Discuss NURS 6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology

Discuss NURS 6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology

Discuss NURS 6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology

Discuss NURS 6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology

The Factors That Affect Fertility (STDs)

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) significantly affect fertility, especially in women.  A common STD associated with infertility is Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (Curry et al., 2019). PID is characterized by infection of the upper female genital tract organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and pelvic structures (Curry et al., 2019). The infection results in inflammation, which results in scarring and adhesions in the tubal lumens. The risk of developing infertility in a woman increases with each PID episode.

Why Inflammatory Markers Rise In STD/PID

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PID is marked by an increase in inflammatory markers due to infection and inflammation in the upper genital tract. Chlamydia infection is marked with the sharpest rise in inflammatory markers since it causes a worse irritation compared to other STI-causing organisms (Park et al., 2017). Inflammatory markers that rise in STDs and PID include white blood cells, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Why Prostatitis and Infection Happens

            Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate gland and is often a complication of STDs in males. It occurs when an infection from the lower urinary tract ascends through the urethra or reflux of infected into the prostate ducts (Coker & Dierfeldt, 2016). This results in infection and eventually inflammation of the prostate gland.  A systemic reaction in prostatitis occurs when the pathogens spread from the rectum to other organs via the lymphatic system (Coker & Dierfeldt, 2016). The pathogens cause an infection of the lymph nodes resulting in lymphadenopathy.

Why a Patient Would Need a Splenectomy after a Diagnosis of ITP

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a blood disorder marked by a decrease in the number of platelets.  It is an autoimmune condition where there is an immune reaction against one’s platelets (Nomura, 2016). The autoimmune reaction contributes to a reduced platelet lifespan and decreased platelet production resulting in a reduced number of circulating platelets. The first-line treatment of ITP is corticosteroid therapy. A patient will need a splenectomy following a diagnosis of ITP if they fail to attain a stable, safe platelet count after corticosteroid therapy (Nomura, 2016).  A splenectomy is indicated for achieving a fast, complete, and lifetime clinical remission (Nomura, 2016). Besides, a splenectomy prevents sequestration and phagocytosis of platelets by mononuclear macrophages located in the spleen.

Anemia and the Different Kinds of Anemia

Anemia manifests with a decrease in red blood cell (RBC) mass. It is marked by a reduction in hemoglobin level below the normal range below 12.5 g/dl (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). Hemoglobin and RBCs play a vital role in the transport of oxygen in the circulation. When the two are decreased, oxygen delivery to body tissues is impaired (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). Other blood components used in diagnosing anemia include reduced levels of Hematocrit (HCT), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).

Morphologic characteristics of RBCs in a healthy person are normocytic and normochromic. Anemia present with varying morphologic features of RBCs (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). In macrocytic anemia, RBCs are large, nucleated, and misshaped, termed as megaloblasts (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). Macrocytic anemia occurs in anemia caused by Vitamin B-12 and Folic acid deficiency. Iron-deficiency anemia is characterized by hypochromic and microcytic RBCs. Erythrocytes in microcytic anemia are usually small in size. 

The patient in the case study has low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, which indicate anemia. The low reticulocyte count suggests a decreased production of RBCs in the bone marrow, which may be causing the low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017) (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017). The low serum B1 2 levels denote that the anemia is caused by Vitamin B 12 deficiency, which plays a vital role in the synthesis of RBCs (Nagao & Hirokawa, 2017).  The patient has high levels of MCV, plasma iron, and ferritin levels, while Folate and Total Iron Binding Capacity are normal. The results mean that the anemia is caused by Folic acid or Iron deficiency. In other words, the patient has Vitamin B 12 deficiency anemia, also known as Pernicious anemia. 

References

Coker, T. J., & Dierfeldt, D. M. (2016). Acute bacterial prostatitis: diagnosis and management. American family physician93(2), 114-120.

Curry, A., Williams, T., & Penny, M. L. (2019). Pelvic inflammatory disease: diagnosis, management, and prevention. American family physician100(6), 357-364.

Nagao, T., & Hirokawa, M. (2017). Diagnosis and treatment of macrocytic anemias in adults. Journal of general and family medicine18(5), 200-204. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgf2.31

Nomura S. (2016). Advances in Diagnosis and Treatments for Immune Thrombocytopenia. Clinical medicine insights. Blood disorders9, 15–22. https://doi.org/10.4137/CMBD.S39643

Park, S. T., Lee, S. W., Kim, M. J., Kang, Y. M., Moon, H. M., & Rhim, C. C. (2017). Clinical characteristics of genital Chlamydia infection in pelvic inflammatory disease. BMC women’s health17(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-016-0356-9

Week 3 Knowledge Check   

Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disorders

In this exercise, you will complete a 10- to 20-question Knowledge Check to gauge your understanding of this module’s content.

Possible topics covered in this Knowledge Check include:

myocardial infarction

endocarditis

myocarditis

valvular disorders

lipid panels

coagulation

clotting cascade

deep vein thrombosis

hypertension

heart failure

COPD

Discuss NURS6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology

asthma

pneumonias

Question 1Sympathetic stimulation causes airways to:

Question 2 Ischemic pain in the lower extremities that occurs while walking but disappears when resting is a description of which condition?

Question 3How much oxygen does the myocardium extract from the coronary arteries?

Question 4 Stimulation of the carina often causes:

Discuss NURS6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology
Discuss NURS6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology

Question 5A person who has pulmonary edema will exhibit which symptoms?

Question 6Passage of fluid and/or solid particles into the lungs is a(n):

Question 7The tunica media is the middle layer of blood vessels and is composed of what type of tissue?

Question 8A patient that is hyperventilating will have a decreased:

Question 9Inflammatory disease of peripheral arteries that usually is associated with smoking is a description of which condition?

Question 10  Parasympathetic stimulation causes airways to:

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Discuss NURS6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology

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Discuss NURS6501 Week 3 Advanced Pathophysiology

Advanced Pathophysiology Module 1 Assignment: Case Analysis

One of the most useful components of patient care is a correct diagnosis which leads to offering a patient the correct treatment. Central to correct diagnosis and treatment is an understanding of the cell, and cell behavior as come conditions may have various circumstances and factors affecting their onset, hence making them more complex (Karaca & Aslan, 2018). Therefore, understanding the cells and cell behavior needs to be integrated with ethnic and racial variables, patient characteristics, environment, and genes. This week’s assignment deals with a patient cases study where the symptoms presented by the patient will be analyzed using various discussion questions.

Why the Patient Presented With the Symptoms

The patient has presented with various symptoms such as fevers, constipation, and crampy left lower quadrant pain. After refusing colonoscopy for some time, the patient eventually went for one, which revealed a positive test for adenocarcinoma of the colon. Even though the patient went for colonoscopy after resolution of the acute diverticulitis, the symptoms presented at the clinic point to a recurring case of acute diverticulitis. The patient has the three most common symptoms of diverticulitis (fever, constipation, and pain in the lower left quadrant). The condition is more an individual’s lifetime and therefore could be troubling the patient. The patient also eats a diet lacking in fiber and is obese, which are all factors leading to the development of the condition.

Genes That May Be Associated With the Development of the Condition

            According to Strate & Morris (2019), diverticulitis may result from a complex interaction of gut microbiome, genetics, medications, lifestyle factors, and diet. Even though it has been agreed that genetics play a substantial role in the development of the condition, only a few genes have been implicated. However, a recent study reported that one of the genes that can be implicated in the development of diverticulitis is the laminin β 4 gene (LAMB4) (Coble et al.,2017). Prior to the findings regarding LAMB4, the Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15) gene was also found to be associated with the development of diverticulitis.

The Process of Immunosuppression and the Effect It Has On Body Systems

            Immunosuppression refers to reduced immune system activation. While some parts of the immune system may possess immunosuppressive effects, immunosuppression can be also be induced (Xe, 2020). The process can be induced by the administration of medications belonging to the class of antidepressants, in some cases to allow organ transplant or bone marrow transplant to prevent a possible rejection. The process of immunosuppression may come from the blockage of intracellular pathways necessary for recognizing antigen or other immune response systems or when the immune effector cells are killed (Xe, 2020). Immunosuppression, especially when persistent, exposes an individual to the risk of cancer, especially virus-connected cancers. The effects of immunosuppression induced by ultraviolet ratio or ionizing or pharmaceutical drugs depend on the dosage or the intensity used as higher dosage or intensity lead to enhanced effects on the body systems (Xe, 2020). Even though not common, immunosuppression induced for an organ transplant can lead to metastatic tumor cells or occult tumors within the organs or tissues. The occult metastatic melanoma is dangerous for the individual receiving the transplanted organ and tissue.

Conclusion

In conclusion, as an APRN, it is important to understand effective patient diagnosis for effective treatment. It allows careful analysis of symptoms to come up with the best management strategy. This write-up has explored a case study of a patient presenting with various symptoms. After an analysis, it was noted that the symptoms could be coming from recurring diverticulitis.

References

Coble, J. L., Sheldon, K. E., Yue, F., Salameh, T. J., Harris, III, L. R., Deiling, S., … & Broach, J. R. (2017). Identification of a rare LAMB4 variant associated with familial diverticulitis through exome sequencing. Human molecular genetics26(16), 3212-3220. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddx204.

Karaca, T., & Aslan, S. (2018). Effect of ‘nursing terminologies and classifications’ course on nursing students’ perception of nursing diagnosis. Nurse education today67, 114-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2018.05.011

Strate, L. L., & Morris, A. M. (2019). Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of diverticulitis. Gastroenterology156(5), 1282-1298. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.12.033. He, X. (Ed.). (2020). Immunosuppression. BoD–Books on Dem

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