How Research Has Evolved Since The Florence Nightingale Era

Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice

a). Nightingale and History of Nursing

Nursing research remains a fundamental aspect of care provision as nurses must use proven approaches and care interventions to enhance quality care delivery. Imperatively, since the Florence Nightingale era, nursing research continues to evolve and embrace a paradigm shift. Nightingale pioneered research in nursing as she described her landmark findings titled “Notes on Nursing” in 1859 where she described early interest in understanding environmental factors which lead to physical and emotional wellbeing. She also contributed to research on factors that impacted soldier mortality and morbidity during the Crimean War (Mackey & Bassendowski, 2017). Through this she succeeded in effecting fundamental changes in nursing care and public health in general.

Over time nursing research evolved due to several factors that include increased need to focus care on patient. Early researchers lacked access to technology, equipment and enough funding to undertake critical research on population health and health promotion. The implication is that nursing research now focuses on patient-centered interventions founded on the use of evidence-based practice interventions (Grove & Gray, 2018). Through these approaches, nurses and other health care providers look forward to using interventions that mitigate hospital acquired infections and enhance overall patient outcomes.

b). Evidence-Based Practice and Research

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach in nursing practice which integrates evidence from past studies, patient preferences, and clinical knowledge to ascertain the optimal treatment for patients in different settings. EBP is different from research since it focuses on present knowledge’s application to ascertain patient care plan. The purpose of EBP is to utilize best evidence existing to make patient-care decisions. Most the EBP evidence emanates from research. EBP transcends usual research to include clinical expertise, patient preferences, and values. On its part, research focuses on the development of new knowledge irrespective of whether there is evidence that can be used.  

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Research focuses on generation of new knowledge or validation of existing knowledge based on a theory or model. Research studies entail systematic, scientific inquiry to get answers to certain questions or test hypotheses using disciplined and rigorous techniques (Grove & Gray, 2018). However, both research and EBP entail development of innovative and patient-centered methods in care provision. Whereas research is keen on developing new understanding or findings, EBP entails innovation based on finding and translating the best evidence into clinical use and practice.

Research supports EBP since interventions in EBP can use current findings from research work as long as the new knowledge is based on evidence and can impact quality care outcomes. As observed, most of the evidence in EBP is based on research implying that EBP would not work without existing research outcomes.

c). Past Unethical Breach of Research Conduct

The Tuskegee Research conducted in 1932 involving African American men with syphilis was done without informed consent from participants. The subjects were understood that they were being treated for a disease called “bad blood” and in exchange, they were to get free meals, free medical exams and burial insurance. Investigations showed that these individuals were lured into the study due to their poor and vulnerable situation as many had the condition (Batbold et al.,2019). The study went on for 40 years yet they had been told that it would take only six months. These conditions were in violation of existing ethical code of conduct and biomedical principles like autonomy and non-maleficence.

It is important to consider patient autonomy and allow them to make decisions instead of concealing the real intentions of the study. Imperatively, it would be appropriate to ensure that they participants get all the information about the study so that they make informed decision either to participate or not in the research.


Batbold, S., Ellis, R., Katz, R. V., & Warren, R. C. (2019). Review of the Captain America

Graphic Novel ‘TRUTH: Red, White and Black’ Focusing on Parallels with the Infamous USPHS Syphilis Study at Tuskegee. Journal of the National Medical Association, 111(4), 363-370.

Grove, S. K., & Gray, J. R. (2018). Understanding Nursing Research E-Book: Building an

            Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Mackey, A., & Bassendowski, S. (2017). The history of evidence-based practice in nursing

education and practice. Journal of Professional Nursing, 33(1), 51-55. doi: 10.1016/j.profnurs.2016.05.009

We begin our journey into discovering the new world of research and evidence-based practice (EBP) by exploring our past. After completing the required readings and lesson, answer the following:

Explain how research has evolved since the Florence Nightingale era.Discuss how research and EBP are different; include how you believe research supports EBP for nursing.Describe one past/historical unethical breach of research conduct; then, share how you would ensure care of a study participant using one ethical or legal research consideration (guideline/principle).

5. Grading Rubric

Discussion Criteria A
Outstanding or highest level of performance 
Very good or high level of performance
Competent or satisfactory level of performance
Poor or failing or unsatisfactory level of performance
Answers the initial graded threaded discussion question(s)/topic(s), demonstrating knowledge and understanding of concepts for the week.
16 points
Addresses all aspects of the initial discussion question(s) applying experiences, knowledge, and understanding regarding all weekly concepts.16 pointsAddresses most aspects of the initial discussion question(s) applying experiences, knowledge, and understanding of most of the weekly concepts.14 pointsAddresses some aspects of the initial discussion question(s) applying experiences, knowledge, and understanding of some of the weekly concepts.12 pointsMinimally addresses the initial discussion question(s) or does not address the initial question(s).0 points
Integrates evidence to support discussion. Sources are credited.*
( APA format not required)
12 points
Integrates evidence to support your discussion from:assigned readings** OR online lessons, ANDat least one outside scholarly source.***Sources are credited.*12 pointsIntegrates evidence to support discussion from:assigned readings OR online lesson.Sources are credited.*10 pointsIntegrates evidence to support discussion only from an outside source with no mention of assigned reading or lesson.Sources are credited.*9 pointsDoes not integrate any evidence.0 points
Engages in meaningful dialogue with classmates or instructor before the end of the week.
14 points
Responds to a classmate and/or instructor’s post furthering the dialogue by providing more information and clarification, thereby adding much depth to the discussion.14 pointsResponds to a classmate and/or instructor furthering the dialogue by adding some depth to the discussion.12 pointsResponds to a classmate and/or instructor but does not further the discussion.10 pointsNo response post to another student or instructor.0 points
Communicates in a professional manner.
8 points
Presents information using clear and concise language in an organized manner (minimal errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).8 pointsPresents information in an organized manner (few errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).7 pointsPresents information using understandable language but is somewhat disorganized (some errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation).6 pointsPresents information that is not clear, logical, professional or organized to the point that the reader has difficulty understanding the message (numerous errors in English grammar, spelling, syntax, and/or punctuation).0 points
Response to initial question: Responds to initial discussion question(s) by
Wednesday, 11:59 p.m. M.T.
0 points lostStudent posts an answer to the initial discussion question(s) by Wednesday, 11:59 p . m. MT.-5 pointsStudent does not post an answer to the initial discussion question(s) by Wednesday, 11:59 p . m. MT.
Total posts: Participates in the discussion thread at least three times on at least two different days.
0 points lostPosts in the discussion at least three times AND on two different days.-5 pointsPosts fewer than three times OR does not participate on at least two different days.
* Credited means stating where the information came from (specific article, text, or lesson). Examples: Our text discusses…. The information from our lesson states…, Smith (2010) claimed that…, Mary Manners (personal communication, November 17, 2011)…. APA formatting is not required.
** Assigned readings are those listed on the syllabus or assignments page as required reading. This may include text readings, required articles, or required websites.
*** Scholarly source – per the APA Guidelines in Course Resources, only scholarly sources should be used in assignments. These include peer reviewed publications, government reports, or sources written by a professional or scholar in the field. Wikipedia, Wikis, .com website or blogs should not be used as anyone can add to these. For the discussions, reputable internet sources such as websites by government agencies (URL ends in .gov) and respected organizations (often ends in .org) can be counted as scholarly sources. Outside sources do not include assigned required readings.

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