Discussion 2: The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

Discussion 2: The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

Discussion 2: The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

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The nursing profession has undeniable strength in numbers; however in order for our powerful presence to inform policy-making we must accept political presence as a cornerstone of nursing culture and discipline. Health care policy indeed has been a large variable in the nursing science and discipline from the time Florence Nightingale made nursing and advocacy one in the same. Furthermore, I believe some might argue that the term advocating can be swapped out with policy-making in various discussions with no changes in the end result of the conversation. Can you imagine the health care reform and policy-making efforts of Florence Nightingale in modern time? Nightingale-care doesn’t have the same ring as Obama-care, but surely it would be impactful.

In an age of credentialism, technology, and scientific advancements, how does an RN or APRN follow in the footsteps of Nightingale to advocate for patients with policy-making involvement? In the nineteenth century, workhouse infirmaries were established in England to house the aged, infirm, and the occasional lunatic was allowed to stay for no longer than a fortnight (Rivett, 2021). Nursing care in workhouses was provided by untrained or “pauper” nurses, who were workhouse inmates themselves. Nightingale believed in the institution of professional nursing services, and the nursing services provided in the workhouses did not align with her vision or drive. Nightingale teamed up with philanthropist William Rathbone in a project that would provide a workhouse in Liverpool with a trained nursing staff and a nursing leader, Agnes Jones (McDonald, 2001). Nightingale and Rathbone believed that if care provided in workhouses by trained nursing professionals yielded improved patient outcomes, authorities would be forced to extend the practice standard to all workhouses. Unfortunately, immediate reform did not result from Nightingale and Rathbone’s project. Consequentially, legislation associated with workhouses would not take place until healthcare costs of communicable diseases began to drastically have a negative impact on England’s economy (McDonald, 2001). Imagine the impact Nightingale could have on modern healthcare reform with the support of a board of nursing, professional nursing organizations, and the use of social media.

The nursing profession in itself is a significant health care resource, and we make up more than 50% of the national health workforce in many countries (Jokiniemi et al., 2020). Professional nursing organizations like the American Nurse Association (ANA) and the American Academy of Nursing (AAN) offers RN’s and APRN’s opportunities to be involved in policy-making via fellowships, health care policy forums and conferences. APRN’s and APRN students can get involved in their local chapter of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) to become involved and stay up to date on APRN practice authority and prescriptive authority legislation. RN’s and APRN’s can also become involved in their states board of nursing to influence policy-making as well. The downside of these opportunities is unfortunately time and money. Fellowships and BON applications involve collecting references, nominations, personal statements, and of course there are always fees, not to mention the time you are committing if selected. Becoming a member of a professional nursing organization has several benefits; however, the cost can be a deterrent. Annual ANA memberships can range from $200.00 to over $500.00, and despite the scholarly benefits, I would like more bang for my buck. I would rather spend $1500.00 for an annual ANA membership with two guaranteed conferences,… I would take one out of town conference.

Circling back to the influence nurses can have on policy-making by sheer numbers alone, the social media platform has the reach to command policy change if used correctly. President Trump can attest to the power of the Twitter; however, one study researched the power of the Twitter to engage nursing students in health care policy. According to the American Association of Colleges if Nursing (AACN) and Gazza (2019), baccalaureate-prepared nurses have a professional responsibility to engage in the political process of creating and influencing health care policy. Nurses are needed to serve on boards where they can improve health care practices and outcomes, but nurse educators face the challenge of engaging students in health care policy education when students are otherwise engaged in “more exciting” undergraduate courses like anatomy and physiology or pharmacology. Thus, Gazza (2019) decided to take an innovative step to engage student in health care policy education by using a teaching medium the students are overly familiar with, the Twitter. In this study, students were required to create a Twitter account and follow the instructor. Although students could contribute tweets of their own, it was not a graded assignment. Over the seven week course, the instructor would post and reports relevant tweets related to weekly course material. The instructor would also follow stakeholders and political members and parties to augment course material. The major two themes that emerged from the study were (1) staying up to date and (2) opening my eyes (Gazza, 2019). Students found that the use of social media provided ease of access to real time health care policy agendas, debates, and pending legislation (Gazza, 2019). Student also reported feeling more involved and like actual participants in health policy via disseminations of re-tweets.

The ANA advocates for nursing have a seat at the table for all healthcare discussions. We have the numbers, but our contributions in the policy-making arena do not reflect our presence. We have learned thus far in the course that political funding from interest group, stakeholders, and professional organizations carries a lot of weight in the policy-making arena. I believe nursing professional organizations and state board of nursing leaders need action plans for bringing in more members. Leadership in these nursing organizations needs to brainstorm on how to improve nurse engagement and increases memberships for professional nursing organizations.

Read Also : NRSE 6050 Week 7 Discussion 1: Evidence Base in Design

References

American Academy of Nursing. Fellowships. Retrieved October 20, 2021.

https://www.aannet.org/about/fellows

Gazza, E. A. (2019). Using Twitter to Engage Online RN-to-BSN Students in Health Care Policy. Journal of

Nursing Education, 58(2), 107–109. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3928/01484834-20190122-08

Jokiniemi, K., Suutarla, A., Meretoja, R., Kotila, J., Axelin, A., Flinkman, M., Heikkinen, K., & Fagerström,

L. (2020). Evidence‐informed policymaking: Modelling nurses’ career pathway from registered

nurse to advanced practice nurse. International Journal of Nursing Practice (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), 26(1), N.PAG. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1111/ijn.12777

McDonald, L. (2001). Florence Nightingale and the early origins of evidence-based nursing. Evidence-

Based Nursing, 4(3), 68–69. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1136/ebn.4.3.68

Rivett, Geoffrey. “The Poor Law Infirmaries”. NHS History. Retrieved October 20, 2021.

https://www.nuffieldtrust.org.uk/health-and-social-care-explained/the-history-of-the-nhs

Word cloud generators are increasingly being used in meetings and team-building exercises. These tools can be used by teams or groups to enter terms that best represent their team or role. The software generates a “word cloud” that emphasizes the most frequently used terms, providing users with a visual depiction of how people in that role normally think.

Nursing, as one of the most frequent professions in the world, now has the potential to have a global impact on politics and policy. When nurses use political power to promote healthcare delivery, they are ultimately fighting for their patients. As a result, nurses are increasingly utilizing the term “policy-making” because they recognize that it is their moral and professional obligation to participate in healthcare legislation.

What words would you use to make a nursing word cloud? “Empathetic,” “organized,” “hardworking,” and “advocacy” are all appropriate words. Will you include policymakers on your list? Do you think it would be prominent in the word cloud?

To Prepare:

Revisit the Congress.gov website provided in the Resources and consider the role of RNs and APRNs in policy-making. Discussion 2: The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

By Day 3 of Week 8

Post an explanation of at least two opportunities that exist for RNs and APRNs to actively participate in policy-making. Explain some of the challenges that these opportunities may present and describe how

Discussion 2: The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making
NURS 6050 Discussion Role of RN APRN in Policy-Making

you might overcome these challenges. Finally, recommend two strategies you might make to better advocate for or communicate the existence of these opportunities to participate in policy-making. Be specific and provide examples.

E: Discussion – Week 8 Attachment

The Role of the RN/APRN in Policymaking

Response 2 – Solange

Solange, thank you for your post. The majority of public health officials who formulate health policies, educate the public, and influence government policy decisions are physicians with direct expertise. Similarly, nurses possess the necessary knowledge and practical expertise to inform public health policy. To have a positive impact on patient outcomes, nurses must take the initiative to become more politically engaged. According to Barzegar Safari et al. (2020), nurses are now only somewhat involved in policy formation.

https://www.onlinenursingessays.com/discussion-2-the-role-of-the-rn-aprn-in-policy-making/

Through the course, we have realized the importance of participating in professional nursing organizations to take an active role in political action. As beginners, nurses can take on small roles at their unit level to explore the policy-making related activities as you mentioned. The only way to know what is involved in policymaking is to actively participate in political action activities and seeking opportunities (Milstead & Short, 2019). For example: nursing school provides us with basic knowledge and skills for a particular area of nursing but with experience we become proficient with the policies, skills, medications, etc. of a certain unit. As novice nurses, hesitancy to start something new is natural, especially politics, but that should not stop one from engaging.

Some of the strategies identified to increase nurses’ participating in politics and policy making include providing information to nurses regarding health policies, increasing nurses’ partnerships at senior levels of management, and changing nurse’s perception regarding their participation in politics is vital (Barzegar Safari et al., 2020). By using the mentioned strategies suggested, it has the potential to change nurses’ perceptions and become more actively involved. Just as nurses have the obligation to act in patients’ best interests at all times, nurses also have an obligation to participate in policymaking as policies affect patient outcomes at a broader level.

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NURS 6050 Discussion Role of RN APRN in Policy-Making References

Barzegar Safari, M., Bahadori, M., & Alimohammadzadeh, K. (2020). The related factors of nurses’ participation and perceived benefits and barriers in health policy making. The Journal of Nursing Research, 28(4), 1-8. doi: 10.1097/jnr.0000000000000385

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.).        Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

By Day 6 of Week 8

Respond to at least two of your colleagues’* posts by suggesting additional opportunities or recommendations for overcoming the challenges described by your colleagues.

*Note: Throughout this program, your fellow students are referred to as colleagues.

Submission and Grading Information

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:

Week 8 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 8

To participate in this Discussion:

Week 8 Discussion

RE: Discussion – Week 8

Sasha,

Thank you for sharing how nurses can get involved in policymaking and the challenges we may face. I agree that getting involved in a professional organization is a great way for all nurses to become involved in policy. I will personally most likely end up joining at least two professional organizations. I would like to become a member of the American Nurses Association (ANA) and the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (APNA). The ANA is beneficial at a federal and state level by lobbying, representing nurses in federal agencies, and advocating at the state level (American Nurses Association. n.d.). Because my specialty is in psychiatric nursing, I will also join the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (APNA). As a member of the APNA, there is access to continuing education, updated best practices, networking with other professionals, a center for resources, and much more (APNA. n.d.).

Getting involved in policy making decisions at the organizational level is a great suggestion. This would be especially helpful for a nurse who plans to continue at their organization for a long time. I have been at my current employer for many years, and intend to stay at this organization once becoming and APRN. Thankfully there is strong leadership at my organization and becoming involved in committees is highly encouraged, and even rewarded. This will not have much impact on a large scale, but is a great way to improve and advance your practice where you work. Thank you for another great week of discussions!

References

American Nurses Association. (n.d.) Member Benefits. Retrieved January 19, 2022 from

https://www.nursingworld.org/membership/member-benefits/?utm_source=googlead&utm_medium=paidsocial&utm_campaign=acquisition_why_ana&utm_term=membership&gclid=Cj0KCQiAip-PBhDVARIsAPP2xc0EAC5Hai2QQus1kqP5XQS9kopC21LzZPu24LQfsBxu0jbJeHwjhToaAh5HEALw_wcB

American Psychiatric Nurses Association. (n.d.). Why Join? Retrieved January 19, 2022

from https://www.apna.org/membership/why-join/

NRSE 6050 Week 8 Discussion on potential opportunities that may exist for RNs and APRNs to participate in the policy-making process.

The Role of the RN/APRN in Policy-Making

Nurses may have an impact on policies. Nurses are problem solvers and communicators, capable of gathering information, mobilizing communities, and putting pressure on normal policymakers to support nursing. Nurses may participate in decision making to change laws and promote legislation by informing and influencing lawmakers. Because most policies implemented affect nurses, each nurse will be interested in policy-making (Williams & Phillips, 2018). APRNs and RNs will participate in policymaking in various ways. For the first time, APRNS and RNs will be involved in decision-making through advocacy. According to advocacy principles, anyone affected by a particular policy has the unrestricted right to express an opinion.

APRNs and RNs should understand that they have the right to express their opinions on any policy that may affect them. The advocacy opportunity ensures that no nurse is denied the opportunity to communicate his or her opinion on a specific policy. The following opportunity for APRNs and RNs to be involved in policy-making is through leadership. An APRN or RN holds a position of leadership that necessitates collaboration in policy-making (Chilton, 2015). APRNs and RNs should certainly scrutinize policy detailing, usage, and other policy processes. If an APRN or RN has a problem or a question about a policy, he or she can educate the leaders about it.

Various challenges will undoubtedly confront the opportunity for APRNs and RNs to advocate. To begin, there are concerns about gender equality in terms of advocacy. There are times when male APRNs and RNs are denied the opportunity to secure communicating their thoughts and speculations on a given policy, particularly if it is intended for ladies. Furthermore, there is the challenge of asset competition regarding the advocacy opportunity (Williams & Phillips, 2018). The opportunity for leadership positions held by APRNs and RNs has its own set of challenges. To begin, there is the challenge of changing leadership styles and abilities, as different leaders have different leadership styles and accept different leadership styles. Furthermore, there is the issue of communication, as some associations may lack the proper communication channels through which APRNs and RNs can express their concerns about a given policy.

Various recommendations can be used to advocate more effectively or to communicate the presence of opportunities for APRNS and RNs in policy-making. To begin, there is effective training. It is critical that all nurses are prepared and educated about their policy-making rights. Furthermore, nurses should consistently promote and advance good leadership (Joel, 2017). With strong leadership, APRNs and RNs have the opportunity to voice their concerns and ideas about policy development. Third, nurses should be data seekers and make use of professional gatherings to express their feelings and thoughts about policy-making. It is critical that nurses support other medical professionals and lawmakers by teaching and advocating for policies that benefit our patients, families, and communities.

Health-care systems are rapidly evolving and changing. Nurses are expected to adapt to these changes as part of this system. As a result, nurses are expected to have an impact on the development of health policies rather than just their implementation. Then, in order to better control their practice, they must participate in the development of health policies. During this process, nurse leaders play a critical role. To address professional challenges, they must learn policymaking skills. Nurse leaders have unique and valuable perspectives on health policies because of their values, professional ethics, advocacy skills, and experiences. In recent decades, there has been an increase in nurses’ presence, role, and influence in health policies. Nurses are expected to proactively identify issues and collaborate with other decision-makers to advance health-care policies. They should be aware of the various levels of power in their organizations, as well as who controls the health-care resources. As a result, we can state unequivocally that nurses must be involved in policies that affect patients, families, themselves, and the entire health care system (Arabi, Rafii, Cheraghi & Ghiyasvandian, 2014).

Reference:

Arabi, A., Rafii, F., Cheraghi, M. A., & Ghiyasvandian, S. (2014). Nurses’ policy influence: A

concept analysis. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research19(3), 315–322.

​Response Post

Hello Sasha, thank you for your informative post on a nurse’s role in policymaking. Nursing as a profession is trained to advocate for our patients, educate them on healthcare topics, and interpret in layman terms what is not understood. All these skills are essentially what is needed to assist legislation on healthcare policies. Who is more qualified than nurses to educate, interpret, and advocate for a health-related policy. One of the easiest ways to get involved is by joining a professional organization. The American Nurses Association is a great organization that supports and advocates for its nurse members. You mentioned that one challenge is the cost of joining, ANA has a special incentive for student nurses. They feel if we become involved early we will shape the future of nursing and remain involved(American Nursing Association [ANA], n.d.).

Nurses often feel their opinions do not matter or will not be heard, they are unaware or unskilled in developing policies. Nurses previously lacked the education on whom to contact or ways to influence policy. Advanced nursing institutions are now offering formal education for nurses and requiring classes on policy and politics, and it opens new doors that nurses may not have known existed (American Nurse, 2016). Classes like this one introduce nurses to how we can influence healthcare policy. When you feel your voice is heard, it leads to personal fulfillment and job satisfaction. This added confidence makes nurses more inclined to remain involved in policymaking. Knowing your advocating for your patients and profession makes you a better leader.

References

Health care Practitioners and Policy Influence

Educators, advocates, creative problem solvers, solution-minded, and nurturing caregivers are adjectives to describe nurses. Policy-influencers, policy-advocates, and policy-makers are not the first descriptive words that come to mind when describing a nurse. However, RN’s and APRNs are heavily involved in impacting health care policies and laws. Nurses are able to get involved in policymaking where they work or on a state and federal level by joining nursing-associated organizations.

Nurses actively participating and advocating for positive change at their place of employment can improve morale, staff retention, patient outcomes, and as a result, CMS ratings. Speaking up and making concerns known to the administration with a proposal is an avenue to take ownership over needs in a nurse’s personal place of employment. Taking on leadership positions within your employed health care organization is an effective way to implement and promote policy changes and new policies (Brokaw, 2016). Joining an organization such as the American Nurses Association (ANA) is a way to get involved in policy-making and changes at a state and federal level. ANA provides resources on current and upcoming health care issues that will be lobbied for or against and how to get actively involved (ANA, 2022). The ANA provides outlets to advocate for nursing on a state and federal level, ways to protect the Nurse Practice Act, and speak on behalf of all nurses, including internationally (ANA, 2022).

Nurses notoriously underperform regarding policy-making and involvement (Milstead & Short, 2019). Barriers to nurses getting involved in policy-making and changing include a variety of factors: taking the initiative to get involved, continuing involvement through all stages, opportunity, experience to take on the task of policy-making, and lacking mentorship and a network in this area (Milstead & Short, 2019). New and seasoned nurses have vital input and valuable feedback in policy-making and policy amendment. Nursing is the largest medical profession, and nurses should be driving the policies that make up the healthcare system (Brokaw, 2016).

ANA. (2022). Join the American Nurses Association. American Nurses Association.

https://www.nursingworld.org/membership/joinANA

Brokaw, J., (2016). The nursing profession’s potential impact on policy and politics. American Nurse.

https://www.myamericannurse.com/nursing-professions-potential-impact-policy

Milstead, J. A., Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide. Jones &

RE: Discussion – Week 8

There are many ways nurses can be involved in policymaking. The first opportunity is to join professional organizations. There are many professional organizations such as the American Nurses Association and the American Academy of Nursing. Professional organizations have an important role in policymaking and advocacy. They can lobby for the formulation of policies that promote patient care and protect the interests of nurses (Morin, 2021). The second opportunity is advocating for policymaking through the organizations they work. Registered nurses are professionals with the skills, capacity and knowledge to influence policymaking. They can ensure that the policies formulated are effective in their workplaces. Nurses should give their opinions and reject any policies that may negatively affect the safety and quality of healthcare services.

Policymaking through the professional organizations’ route has its challenges. Most professional organizations have complex registration processes and high membership costs. Research has shown that nurses may not join professional organizations due to the high membership costs (Gaines, 2019). This challenge of high membership costs can be solved by subsidizing membership fees for new members and fresh graduate nurses to ensure most nurses join these organizations. The workplace route may also present challenges. Poor leadership may not steer the nurses in the right direction to help in policymaking. This can be solved by training nurse leaders to have the right skills and competencies to help guide the nurses in policy formulation. They should be educated on political competencies.

The two strategies to communicate these opportunities are training and good leadership. Training of nurses, will allow them to understand their roles and participate in policymaking to improve patient care. The second strategy is good leadership. Good leaders will guide nurses on the existing opportunities to help in policymaking.

References

Gaines, K. (2019). You should join a nursing organization. Here’s why. Nurse.org. https://nurse.org/articles/benefits-of-nursing-organizations/

Morin, K. H. (2021). Editorial: Contributions of professional nursing organizations. Journal of Advanced Nursing77(6).  

Bartlett Learning.

NURS 6050 Discussion Role of RN APRN in Policy-Making Rubric Detail

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Content

RE: Discussion – Week 8

Nurses should be a component of the policy review process to enhance their careers, care delivery, and better their organizations’ ability to offer primary care interventions. Imperatively, the first opportunity for nurse to be part of the policymaking is through participation in meetings to discuss policy matters. Through these fora, RNs and APRNs can influence other stakeholders to understanding healthcare issues better and existing challenges so that they can develop frameworks to address any shortcomings or improve on better practiced for quality care delivery (Joel, 2017). Through the meetings, nurses can offer insights on what should be done to reduce cost of healthcare among other issues. The second opportunity is through being members of professional organizations like the American Nurses Association. These entities collect data and disseminate it through giving information and knowledge to their members to improve policies and patient outcomes (Milstead & Short, 2019). Professional organizations give nurses the opportunity to review policies and apply evidence-based practice research to inform of the best practice interventions to enhance care delivery.

Challenges in these opportunities include the limited time that may constraint nurses from going for professional meetings and conferences to horn new trends and nursing skills. Secondly, joining professional associations like the ANA poses challenges to nurses and one among these is the availability of diverse opinions that one may not agree with and find not compatible to their perspective (Schaeffer & Haebler, 2019). Evaluation of health policies may also encounter limited resource allocation. More fundamentally, lack of knowledge on the use of EBP among nurses may hinder its effectiveness.

Strategies to communicate better and advocate for policy reviews are important. These include deployment of research on health policy to help determine ways to improve care. Nurses can also use available resources to ensure that they are effective in their communication and interactions with other stakeholders (Milstead & Short, 2019). Training and education can also help them understand policies much better and disseminate knowledge to stakeholders.

References

Joel, L. A. (2017). Advanced Practice Nursing: Essentials for Role Development. F.A. Davis.

Milstead, J. A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.).

Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Schaeffer, R., & Haebler, J. (2019). Nurse Leaders: Extending your policy influence. Nurse

            Leader, 17(4), 340-343. doi 10.1016/j.mnl.2019.05.010

RE: MAIN POST RE: Discussion – Week 8

Reply Post

D,

Good post! I agree that nurses can help with public health policymaking. Professional nursing organizations promote a way for nurses to become involved with policymaking and political agendas. The American Nurses Association (ANA) provides opportunities for nurses to become involved with legislation through policy recommendation, nursing, and health advocacy. Nurses are asked to provide letters to Senators to provide reasons why certain health care bills should be passed. One act that is being advocated through the ANA is the Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Act H.R.1667 (American Nurses Association, n.d.a). Within this act, grants and other activities are used to improve mental health and help prevent burnout of healthcare providers in coordination with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) (Congress.gov, 2021b). This Act was referred to the Subcommittee on Health in March of this year, and currently has 136 cosponsors including Republican and Democratic Representatives (Congress.gov, 2021a). Although this is one of the Acts that is supported by the ANA, the ANA has numerous federal legislative priorities including health system transformation, safe staffing, nursing workforce development, home health issues, the opioid epidemic, workplace violence, and COVID-19 as ways that nurses can help advocate for policy and advocacy changes (ANA, n.d.b).

References

American Nurses Association (ANA). (n.d.a). Nurses continue caring for us, it is time to take care of them. Retrieved October 18, 2021, from https://p2a.co/PxivNaB

American Nurses Association (ANA). (n.d.b). RNAction. Retrieved October 18, 2021, from https://ana.aristotle.com/sitepages/homepage.aspx

Congress.gov. (2021a). H.R.1667 – Dr. Lorna Breen health care provider protection act cosponsors. Retrieved October 18, 2021, from https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/1667/cosponsors?q=%7B%22search%22%3A%5B%22H.R.+1667%22%5D%7D&r=1&s=2

Congress.gov. (2021b). H.R.1667 – Dr. Lorna Breen health care provider protection act summary. Retrieved October 18, 2021, from https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/1667?q=%7b”sear”%3A%5B”H.R.+1667”%5D%7D&s=2$r=1

Name: NURS_6050_Module04_Week08_Discussion_Rubric

Excellent Good Fair Poor
Main Posting
Points Range: 45 (45%) – 50 (50%)

Answers all parts of the discussion question(s) expectations with reflective critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

Supported by at least three current, credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Points Range: 40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Responds to the discussion question(s) and is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

At least 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible sources.

Written clearly and concisely with one or no grammatical or spelling errors and fully adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Points Range: 35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to some of the discussion question(s).

One or two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with two credible sources.

Written somewhat concisely; may contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 34 (34%)

Does not respond to the discussion question(s) adequately.

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible sources.

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Post: Timeliness
Points Range: 10 (10%) – 10 (10%)
Posts main post by day 3.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not post by day 3.
First Response
Points Range: 17 (17%) – 18 (18%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 15 (15%) – 16 (16%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 13 (13%) – 14 (14%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 12 (12%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response
Points Range: 16 (16%) – 17 (17%)

Response exhibits synthesis, critical thinking, and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by at least two scholarly sources.

Demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 14 (14%) – 15 (15%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Responses to faculty questions are answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in standard, edited English.

Points Range: 12 (12%) – 13 (13%)

Response is on topic and may have some depth.

Responses posted in the discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Response may lack clear, concise opinions and ideas, and a few or no credible sources are cited.

Points Range: 0 (0%) – 11 (11%)

Response may not be on topic and lacks depth.

Responses posted in the discussion lack effective professional communication.

Responses to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Participation
Points Range: 5 (5%) – 5 (5%)
Meets requirements for participation by posting on three different days.
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Points Range: 0 (0%) – 0 (0%)
Does not meet requirements for participation by posting on 3 different days.
Total Points: 100