Discussion: European Birth Cohort Studies

Discussion: European Birth Cohort Studies

Discussion European Birth Cohort Studies

ORDER NOW FOR AN ORIGINAL PAPER ASSIGNMENT: Discussion: European Birth Cohort Studies

Article Analysis 2

Article Citation

and Permalink

(APA format)


Article 1

(Der Ananian, Winham, Thompson & Tisue, 2018).

Article 2

(Carnethon et al., 2017).

Point Description Description
Broad Topic Area/Title Heart-related diseases. The objective is to examine attitude, knowledge, and perceptions of African Americans regarding cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among African Americans. Here, the objective is to describe CVD health with an intention of pointing out unique considerations to manage and prevent disease.
Define Hypotheses African Americans face a disproportionately increased risk of chronic conditions including CVD compared to other racial or ethnic groups. The load of CVD is relatively higher among African Americans and characterizes the major cause of disparities in life expectancy compared whites.
Define Independent and Dependent Variables and Types of Data for Variables The dependent variable was cardiovascular disease while independent variable was race/ethnicity. The dependent variable was cardiovascular disease while independent variable was race/ethnicity.
Population of Interest for the Study The study is focused on African Americans The study is focused on African Americans
Sample Focused group comprising of a sample size of 103 participants were used in the study (Der Ananian, Winham, Thompson & Tisue, 2018, P.2). The study focused on African Americans as a community (Carnethon et al., 2017, P. 1).
Sampling Method Only African Americans were eligible for study ranging from the ages of 25-60 years and living in Arizona at the recruitment time. Participants were reached through email listservs, snowball sampling, agencies serving African American community, flyers, and civic organizations. The study was organized in focused groups and a total of fourteen focused groups were used in the study (Der Ananian, Winham, Thompson & Tisue, 2018, P.2). Sampling was conducted by looking for relevant information from PubMed and Medline libraries. Besides, online sources obtained from CDC were also used.


How Were Data Collected? Data collection was conducted through series of questionnaires that were completed by participants at the focused group venue. The primary data sources were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) online sources and PubMed/Medline libraries.



Carnethon, M. R., Pu, J., Howard, G., Albert, M. A., Anderson, C. A., Bertoni, A. G., & Yancy, C. W. (2017). Cardiovascular health in African Americans: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 136(21), e393-e423.

Der Ananian, C., Winham, D., Thompson, S., & Tisue, M. (2018). Perceptions of heart-healthy behaviors among African American Adults: A mixed methods study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(11), 2433.

Topic 3 DQ 2

Evaluate and provide examples of how hypothesis testing and confidence intervals are used together in health care research. Provide a workplace example that illustrates your ideas.



Hello class,

To understand how hypothesis testing and confidence intervals (CI) work together we must first understand what exactly they are.

Discussion European Birth Cohort Studies
Discussion European Birth Cohort Studies

Hypothesis Tests are tests conducted by forming two opposing hypothesis (Research HA and Null Ho) and attempting to validate each in order to reach a possible outcome. Confidence Intervals are a “range of likely values of the parameter with a specified level of confidence (similar to a probability)” (Sullivan, 2022). Both of these are known as inferential methods which both rely on approximated sampling distributions. CI is used to find a range of possible values and an estimate on the overall accuracy of the parameter value. Hypothesis testing is useful because it tells us how confident we can be when drawing conclusions about the parameter of our sample population.

An example of this is testing the overall performance of a new medication being offered at a clinic. One must hypothesise the effect it will have on the patient population and try to find the parameters on the satisfaction of those taking said medication. By using these two methods in conjunction, the provider can have a good educated guess on the outcome and prepare accordingly.



Sullivan, L. (2022, January 1). Confidence Intervals. Retrieved from Boston University School of Public Health: https://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/bs/bs704_confidence_intervals/bs704_confidence_intervals_print.html


The hypothesis is a question the researcher would like to answer. A hypothesis drives a better outcome for patient care that goes evidence-based practice. The person must collect data in a controlled manner designated best to test the hypothesis. When using the Null hypothesis as current information, the alternative hypothesis attempts to reject the null. At the same time, the Ho and the Ha are mathematic opposites. Clinical significance is the application in improving the quality of life of an individual and provides the bridge from health research to patient care (Ambrose, 2018).

While confidence intervals and hypothesis tests are similar, they contain inferential methods relying upon sampling. The LOC is a percentage of confidence level in deciding the difficulty of rejecting the hypothesis. Most people doing this research are > 90% LOC; otherwise, the test would not be warranted. The level of significance is α=1-c. Both the LOC and level of relevance reflect how sure you are of whether the data is making the correct decision or not.

The American Heart Association guidelines for resuscitation were based on the pneumonic of ABC- Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. The pneumonic is the null hypothesis. The alternative view was the use of Circulation, airways, and breathing. The research data reflected the Ha > Ho. The concentration of effective quality chest compressions leads to a worldwide change in how CPR is performed. The LOC was high enough to recruit large city Fire Dept such as Phoenix Fire to provide data regarding cardiac arrest and outcomes.


Ambrose, J. (2018a). Applied Statistics for Health Care. Grand Canyon University. https://doi.org/https://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt362v/applied-statistics-for-health- care/v1.1/#/chapter/3