a “health care system,” even though it was not created as a system and has never performed as a system.
Moving from the current conglomeration of independent entities toward a “system” will require that every participating unit recognize its dependence and influence on all other units. Each unit must not only achieve high performance but must also recognize the imperative of joining with other units to optimize the performance of the system as a whole. Moreover, each individual care provider must recognize his or her dependence and influence on other care team members (e.g., specialists in different fields, pharmacists, nurses, social workers, psychologists, physical therapists, etc.) (IOM,2003). These are the underlying attitudes that support a systems approach to solving problems.
Changing attitudes to embrace teamwork and systems “thinking” can be extremely difficult and may encounter resistance. Nevertheless, a concerted, visible commitment by management will be necessary to achieve this new way of thinking as a giant step toward the improvements identified in Crossing the Quality Chasm.
- Ferlie EB, Shortell SM. Improving the quality of health care in the United Kingdom and the United States: a framework for change. Milbank Quarterly. 2001;79(2):281–315. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
- Garvin DA. Building a learning organization. Harvard Business Review. 1993;71(4):78–91. [PubMed]
- IOM (Institute of Medicine). Washington, D.C: National Academy Press; 2001. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. [PubMed]
- IOM. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press; 2003. Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality. [PubMed]
- McGlynn EA, Asch SM, Adams J, Keesey J, Hicks J, DeCristofaro A, Kerr EA. The quality of health care delivered to adults in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003;348(26):2635–2645. [PubMed]
- Nelson EC, Batalden PB, Mohr JJ, Plume SK. Building a quality future. Frontiers of Health Services Management. 1998;15(1):3–32. [PubMed]
- Pritsker. Chicago, Ill: Donnelley and Sons; 1990. Papers, Experiences, Perspectives.
- Quinn JB. New York: Free Press; 1992. Intelligent Enterprise: A Knowledge and Service Based Paradigm for Industry.
- Wennberg JE, Freeman JL, Shelton RM. Hospital use and mortality among Medicare beneficiaries in Boston and New Haven. New England Journal of Medicine. 1989;321(17):1168–1173. [PubMed]
Topic 3 DQ 2
How does the community health nurse recognize bias, stereotypes, and implicit bias within the community? How should the nurse address these concepts to ensure health promotion activities are culturally competent? Propose strategies that you can employ to reduce cultural dissonance and bias to deliver culturally competent care. Include an evidence-based article that address the cultural issue. NRS 428 Concepts in Community and Public Health Cite and reference the article in APA format.
Topic 4: Policy and Environmental Issues
- Apply screening and referral principles to nursing care of populations.
- Examine the role of public health in addressing environmental issues.
- Evaluate the effectiveness of the U.S. health care system.
- Examine how policy in the U.S. health care delivery system affects specific populations.
- Examine the effects of health care reform on the U.S. health care system and its stakeholders.
Use the as directed in the Community Assessment and Analysis Presentation.
Complete and submit the “Provider Interview Acknowledgement Form” prior to conducting your interview for the Community Assessment and Analysis Presentation assignment.
Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal
Hygiene is an essential part of healthy living. Every individual ought to adhere to the hygienic practices to prevent diseases and complications that arise from dirty environments. Every person need to maintain high level of hygiene right from childhood to adulthood. There are some cases when hygienic conditions are not taken into consideration among the teachers, students, and parents; a scenario that leads to the continuous spread of pathogens or germs. As a result, there is always the need to initiate different practices of handwashing to educate different individuals on the basic approaches to maintaining hygienic conditions to reduce the spread of diseases causing organisms.
Community teaching work plan is a critical approach of sensitizing the community or a group of people on ensuring hygienic conditions (McGetrick et al., 2019). The community teaching work plan is also essential in reducing the spread of infectious diseases. The proposal explores and examines the essence of hand washing to prevent the spread of disease causing organisms within Shaman Oaks High School. Various methods of hygiene will be used to manage the spread of pathogens not only for the students or learners, but also for the parents and teachers associated with the institution.
Planning and Topic
Directions: Creating educational series proposal for the community through the application of one of the outlined topics.
- Environmental concerns/issues
- Disaster or bioterrorism
- Health promotion/primary prevention
- Screening for the vulnerable population or secondary preventions
Planning Before Teaching:
|Teacher’s credentials including name:|
|Duration of teaching: 25 to 35 minutes||Location: Shaman Oaks High|
|Materials, supplies, or equipment required: presentation materials including projector, computer system, screen, pens, sanitizers, soap, as well as detailed paper handouts.||Projected cost: for the consumable materials, the expected cost is projected at $ 60. The computer and the projected will be provided by the Shaman Oaks High School, hence the cost will not be included in the budget.|
|Community and Target Aggregate:The target population for the program include primary and secondary learners between the age of 10 and 18 years. To qualify for the programs, children learners ought to be enrolled either in primary or secondary schools. Also, a member of the family and the teachers will be enrolled in the program.|
|Topic:Health Promotion/Primary Prevention: Importance of Hand Washing in Controlling disease causing organisms/infections|
Identification of Focus for Community Teaching:
School children are more prone to diseases or infections due to the activities that they often engage in. They are often involved in risky behaviors that expose them into contact with various forms of diseases. As a result, continuous hand washing activities is one of the effective ways of ensuring the spread of diseases (Sowden et al., 2018). Through hand washing, it becomes easier to prevent infections or diseases such as diarrhea, water-borne diseases, food-borne diseases, common colds, as well as the influenza. Continuous cleaning of hands through the application of sanitizers, safe water, and soap among the school going children, parents and teachers should be mandatory to stop the spread of diseases. According to the Center for Disease Control, there are over 52 million incidences of common cold among the school going children aged below 17 years in the United States.
The above case often leads into the over 22 million schools days lost each year. On the other hand, 10% to 20% of Americans often become affected by the influenza; however, children are always the most affected, in other words, they usually remain vulnerable to serious complication resulting from the flu virus. Diarrhea is one of the most common symptoms of the water-borne or food borne diseases that is ranked second most infectious disease after the common cold. The infectious disease often affect children leading to the loss of 25 days of school days every year. The above condition also impact over 100 members of the population each year. Infectious diseases can be easily spread from one individual to the other within the school environment due to the close contacts that people has.
Epidemiological Rationale for Topic
The epidemiological rationale is derived from the idea that hand washing through the application of the detergents greatly reduce the risks associated with the transmission of the infectious diseases that cause diarrhea by close to 50%. According to the Center for Disease Control, every person is required to wash their hand using soap and clean water for about 15 to 25 minutes before handling food after coughing or sneezing or after visiting a toilet or handling animals (Patwardhan, Amin, & Chewning, 2017). Also, an individual can apply alcohol-based sanitizers or gel in case soap and water are not available. Hand washing also reduces continuous transmission of infectious diseases; the application of soaps or detergents kill pathogens. The application of the alcohol-based sanitizers is always effective whenever there is lack of water. Hand sanitizers often reduce the spread of infectious diseases by close to 20%.
Teaching Plan Criteria
Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections often result from lack of knowledge on effective hand washing among the school going children between the age of 10 and 17 years. Lack of effective approaches to hand hygiene mostly impact children specifically when they are not informed the best procedures of hand washing. As a result, they are not always able to protect themselves against the infectious diseases that may interfere with their immune system.
Readiness for Learning
When it comes to the hand washing practices, learners often show curiosity by attending classes willfully within the scheduled time. Emotional readiness is also experienced when learners pay attention to the instructors when it comes to the hygienic practices. Ability to understand and practice hand washing practices to prevent the spread of diseases affirms the student readiness to take part in the learning process.
The experimental readiness will involve assessing the feelings of the participants or learners towards the spread of the infectious diseases. The assessment will involve asking appropriate questions concerning the risk factors associated with poor hand hygiene. The assessment will also involve learner’s engagement in the healthy conversations as well as the application of body language to determine understanding of the concepts. Learner’s readiness can also be observed when learners are able to take part or get engaged in the actual activities of hand washing.
To ensure understanding of concepts among the learners, the application of the social development theory will be utilized. The above theoretical approach ensures that there is the comprehension of the contents. Also, the application of the theory ensures the enhancement of the social interactions through narrowing of the communication gap between the learners and the instructor. As an educator, I have a strong belief that learning processes, especially among the children is often improved when they are involved in the activities that directly impact their lives. In the learning process, I will apply demonstration to encourage the interactions among the learners and to foster positive relationships among them. The above theory also emphasizes on the social behavior and socialization among the learners. On the basis of the above premise, I will mostly apply group presentations to encourage interactions and learning from each other. The application of the presentations will also enable learners/children to develop cognitive skills on various methods of hand washing usually practices within the communities and the schools (Hendricks & Wangerin, 2017). The educational approach that is relevant to the theory include the expression of the eye contact, body language, as well as the repetition to facilitate the effectiveness of the theory.
The main goal reflected in this proposal involve reduction, prevention, and elimination of the healthcare associated illnesses. Another goal involves the promotion of the respiratory health status through encouragement of early detection, as well as better treatment processes for the vulnerable individuals. In line with the above objectives, HP2020 objectives often support educational processes to the vulnerable populations specifically the children on effective practices on hand hygiene. The prevention processes associated with hand washing often reduce the costs involved in the treatment of illnesses caused by the poor hygienic conditions. The above scenario is supported by the fact that hand washing practices reduce the spread of HAIs as well as other diseases that are readily transmitted through contacts.
How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma
Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives
The objectives of HP2020 are the same as the Alma Ata’s Global Initiatives to prevent and control the spread of infectious diseases or endemic diseases and to provide immunization processes to fight infectious diseases. On the other hand, Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiative aims at addressing disparities that exist in health status especially when looking at the vulnerable populations. As a result, HP2020 share same goals with the Alma because they both emphasize on the improved health outcomes to all the individuals at all times (Pritchard, 2016). In the above context, the two conventions identify the spread of the infectious diseases as a result of poor hand hygiene and provide guidelines that can be used to control the behaviors of the people to increase the transmission rates.
Develop Behavioral Objectives (Including Domains), Content, and Strategies/Methods:
|1. There is importance in categorizing cases when an individual need to wash their hands.||1. Cleaning of hands can be done after visiting the toilet, after and before eating, after coughing on your hands, and after sneezing and getting into contact with the people.||1. The critical analysis in the transmission of the infectious diseases shows that the spread of diseases escalates as a result of failure to engage in the hand cleaning practices.|
|2. acquiring the knowledge on the effective techniques of hand washing||2. Educators determines the effective methods of hand cleaning processes||2. Make an effort to allow children engage in the practices of hand washing for about 15 to 25 seconds and provide appropriate advice.|
|3. Examines the diseases that are prevented through proper hand washing||3. Hand hygiene reduces the cases of gastro intestinal and respiratory infections.||3. An educator can allow children to observe their hands and reflects how the infectious agents look like|
|4. Examine various benefits that results from proper hand washing||4. To stop the transmission of the pathogens from the infected persons to the non-infected people||4. Through the application of the pamphlets and handouts, learners may realize the risks associated with not following effective practices of hand hygiene.|
The theory in the spread of the infectious diseases was examined and explained through the application of the visual effects as demonstrated in the screen. The PowerPoint presentation utilized greatly changed the roles of the instructor in cases when the learners were able to perform hand washing practices.
Planned Evaluation of Objectives (Outcome Evaluation)
- I will engage students through asking questions to examine the knowledge obtained on the importance of hand washing practices
- I will keenly observe learners games and breaks to evaluate their knowledge on the hand washing practices and address them on the risks or dangers associated with the poor hygiene.
- I will assigned one teacher and one family member to demonstrate hand washing techniques to the learners/children.
- I will also assess how each individual take their time on hand washing practices after conducting the demonstration.
Planned Evaluation of Goal
I will encourage learners to attend at least six lessons on hand washing practices. Towards the completion of the first four classes, I will encourage learner to demonstrate the hand washing practices. On the other hand, I will observe the frequency and consistency on how the learners observe or follow the instructions given.
Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher (Process Evaluation)
In the process of evaluation, I will require three members of staff (teachers) to get engaged in the assessment processes. In the process I will formulate the entire emerging issues involving my proposal. Additionally, I will involve family members and children who are present by proving them with a blank piece of paper to secretly allow them record their observations about the demonstration as well as the learning techniques. The above practices will be done towards the end of demonstrations and learning processes so as to make a clear conclusion about the approaches used.
Embarrassment is one of the challenge that may be encountered in the process of demonstrating how to conduct hand washing processes. Some learners may become shy while demonstrating hand washing processes. Some may also become overexcited and fail to effectively demonstrate hand washing processes. Another barrier that may be encountered is the Disruptive learners. Due to excitement, some learners may disrupt the learning of other students particularly during the demonstration processes.
To start off the topic, I will engage in the demonstration processes to show learners how to perform the hand washing processes. Further, in cases there are learners who fail to understand the demonstration processes, I will apply the relatable narration to ensure that the concepts are well understood. Finally, I will apply PowerPoint presentation as well as the handouts to give instructions to the learners on different approaches to hand washing. Also, I will recap the practices of handwashing to ensure that all learners get the message.
McGetrick, J. A., Kongats, K., Raine, K. D., Voyer, C., & Nykiforuk, C. I. (2019). Healthy public policy options to promote physical activity for chronic disease prevention: understanding Canadian policy influencer and general public preferences. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 16(7), 565-574.
Sowden, S., Koletsi, S., Lymberopoulos, E., Militaru, E., Catmur, C., & Bird, G. (2018). Quantifying compliance and acceptance through public and private social conformity. Consciousness and cognition, 65, 359-367.
Hendricks, S. M., & Wangerin, V. (2017). Concept-based curriculum: changing attitudes and overcoming barriers. Nurse educator, 42(3), 138-142.
Patwardhan, P. D., Amin, M. E., & Chewning, B. A. (2017). Intervention research to enhance community pharmacists’ cognitive services: a systematic review. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 10(3), 475-493.
Pritchard, A. (2016). Engagement with ideas and understanding: An essential for effective learning in the electronic age. In Engaged learning with emerging technologies (pp. 177-201). Springer, Dordrecht.
Community Teaching Plan: Teaching Experience Paper
Nurses’ primary responsibility is to ensure people live healthily. They achieve this goal by engaging in health promotion programs, education and awareness initiatives, and early treatment of diseases, among other professional responsibilities. At the community level, preventive measures, vulnerabilities, and prevalence of diseases vary depending on social determinants of health (SDOH). In response, community teaching is a practical strategy for enabling individuals and communities to live productively and healthily. It seeks to make people more knowledgeable to avoid risky behaviors, seek timely medication, and adopt preventive health measures. The purpose of this paper is to describe the teaching experience after conducting community teaching.
Summary of Teaching Plan
The community teaching focused on young adults below twenty-five years. Regardless of where people live, young people are among the highly vulnerable populations due to their inadequate knowledge of health matters and increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors (Nutter et al., 2019). Generally, they are more likely to experiment with life than other age groups, putting them at more risk related to alcoholism, gaming, sexual behaviors, and substance abuse. Due to the high vulnerability of young adults, community health nurses should ensure that they are adequately aware of the consequences of their behaviors, healthy living strategies, and preventive health benefits. Community education is also a suitable strategy for changing young people’s attitudes toward health and health-related behaviors.
The community teaching exercise had several objectives in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domain. In the cognitive domain, the participants were to identify obesity’s causes, risk factors, and its implications on health after the session. The other objective in the cognitive domain was to improve the participants’ knowledge of the damaging effects of obesity. As a result, they were to effortlessly describe the health effects of obesity and the benefits of preventive health. In the affective domain, the participants were to commence their journey to healthy living by describing personal strategies for obesity prevention. In the psychomotor domain, the participants developed an individualized physical activity plan and dietary interventions to prevent obesity.
Since the teaching goal is to pass information, the delivery methods should suit the participants. The methods should perfectly match the attending group’s knowledge level, age, and adaptation to different learning environments. As a result, the teaching was primarily a presentation in the community health center’s social hall. A presentation is a suitable delivery method when teaching a large group. The teaching center also accommodated many participants hence educating a large group.
Epidemiological Rationale for Topic
Health care professionals should regularly assess the population’s health to determine areas requiring immediate interventions. Health statistics show the severity of a situation, which justifies instant responses. Broadly, lifestyle and nutritional diseases adversely affect individuals and communities. They are a leading cause of preventable deaths and an overall reduction in community productivity. Other adverse effects include increasing health costs and the number of people with chronic illnesses.
Health statistics demonstrate the severity of obesity as a public health concern. As a risk to young adults’ health and productivity, obesity’s prevalence has increased over time, which indicates that the current populace is at a higher risk than ever before. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), obesity prevalence increased from 30.5% in 2000 to 41.9% in 2020 (CDC, 2022). An increase of over 10% prevalence in two decades illustrates that the current health programs have not succeeded in controlling the menace. It also predicts that the prevalence is likely to increase as time advances.
The increasing prevalence of obesity predicts several dangers. Bendor et al. (2020) explained that an increase in obesity rates triggers a proportional increase in obesity-related conditions such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Such diseases are challenging to manage for individuals, their families, and health care providers. CDC (2022) reported that the treatment and management cost of obesity has increased, considering that the annual medical cost of obesity reached $173 billion in 2019. Considering the damaging effects of obesity on productivity, health, well-being, and health management, prevention should be a priority area. Hence, community teaching focusing in preventive health would help to achieve this goal.
Evaluation of Teaching Experience
Nurses should establish healthy relationships with patients and communities at all practice levels. They should engage in community visits, screening programs, community education, and other strategies for strengthening relationships. The community teaching session provided an excellent opportunity for nurse-community interaction. In such a session, participants describe their lifestyles, health behaviors, attitudes, and other elements that health care professionals can use to determine appropriate interventions. The close interaction further improves the confidence people have in care providers. It can also change people’s attitudes and mindsets, enabling them to seek health assistance when needed.
Besides strengthening the nurse-community bond, the community teaching exercise also offered an excellent opportunity for implementing learning theories. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was implemented during the community teaching exercise. Luquis and Kensinger (2019) described HBM as a model developed to examine the factors affecting people’s failure to utilize disease prevention strategies for early disease detection. Health care providers can also use HBM to understand people’s response and compliance with medical treatment depending on their perception of illnesses’ threats and how various intervention measures benefit them. Guided by HBM’s guiding principles, the community teaching exercise focused on exploring people’s perceptions and current interventions and how to improve them to enhance compliance, prevention, and early disease detection.
The community teaching exercise also offered a perfect opportunity for a community health nurse to promote healthy living and community productivity. At all levels, health care professionals need satisfaction, motivation, and support. Engaging in practices that enable them achieve better health results is among the leading sources of satisfaction and intrinsic motivation. Accordingly, teaching communities to enable people transform behaviors and understand health and diseases gives inner satisfaction. It is also among the forces that push nurses and other health care professionals to choose the demanding and challenging career.
Community Response to Teaching
After preparing the teaching plan and inviting the targeted audience, the next step is an engaging session. Despite the preparation, study site, teaching strategies, or resources, outcomes depend on the community’s response. Overall, the response was positive and could be demonstrated by various factors. The first indicator was the encouraging attendance that surpassed the target. The second indicator was active participation. Participants asked questions, exchanged information, and readily engaged in learning activities such as group discussions and case analysis as requested. The third indicator was the extent to which the participants shared information. They willingly shared their lifestyles and health plans to learn and motivate each other.
There were also various after-session indicators of a positive community response. For instance, the participants asked questions on areas that required further information or clarity. Doing so showed interest in the information and determination to utilize what was taught. The participants also formed support groups to motivate and guide each other. Support groups are also excellent channels for sharing information and monitoring each other. The young adults also shared their contacts, dietary plans, and physical activity plans, further demonstrating their commitment to behavior change.
Areas of Strengths and Areas of Improvement
The community teaching exercise had many positives/areas of strength. Besides active participation, multiple learning strategies were utilized. They included a PowerPoint presentation, sharing educational materials, group discussions, and question-answer sessions. To facilitate inclusive instruction, teachers should use diverse teaching strategies to effectively respond to learners’ diversity (Parrish, 2019). Despite belonging to the same age group, the participants differed in terms of race, religion, social classes, and education levels. All these factors affect how they receive, understand, and perceive information. Therefore, it is crucial to mix learning strategies as much as possible. The other area of strength was setting ground rules. Like any other teaching exercise with diverse learners, it is possible to encounter rogue participants. Ground rules helped to control such participants and promote active participation. Engagement was also among the positives of the teaching exercise. It ensured that the exercise was learner-centered as much as possible. Everybody got an equal chance to participate, seek individual support, and ask questions.
Despite these strengths, the teaching exercise also had some weaknesses. For instance, it was not free from noise and interruptions. Although minimal, noise and interruptions are significant learning barriers that cannot be overlooked. The other weakness was inadequate time. The allocated time was four hours. However, the participants asked many questions that required answers and illustrations. This affected other activities such as group discussions and the presentation that got lesser time than initially planned. A flexible teaching exercise can help to address this challenge in the future.
Communities require people that are adequately conversant with health, diseases, and all health-related matters such as immunization and screening. Community health nurses should use their skills and experience to help communities live healthily and productively by helping them to prevent and respond to health issues. The community teaching exercise focused on helping young adults prevent and manage obesity. Young adults are highly vulnerable to obesity since they engage in risky behaviors such as eating fatty and sugary foods and increased screen time. The exercise was highly positive; the participants formed support groups and exchanged vital information and dietary plans, which showed determination to adopt healthy lifestyles.
Bendor, C. D., Bardugo, A., Pinhas-Hamiel, O., Afek, A., & Twig, G. (2020). Cardiovascular morbidity, diabetes and cancer risk among children and adolescents with severe obesity. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 19(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-020-01052-1
CDC. (2022). Adult obesity facts. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
Luquis, R. R., & Kensinger, W. S. (2019). Applying the health belief model to assess prevention services among young adults. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education, 57(1), 37-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2018.1549958
Nutter, S., Ireland, A., Alberga, A. S., Brun, I., Lefebvre, D., Hayden, K. A., & Russell-Mayhew, S. (2019). Weight bias in educational settings: A systematic review. Current Obesity Reports, 8(2), 185-200. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-019-00330-8
Parrish, N. (2019). Ensuring that instruction is inclusive for diverse learners. Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/article/ensuring-instruction-inclusive-diverse-learners
“Health care providers hold negative explicit and implicit biases against marginalized groups of people such as racial and ethnic minoritized populations. These biases permeate the healthcare system and affect patients via patient–clinician communication, clinical decision-making, and institutionalized practices. Addressing bias remains a fundamental professional responsibility of those accountable for the health and wellness of our populations” (Vela et al., 2022).
I agree with your post. Just like with all other issues in healthcare, Education is vital to close gaps of ignorance regarding the care of different cultures and religions. Awareness of biases and stereotypes is the first step to increasing cultural competence.
Vela, M. B., Erondu, A. I., Smith, N. A., Peek, M. E., Woodruff, J. N., & Chin, M. H. (2022). Eliminating Explicit and Implicit Biases in Health Care: Evidence and Research Needs. Annual review of public health, 43, 477. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-052620-10352
A community health nurse can recognize bias, stereotypes, and implicit biases by conducting cultural surveys in their community. They also can be aware of what an implicit bias is, which are feelings or attitudes that affect the care of patients. Making sure that the nurse is involved in the community affairs also will help the nurse know the different kinds of biases in the community. If there are multiple different kinds of cultures in the community, the nurse needs to educate themselves on each one so that they are culturally competent (Falkner, 2018). Nurses need to address these concepts by making sure that activities that promote health, are promoting for everyone, not just a subgroup of people. There needs to be information for everyone that may need the information. This means doing research and making sure that a specific group is not higher risk than others, or that they need different interventions. Strategies to reduce cultural dissonance and bias in the community would be educating students on different cultures while in nursing school. This would help to decrease the implicit bias in the community (Markey & Okantey, 2019). Another way to do this would be putting out surveys in the community. This way the nurse knows what is in their community and can make sure that the needs of these cultures are being met. Making sure at risk populations are being treated, and that there is not a bias against these people (Falkner, 2018).
Are their any stereotypes in your community that the community health nurse needs to work through?
Falkner, A. (2018). Community as a client. In Grand Canyon University. Community & public health:
The future of health care. Grand Canyon University. https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3
Markey,k., Okantey,C. (2019). NurturingNurturing cultural competence in nurse education through a values-based learning approach,
Nurse Education in Practice (Volume 38,Pages 153-156). ISSN 1471-5953,
Don’t wait until the last minute
Fill in your requirements and let our experts deliver your work asap.