evidenced based practice, nursing theories, nursing research

evidenced based practice, nursing theories, nursing research

evidenced based practice, nursing theories, nursing research

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Orem’s Self-care Deficit Theory was one of the theories I discussed last week. Orem’s theory advocates for patient autonomy over self-care, with the ultimate goal of overcoming human limitations to self-care (Current Nursing, 2020). By emphasizing a person’s ability to perform self-care, maintain health, and overall well-being, the individual is empowered to take responsibility for their own or others’ health (Shah, et. al, 2013). Because this theory can be highly individualized from patient to patient or patient’s family, its application can vary greatly depending on population focus. This theory, for example, would be applied differently in adult and pediatric populations based on age and developmental stages. This theory would most likely be heavily geared toward parent support and education in performing care in pediatrics. Furthermore, this theory can vary greatly depending on the specific illness or disease state. For example, I work in a pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit, where the patient’s defect, arrhythmia, or ailment heavily influences their self-care requirements.

A neonate with a congenital heart defect that has not yet been fully repaired may require oxygen or tube feeding support. In this case, much more instruction would be focused on the parent’s ability to use/manipulate these new medical devices. On the same unit, I may be caring for an adolescent who recently had a mechanical valve replacement. Initially, this patient may require full or partial care, and these deficits will change as the patient’s condition improves and he or she regains independence. This same patient may also require anticoagulant therapy instruction; many adolescents have the physical and mental capacity to administer their own medications, so instruction and support would be provided in this case.


My next step will be to inform my classmate that his actions are in violation of GCU policy. Plagiarism is defined as using someone else’s work without properly citing the source (GCU, n.d.). This action disregards the work and ideas of the original author. Because you give the reader the impression that you invented the concept, you are “stealing” intellectual property. I’ll tell my student that he can use other people’s ideas as long as he credits them properly. Citations, in fact, increase the overall appeal of your essay by demonstrating to the reader that your arguments are supported by other authors.

To avoid plagiarism and red flags, students must follow procedures. LopesWrite is a well-known Grand Canyon University course. When using LopesWrite’s originality checking, plagiarism and academic dishonesty are avoided (GCU, n.d.). If my classmate’s actions are the result of citation control issues, I will recommend programs that can help him. The Refworks tool can export citations directly from most GCU databases, whereas the Endnote tool can help with importing citations from many GCU databases (GCU, n.d.).

Also Read: NUR 514 Leadership Style Reflective Essay Assignment

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NUR 513 Topic 4 DQ 2

Select two different nursing theories and describe how they relate to patient care. How could you use them for inciting behavioral changes? Discuss the pros and cons of applying each theory and how they could be integrated into your future practice. Are there any particular ethical issues related to the integration of these theories that should be considered?

Re: Topic 5 DQ 1

I work in a pediatric CVICU and an ongoing issue has been with advancing technologies, changes in practices, and changes in charting interfaces or forms; and nursing staff willingness and acceptance in fully utilizing technology to its intended extent. There are those who have worked on this unit for a long time and don’t like the change, there are those who just miss updates, and there is inconsistency in educating staff. A great example of this can be related to Etiometry monitoring. My unit recently spent a large amount of money installing Etiometry monitors in every single patient room. When we first got it, it was explained that these monitors can collect and analyze vital patient data, help determine risk, make informed decisions on care, and reduce costs. Etiometry monitoring was supposed to collect data from patients that is often overlooked and help with anticipation of major events. However, after getting these monitors, they are often viewed as additional pieces of equipment that are often in the way. None of the nursing staff was really trained to interpret and actually understand the etiometry data. Most of the nursing staff was just taught out to turn the monitors on, and report specific numbers to providers. This has led to a disregard in terms of etiometry monitoring. Often the monitors are pushed out of the way and are not even turned on. This is just one example of how a valuable piece of technology is not being utilized; I’m sure most of us have dozens of similar examples related to equipment, charting, software, etc.

Kurt Lewin’s Change Theory could be applied to this issue, and many issues related to nursing changes in practice, and improved use of technology. Lewin’s Change theory can be summarized into three phases: unfreezing, movement, and refreezing (Current Nursing, 2020). The unfreezing phase involves overcoming resistance and creating a driving force for behavioral change. The movement phase involves the change itself or changing the thoughts or behaviors. And refreezing is making the change or new behavior habit. In terms of whether this is the best theory, I cannot say. There are so many nursing theories that can be effectively applied to many situations.


Current Nursing. (2020). Nursing theories: Open access articles on nursing theories and models. https://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/change_theory.html



Gina integrated any form of change is a process that attracts mixed reactions. Technological change may be complicated for some nurses. However, some nurses may be flexible to incorporate change hoping that the adjustment will improve the healthcare services. Educating the staff is the right protocol towards incorporating nurses as change agents (Peukert, 2019). Technological transformation is an expensive engagement due to the gadgets’ costs. Installing Etiometry monitors in patient’s room enable the collection and analysis of vital information.  The monitor fastens the patient health information collection (Lammi & Pantzar, 2019). Therefore, the monitors increase the healthcare quality and accuracy. The technological change value in healthcare services cannot be understood by nurses who have been educated about the change.  Sadly, uninformed nurses may bar installing Etiometry monitors. Educating the staff allows the facility leadership to educate nurses on how to use and interfere with the data collected by the monitors. The monitors store crucial information in bulk.  The patient information may be required at any time so the nurses should be flexible to retrieve the information.



Lammi, M., & Pantzar, M. (2019). The data economy: How technological change has altered the role of the citizen-consumer. Technology in Society59, 101157.

Peukert, C. (2019). The next wave of digital technological change and the cultural industries. Journal of Cultural Economics43(2), 189-210.

Topic 5 DQ 2

Select one theory discussed during Topics 4 and 5. Does application of this theory differ based on the population focus (individuals, families, communities, and special populations)? Why or why not? Use examples from your current practice to illustrate differences or similarities.

Topic 6 DQ 2

Imagine the following scenario: You are taking the evidence-based practice course and one of your classmates shares an EBP project draft with you. You notice that some of the research has not been cited correctly or even at all. When you approach your classmate, the response is that “no one will notice and it is not a big deal anyway.” What are your next steps in speaking with your classmate? Consider how this could reflect on the credibility and integrity of the individuals involved, the University, and the profession.

Topic 6 DQ 1

Review the evidence-based practice project ideas you described in Topic 5 DQ 1. Based on your initial ideas, what types of scholarly nursing research (such as quantitative or qualitative research, peer-reviewed resources, etc.) would be required to further investigate the issue? Identify the criteria you would use to evaluate the appropriateness of the research. Why is it important to select research that meets these criteria?

Topic 7 DQ 1

Describe the steps of the evidence-based research process and the importance of using them. In the initial stages of an EBP project, where do nurses in your specialty go to locate sources of information that help them to determine whether or not a practice problem is appropriate for an evidence-based practice change proposal. Include two specific sources on information in your discussion.