NR 443 Week 1 DQ 2 Determinants of Health Recent

NR 443 Week 1 DQ 2 Determinants of Health Recent

NR 443 Week 1 DQ 2 Determinants of Health Recent

Determinants of Health (Graded)

Healthy People 2020 identified four Foundation Health Measures (FHM) that reflect the major health concerns in the United States. The third FHM is Determinants of Health. The description of Determinants of Health is:

“A range of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that influence health status are known as determinants of health. Determinants of health include such things as biology, genetics, individual behavior, access to health services, and the environment in which people are born, live, learn, play, work, and age” (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d., About Determinants of Health section, para. 1).

Go to the “Learn More About Determinants of Health” ( ) and choose one of the five Determinants of Health that you feel is most important for community health. In your posting, share the determinant of health and the rationale for your choice. Remember to cite any references used for developing your rationale.

online nursing essays

Struggling to Meet Your Deadline?

Get your assignment on NR 443 Week 1 DQ 2 Determinants of Health Recent done on time by medical experts. Don’t wait – ORDER NOW!

Social determinants of health are factors within one’s environment that affect their health. Factors such as education and employment status influence the population’s access and utilization of the available healthcare services. Disparities in healthcare are evident across countries depending on their level of socioeconomic development. For example, low- and middle-income countries have significant health disparities because of immense effect of social determinants of health (Kiplagat et al., 2019). Healthcare providers, including nurses are well positioned to influence the adoption of policies that bridge the gap in access to healthcare services in the population. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of HIV/AIDS in Kenya. It develops an infographic representing equity, health equity, equality, justice, inequality, gender equity, and inequality to be presented to the minister of health. It also offers the background of the issue and need for interventions to address it.


            Kenya is a country in East Africa, Africa. It is a lower-middle income country, with the largest as well as most developed economy in east and central Africa. HIV/AIDs are one of the health issues facing Kenya. The country’s prevalence rate of HIV/AIDs in 2017 was 4.9%, with highest prevalence being seen among women (5.2%) as compared to men (4.5%) (MOH, 2018). The following infographic provides a true picture of HIV/AIDS in the country.


Health Equity




Gender Equity

Gender Equality

Use of antiretrovirals among those with HIV/AIDS was 42.5% in 2012. Lack of ART use due to rural residence, age (15-24 years), nondisclosure of HIV status, and recreational drug use (Moyo et al., 2018).

Challenges such as visits to multiple healthcare providers, inadequate quality facilities, and poor provider-patient communication contribute to disparities in accessing HIV/AIDs care (Kiplagat et al., 2019)

Kenya has expanded access to HIV testing and treatment to level 2 hospitals (Lane et al., 2021).

The constitution protects fundamental freedoms and human rights of people with HIV/AIDs on an equal basis with others. This extends to access to and use of resources (Lane et al., 2021).

The ART guidelines in Kenya called adherence counseling for postexposure prophylaxis for adults but failed to consider special populations, including children, adolescent girls and women (Lane et al., 2021).  

Women have high rate and risk of HIV infections (5.2%) compared to men (4.5%) (Mahy et al., 2019).

Gender inequality in Kenya predisposes women to HIV/AIDS than men. Culture and socialization cause gender inequality, with men having more opportunities than women (Vrana-Diaz et al., 2021).

Health Issue

            The selected health issue in Kenya is HIV/AIDS. According to data by the Ministry of Health, the HIV prevalence among adults in 2017 was 4.9%. Women had the highest prevalence of 5.2% followed by men with 4.5%. The annual new infections in the same year were estimated to be 52800 for all ages, 44800 in adults aged 15 years and above, and 8000 among children aged below 15 years. Despite the country’s rates of infection decline over the years, its rate remains high as compared to countries within East and Central Africa. The annual mortality rates in Kenya have also been declining. In 2010, the annual mortality rate in the country was 53900, dropping to 28200 in 2017 (Mahy et al., 2019). The improvement in mortality rate is attributable to factors such as the increased access to antiretroviral treatment in the country.

            HIV/AIDS in Kenya is attributed to several causes. One of them is cultural and social factors. Cultural practices in some communities such as wife inheritance and polygamy contribute to the high rates of HIV in Kenya (Lokken et al., 2020). Social factors such as poverty, unemployment, and low educational level also play a role. Poverty and unemployment predispose the population to risky behaviors such as prostitution, which elevates the potential of contracting the virus. In addition, low educational attainment affects the utilization of HIV prevention and treatment services by the population (Nall et al., 2019).

Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS also plays a role in high rates of HIV and its associated mortalities. Stigma hinder the utilization of HIV services such as testing and initiation of early treatments. It also lowers the utilization of preventive services such as access to condoms for safe sex practices among those at risk (Lokken et al., 2020). The other factor contributing to HIV/AIDs in Kenya is substance abuse. Statistics show that the lifetime prevalence of substance abuse in Kenya is up to 69.8% among the college students. This population represents the majority of those increasingly at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Substance abuse practices such as sharing needles and reckless sexual behaviors increase the spread of HIV/AIDs in the population (Mutiso et al., 2022). Therefore, interventions addressing these factors should be adopted.

The issue of HIV/AIDs in Kenya should be addressed. It acts as a cause of significant disease burden to the affected and their significant others. HIV/AIDs also contribute to premature mortalities. It increases government’s spending on its management, affecting the overall social and economic development (Moyo et al., 2018). HIV/AIDS act as a burden to the families of the affected. The fact that most of the people in Kenya live below the poverty line implies that a diagnosis of HIV/AIDs worsens the challenges that families undergo (Vrana-Diaz et al., 2021).

Social and economic inequalities affect the manner in which HIV/AIDs is addressed in Kenya. Social factors such as poverty, gender inequality, and culture affect access to and utilization of healthcare systems (Vrana-Diaz et al., 2021). The Kenyan healthcare system is still underdeveloped in most parts of the country. For example, access to specialized treatment for HIV/AIDs may be a challenge, affecting its outcomes in the population. Economic issues such as the high rate of unemployment in the country also affects HIV/AIDs rates and its management. The unemployed populations are increasingly predisposed to risk factors for HIV such as substance abuse and prostitution (Lokken et al., 2020). Therefore, Kenyan government should adopt responsive measures to address the needs of the population, as an approach to reducing rates and severity of HIV/AIDs in the country.


             HIV/AIDS is among the crucial public health concerns in Kenya. Issues such as health, social and economic inequalities play an important role in the rise and addressing HIV/AIDs issues in Kenya. The factors attributed to HIV/AIDs in Kenya are varied. They include cultural, social, economic, and substance abuse factors. Therefore, the government should adopt responsive interventions to address the factors contributing to the high rate of infections in the country.


Kiplagat, J., Mwangi, A., Chasela, C., & Huschke, S. (2019). Challenges with seeking HIV care services: Perspectives of older adults infected with HIV in western Kenya. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 929.

Lane, J., Brezak, A., Patel, P., Verani, A. R., Benech, I., & Katz, A. (2021). Policy considerations for scaling up access to HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for adolescent girls and young women: Examples from Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 36(5), 1789–1808.

Lokken, E. M., Wanje, G., Richardson, B. A., Mutunga, E., Wilson, K. S., Jaoko, W., Kinuthia, J., & McClelland, R. S. (2020). Incidence and correlates of pregnancy in HIV-positive Kenyan sex workers. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999), 85(1), 11.

Mahy, M., Marsh, K., Sabin, K., Wanyeki, I., Daher, J., & Ghys, P. D. (2019). HIV estimates through 2018: Data for decision-making. AIDS (London, England), 33(Suppl 3), S203.

MOH. (2018). Kenya HIV Estimates: Report 2018.

Moyo, S., Young, P. W., Gouws, E., Naidoo, I., Wamicwe, J., Mukui, I., Marsh, K., Igumbor, E. U., Kim, A. A., & Rehle, T. (2018). Equity of antiretroviral treatment use in high HIV burden countries: Analyses of data from nationally-representative surveys in Kenya and South Africa. PloS One, 13(8), e0201899.

Mutiso, V. N., Ndetei, D. M., N.Muia, E., Musyimi, C., Osborn, T. L., Kasike, R., Onsinyo, L., Mbijjiwe, J., Karambu, P., Sounders, A., Weisz, J. R., Swahn, M. H., & Mamah, D. (2022). Prevalence and perception of substance abuse and associated economic indicators and mental health disorders in a large cohort of Kenyan students: Towards integrated public health approach and clinical management. BMC Psychiatry, 22(1), 191.

Nall, A., Chenneville, T., Rodriguez, L. M., & O’Brien, J. L. (2019). Factors affecting HIV testing among youth in Kenya. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(8), 1450.

Vrana-Diaz, C. J., Korte, J. E., Gebregziabher, M., Richey, L., Selassie, A., Sweat, M., & Gichangi, A. (2021). Social and Demographic Predictors of Gender Inequality Among Heterosexual Couples Expecting a Child in Central Kenya. Global Social Welfare, 8(1), 71–79.

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS:NR 443 Week 1 DQ 2 Determinants of Health Recent

APA Writing Checklist

Use this document as a checklist for each paper you will write throughout your GCU graduate program. Follow specific instructions indicated in the assignment and use this checklist to help ensure correct grammar and APA formatting. Refer to the APA resources available in the GCU Library and Student Success Center.

☐ APA paper template (located in the Student Success Center/Writing Center) is utilized for the correct format of the paper. APA style is applied, and format is correct throughout.

☐The title page is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

☐ The introduction is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

☐ Topic is well defined.

☐ Strong thesis statement is included in the introduction of the paper.

☐ The thesis statement is consistently threaded throughout the paper and included in the conclusion.

☐ Paragraph development: Each paragraph has an introductory statement, two or three sentences as the body of the paragraph, and a transition sentence to facilitate the flow of information. The sections of the main body are organized to reflect the main points of the author. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our Verified MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS:NR 443 Week 1 DQ 2 Determinants of Health Recent

☐ All sources are cited. APA style and format are correctly applied and are free from error.

☐ Sources are completely and correctly documented on a References page, as appropriate to assignment and APA style, and format is free of error.

Scholarly Resources:Scholarly resources are written with a focus on a specific subject discipline and usually written by an expert in the same subject field. Scholarly resources are written for an academic audience.

Examples of Scholarly Resources include:Academic journals, books written by experts in a field, and formally published encyclopedias and dictionaries.

Peer-Reviewed Journals:Peer-reviewed journals are evaluated prior to publication by experts in the journal’s subject discipline. This process ensures that the articles published within the journal are academically rigorous and meet the required expectations of an article in that subject discipline.

Empirical Journal Article: This type of scholarly resource is a subset of scholarly articles that reports the original finding of an observational or experimental research study. Common aspects found within an empirical article include: literature review, methodology, results, and discussion.

Adapted from “Evaluating Resources: Defining Scholarly Resources,” located in Research Guides in the GCU Library.

☐ The writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. Utilize writing resources such as Grammarly, LopesWrite report, and ThinkingStormto check your writing.

Participation: RN-to-BSN

In discussions, you, as a student, will interact with your instructor and classmates to explore topics related to the content of this course. You will be graded for the following.

1. Attendance

Discussions (graded): Discussions are a critical learning experience in the online classroom. Participation in all discussions is required.

2. Guidelines and Rubric for Discussions

PURPOSE: Threaded discussions are designed to promote dialogue between faculty and students, and students and their peers. In the discussions students:

  • Demonstrate understanding of concepts for the week
  • Integrate scholarly resources
  • Engage in meaningful dialogue with classmates
  • Express opinions clearly and logically, in a professional manner

Participation Requirement: You are required to post a minimum of three (3) times in each graded discussion. These three (3) posts must be on a minimum of two (2) separate days. You must respond to the initial discussion question by 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday.

Participation points: It is expected that you will meet the minimum participation requirement described above. If not:

  • You will receive a 10% point deduction in a thread if your response to the initial question is not posted by 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday
  • You will also receive a 10% point deduction in a thread if you do not post at least three (3) times in each thread on at least two (2) separate days.

3. Threaded Discussion Guiding Principles

The ideas and beliefs underpinning the threaded discussions (TDs) guide students through engaging dialogues as they achieve the desired learning outcomes/competencies associated with their course in a manner that empowers them to organize, integrate, apply and critically appraise their knowledge to their selected field of practice. The use of TDs provides students with opportunities to contribute level-appropriate knowledge and experience to the topic in a safe, caring, and fluid environment that models professional and social interaction. The TD’s ebb and flow is based upon the composition of student and faculty interaction in the quest for relevant scholarship. Participation in the TDs generates opportunities for students to actively engage in the written ideas of others by carefully reading, researching, reflecting, and responding to the contributions of their peers and course faculty. TDs foster the development of members into a community of learners as they share ideas and inquiries, consider perspectives that may be different from their own, and integrate knowledge from other disciplines.

4. Participation Guidelines

You are required to post a minimum of three (3) times in each graded discussion. These three (3) posts must be on a minimum of two (2) separate days. You must respond to the initial discussion question by 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday. Discussions for each week close on Sunday at 11:59 p.m. Mountain Time (MT). To receive credit for a week’s discussion, students may begin posting no earlier than the Sunday immediately before each week opens. For courses with Week 8 graded discussions, the threads will close on Wednesday at 11:59 p.m. MT. All discussion requirements must be met by that deadline.

5. Grading Rubric

Discussion Criteria  A
Outstanding or highest level of performance
Very good or high level of performance
Competent or satisfactory level of performance
Poor or failing or unsatisfactory level of performance
Answers the initial graded threaded discussion question(s)/topic(s), demonstrating knowledge and understanding of concepts for the week.
16 points
Addresses all aspects of the initial discussion question(s) applying experiences, knowledge, and understanding regarding all weekly concepts. 

16 points

Addresses most aspects of the initial discussion question(s) applying experiences, knowledge, and understanding of most of the weekly concepts. 

14 points

Addresses some aspects of the initial discussion question(s) applying experiences, knowledge, and understanding of some of the weekly concepts. 

12 points

Minimally addresses the initial discussion question(s) or does not address the initial question(s). 

0 points

Integrates evidence to support discussion. Sources are credited.*
( APA format not required)
12 points
Integrates evidence to support your discussion from: 
  • assigned readings** OR online lessons, AND
  • at least one outside scholarly source.***

Sources are credited.*

12 points

Integrates evidence to support discussion from: 
  • assigned readings OR online lesson.

Sources are credited.*

10 points

Integrates evidence to support discussion only from an outside source with no mention of assigned reading or lesson. 

Sources are credited.*

9 points

Does not integrate any evidence. 

0 points

Engages in meaningful dialogue with classmates or instructor before the end of the week.
14 points
Responds to a classmate and/or instructor’s post furthering the dialogue by providing more information and clarification, thereby adding much depth to the discussion. 

14 points

Responds to a classmate and/or instructor furthering the dialogue by adding some depth to the discussion. 

12 points

Responds to a classmate and/or instructor but does not further the discussion. 

10 points

No response post to another student or instructor. 

0 points

Communicates in a professional manner.
8 points
Presents information using clear and concise language in an organized manner (minimal errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation). 

8 points

Presents information in an organized manner (few errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation). 

7 points

Presents information using understandable language but is somewhat disorganized (some errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation). 

6 points

Presents information that is not clear, logical, professional or organized to the point that the reader has difficulty understanding the message (numerous errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and/or punctuation). 

0 points

Response to initial question: Responds to initial discussion question(s) by
Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. M.T.
0 points lost 

Student posts an answer to the initial discussion question(s) by Wednesday, 11:59 p . m. MT.

-5 points 

Student does not post an answer to the initial discussion question(s) by Wednesday, 11:59 p . m. MT.

Total posts: Participates in the discussion thread at least three times on at least two different days.
0 points lost 

Posts in the discussion at least three times AND on two different days.

-5 points 

Posts fewer than three times OR does not participate on at least two different days.

* Credited means stating where the information came from (specific article, text, or lesson). Examples: Our text discusses…. The information from our lesson states…, Smith (2010) claimed that…, Mary Manners (personal communication, November 17, 2011)…. APA formatting is not required.
** Assigned readings are those listed on the syllabus or assignments page as required reading. This may include text readings, required articles, or required websites.
*** Scholarly source – per the APA Guidelines in Course Resources, only scholarly sources should be used in assignments. These include peer reviewed publications, government reports, or sources written by a professional or scholar in the field. Wikipedia, Wikis, .com website or blogs should not be used as anyone can add to these. For the discussions, reputable internet sources such as websites by government agencies (URL ends in .gov) and respected organizations (often ends in .org) can be counted as scholarly sources. Outside sources do not include assigned required readings.
NOTE: A zero is the lowest score that a student can be assigned.

Don’t wait until the last minute

Fill in your requirements and let our experts deliver your work asap.