Evaluation Of Research Ethics Assignment

 Evaluation Of Research Ethics Assignment

Evaluation Of Research Ethics Assignment

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Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Citation and Permalink

(APA format)

Matthews, F. E., Stephan, B. C., Robinson, L., Jagger, C., Barnes, L. E., Arthur, A., … & Dening, T. (2016). A two-decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II. Nature communications7, 11398. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms11398
Point The quantitative article elaborates on the global increase in the number of people who have dementia. There is the use of quantitative approaches to establish the prevalence of dementia among different populations. The authors use various statistical tests to institute and determine changes over the given time on dementia incidences. The article utilizes the MRC Cognitive Function as well as the Ageing Study to address some aspects of the research. Through the use of data collected in different areas of study, the authors can predict the global increase in the future number of individuals who have dementia. According to the article, there is a lack of multicentre population-based research that have detected changes over a given period on the incidences of dementia. Also, the article entails data analysis and interpretation processes; the researchers or the authors elaborate on the methodology used in the processes of data collection and how the analysis was done to prove the hypotheses and to provide answers to the research questions. The article consists of elaborate analysis and there is also the use of data to support the claims. The discussion in the article answers the research questions. Also, the article proves the hypothesis and provides an elaborate discussion of the findings. The algorithmic approach to diagnosis is also available in the research, without the variability likely to be present whenever those subject to the changes in diagnostic practices over time are involved in the diagnosis.



Broad Topic Area/Title

The title of the article is A two-decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II.

Going by the title, the study’s findings suggest that the population’s brain health is changing, probably profoundly, across generations, and the situation is likely to be unfavorably affected by the risk factors related to the disadvantages. According to the authors, the positive changes that have been experienced across Europe may become limited to the nations that have had some of the major investments in population health (Fleiner, 2017).



Problem Statement

(What is the problem research is addressing?)

Dementia continues to be one of the major health problems across the world. With the increasing number of the older generation, the condition has become a major international interest with succeeding reports indicating large increases globally in the next few decades. With the increasing governmental concerns as well as the 2013 G8 Summit, there has been an increased risk, lack of better treatment and diagnosis of the dementia syndrome (Matthews et al., 2016). The emerging studies indicate that the incidences of dementia can be changeable in different generations with both increases and decreases reported. With the increasing risk factors, the diagnosis processes, as well as the treatment mechanism, continues to become a challenge. The complications that arise due to the nature of various dementia conditions require continuous and elaborate education and training to the nurses. The dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge enables nurses to gain knowledge and confidence to achieve effective patient outcomes (Chiao, Wu, & Hsiao, 2015). Patients who have dementia often experience challenges as a result of several adverse events resulting in the geriatric syndromes of delirium, falls and loss of function with the increased time of stay in the hospital as well as the increased mortality. Some of the contributing factors to the above problems include insufficient treatments and assessment, discrimination, inappropriate interventions, lack of staff training and a low number of staff or medical professionals within the healthcare facilities (Cipriani et al., 2016).




Purpose Statement

(What is the purpose of the study?)


The purpose of the study is to indicate the comparison between the cognitive function and the ageing studies I and II. Also, the study aims at establishing the dementia incidence rates among the study participants. Finally, the quantitative research aims at showing if there are consensus clinical practice and research studies on patients with dementia.



Research Questions

(What questions does the research seek to answer?)

ü  Does the prevalence of dementia-related to age and sex?

ü  What are the health factors related to dementia

ü  Is there consensus in clinical practice and research studies on patients with dementia?

Define Hypothesis

(Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used)

Null Hypotheses (Ho): The prevalence of dementia is not related to the age and sex

Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The prevalence of dementia is related to both the age and sex of the patients.

Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables Dependent variable: Prevalence of Dementia; the data under this variable is continuous and normally distributed.

Independent Variable: Age or sex; in case of sex, the variable would be categorical. On the other hand, if the variable is age, the data would be continuous with a normal distribution.


The population of Interest for Study In the study, the population samples of people aged 65 years and over, followed by an assessment interview in 20%, were conducted in five geographical areas of the UK


Sample From the quantitative research, the sample size was 7,762. Out of the above number of people, only 5, 288 were involved in the re-interview process. Therefore, all the above number of people or study participants could be used to determine or calculate the incidence directly. In the process of conducting the study, a total of 1, 830 study participants, constituting 24% were lost between the waves, on the other hand, there was 643 death constituting 8% of the original participants. The response rate among the individuals who were still alive in the course of wave 2 was 74% (Matthews et al., 2016).
Sampling Method To ensure detailed data for the processes of analysis, the researchers employed random population sampling.
Identify Data Collection

Identify how data were collected

There was use of questionnaires to carry out surveys during data collection. The figures collected were then recorded in the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to enhance data cleaning processes.
Summarize Data Collection Approach  

The methodology in the research involved the application of questionnaires in data collection; the data were collected from all the respondents or study participants selected for the study.

Discuss Data Analysis

Include what types of statistical tests were used for the variables.

From the data collected, given that there were continuous variables with the normal distribution, the t-test was the ideal approach to prove the hypothesis above. Both paired sample t-tests and independent sample t-tests were used by the researcher to answer the research questions and to test the hypothesis.  The methodology in the research involved the application of questionnaires in data collection; the data were collected from two hundred and six respondents selected for the study. There was also the use of full likelihood modeling of dementia incidences to answer the research questions.
Summarize Results of Study ü  From the analysis, the prevalence of dementia at wave I am potentially related to sex and age.

ü  Also, the incidence of dementia at wave II is potentially related to sex and age for the study participants who were not demented in wave I.

ü  Exercise represents a potentially worthwhile approach for the treatment of patients suffering from dementia


Summary of Assumptions and Limitations

Identify the assumptions and limitations of the article.

Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author.

ü  From the study, one of the assumptions is that the missing longitudinal data is correlated to sex, age, and care status.

ü  From the study, there was also an assumption of normality. In other words, the continuous variables were assumed to be normally distributed.

ü  From the study, it was also assumed that the continuous data exhibited equal variance.

ü  The random samples were the perfect representation of the entire population.






Ethical Considerations

In the process of the research, several ethical concerns were experienced. One of the ethical concern was data privacy. In the process of

Evaluation Of Research Ethics Assignment
Evaluation Of Research Ethics Assignment

data collection, there was a lack of elaborate mechanisms to secure the tool as well as the facts and information obtained from the study participants (ICollmann & Matei, 2016). In most cases, privacy does not mean secrecy because sometimes, the private data ought to be audited in line with the legal requirements. The private data gathered from private individuals with consent should not be uncovered to third parties with any traces to their identities. Exposing personal data to the public could have occurred due to the lack of stringent policy issues. The study tools used, including questionnaires, could not be secure; therefore, the w ability to manage the flow of private information could have been a problem across large party massive analytical systems (Mittelstadt & Floridi, 2016). The researchers and individuals dealing with databases could have shared sensitive or personal data. While designing the study, researchers failed to define the restrictions on how and whether the information obtained can be shared further. The article consists of elaborate analysis and there is also the use of data to support the claims. The discussion in the article answers the research questions. Also, the article proves the hypothesis and provides an elaborate discussion of the findings. One of the principles for ethical data use is that it needs to be done with the expectation of concrete benefit. The product of data analysis should provide value to all the parties interested in the study. Therefore people who generate the data, as well as the organizations or institutions that collects it, should adhere to the ethical concerns.


Chiao, C. Y., Wu, H. S., & Hsiao, C. Y. (2015). Caregiver burden for informal caregivers of patients with dementia: A systematic review. International nursing review62(3), 340-350.

Cipriani, G., Lucetti, C., Danti, S., Carlesi, C., & Nuti, A. (2016). Violent and criminal manifestations in dementia patients. Geriatrics & gerontology international16(5), 541-549.

Collmann, J., & Matei, S. A. (2016). Ethical Reasoning in Big Data: An Exploratory Analysis.

Fleiner, T., Leucht, S., Foerstl, H., Zijlstra, W., & Haussermann, P. (2017). Effects of short-term exercise interventions on behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with dementia: a systematic review. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease55(4), 1583-1594

Matthews, F. E., Stephan, B. C., Robinson, L., Jagger, C., Barnes, L. E., Arthur, A., … & Dening, T. (2016). A two decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II. Nature communications7, 11398. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms11398.

Mittelstadt, B. D., & Floridi, L. (2016). The ethics of biomedical big data.


The hypothesis is the question the researcher wants to answer, the clinical inquiry in healthcare, the research design, how the data is gathered and analyzed is determined by the question or hypothesis. In healthcare we aim to find correlations and answers within the data to provide for better patient population outcomes. Correlation does not prove causation. Clinical significance determines whether the research has a practical application to an individual or a group. It also is used to determine health care decisions made by leadership. Clinical significance is the application in improving the quality of life of an individual and provides the bridge from health research to patient care (Ambrose, 2018).

The confidence interval helps to reject the null hypothesis.  The confidence interval is an interval estimate for the mean. It is a range of values that are set close to the mean either in a positive or negative direction. For the null to be rejected, 95% of the values need to be set close to the mean. The range of values determines the effect. While there is not 100% certainty that either of these possibilities could be true, the CI reflects the risk of the researcher being wrong. It is important that the statistical analysis of the data and its associated probability are true. The basis of rejection or failure to reject the null hypothesis is based on the CI of 95%. A CI of 95% says that 95% of research projects like the one completed will include the true mean, but 5% will not, meaning that there are five chances in 100 of being wrong. Reducing the confidence interval increases the risk for error (Ambrose, 2018).

A CI informs the investigator and the reader about the power of the study and whether or not the data are compatible with a clinically significant treatment effect. Confidence intervals also provide a more appropriate means of analysis for studies that seek to describe or explain, rather than to make decisions about treatment efficacy.

The logic of hypothesis testing uses a decision-making mode of thinking which is more suitable to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of health care interventions. Hypothesis testing to determine statistical significance was initially intended to be used only in randomized experiments such as RCTs which are typically not feasible in clinical research involving identification of risk factors, etiology, clinical diagnosis, or prognosis. The use of CIs allows for hypothesis testing and it allows a more flexible approach to analysis that accounts for the objectives of each investigation (Savage, 2003).

The use of hypothesis testing and confidence intervals can be seen in quality improvement projects throughout an organization. In healthcare, we aim to find correlations and answers to our questions (hypothesis) within the data to provide better patient outcomes. Through these projects, we ask the question, find, plan and implement processes or the evidence, and evaluate the outcomes by building a concept or framework for the investigation. In my place of work the rate of readmission can be projected through the use of hypothesis testing by inputting those precautionary factors that can help in the reduction of patients coming back to hospital after they have been discharge. While at the same time, the confidence interval is use to determine average rehospitalization within any particular month, and this help to improve the quality of service provided by the organization


Ambrose, J. (2018). What are statistics and why are they important to health science. In Applied statistics for health care (1 ed.). Grand Canyon University: Grand Canyon University.

Savage, S. (2003). Advantages of confidence intervals in clinical research. Retrieved from: https://www.redorbit.com/news/science/18686/advantages_of_confidence_intervals_in_clinical_research/