Developmental Assessment And The School-Aged Child
The physical assessment of both the child and adult includes the same Head-to-Toe assessment, but it may be performed very differently. When assessing both the child and adult it is important to assess neurological functions including oral cavities and V/S, Heart, Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, Genitourinary, Musculoskeletal, & Pain assessments (Green & Falkner, 2022).
Typically, pediatric vital signs will differ from adults in the following ways: blood pressure will be lower than that of an adult until around age 12, but the heart rate and respiratory rates will be higher than an adult and by age 12 they are around the same range as an adult’s vital signs (Cleveland Clinic, 2022).
Nurses should consider the different stages of development when performing a child’s assessment. According to Falkner (2022) childhood ranges from 13 months to 12 years of age with different stages such as Toddlers 13 months to 3 years old, Preschool stage 3-5 years old, and School age stage 5-12 years old with each stage being different. With toddlers a good way to perform the assessment is to include the care provider. Having the care provider hold the toddler during this time will make them feel more comfortable and cooperative.
Preschoolers can be very curious so letting them play with equipment would help them. Having them pretend to be the nurse and listen to your heartbeat may be a good strategy for cooperation. Most of the health information is going to come from the care provider but it is important to talk with the toddler and preschooler directly. Ask them if they have any ouchies or boo-boos. Preschoolers can tell you what they like to eat if you ask them if they like apples or chicken nuggets. School aged children can follow directions but may still want their care provider present. You can ask if they hurt, and they will understand what it means. Although it may be necessary to include a care provider to get valuable information talking with the child is also necessary.
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Cleveland Clinic. (2022). What You Need to Know About Infant and Children’s Vital Signs. Retrieve from: https://health.clevelandclinic.org/pediatric-vital-signs/
Green, Sue Z. & Faulkner, Angel. (2022). Grand Canyon University (Ed.) Health assessment: Foundations for effective practice (2nd ed.). Retrieved from: https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/1000000000584/epub/Chapter4.html#page_103
Falkner, Angel. (2022). Grand Canyon University (Ed.) Health assessment: Foundations for effective practice (2nd ed.). Retrieved from: https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/1000000000584/epub/Chapter2.html#page_42
The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:
- Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
- Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
- Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.
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Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child
Less than Satisfactory
100.00%80.0 %Content 25.0 %Comparison of Physical Assessment Among School-Aged ChildrenA comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is omitted.An incomplete comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is summarized. How assessment techniques would be modified depending on the age and developmental stage of the child is omitted or contains significant inaccuracies.
A general comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is summarized. How assessment techniques would be modified depending on the age and developmental stage of the child is generally described. More information or support is needed for clarity or accuracy.A comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is presented. How assessment techniques would be modified depending on the age and developmental stage of the child is described. Some information is needed for clarity.A detailed comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is presented. How assessment techniques would be modified depending on the age and developmental stage of the child is thoroughly described. Insight is demonstrated into the physical assessment of school age children
.25.0 %Typical Assessment for a Child of a Specific AgeThe typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is not described. The typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is summarized.
The summary contains significant inaccuracies for the age of the child. The typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is generally described. The description contains some inaccuracies for the age of the child.The typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is described. The overall description is accurate. Some information is needed for clarity.The typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is accurately and thoroughly described.
30.0 %Developmental Assessment of a Child Using a Developmental Theory (Erickson, Piaget, Kohlberg)A child assessment based on a developmental theory is omitted.A child assessment based on a developmental theory is partially summarized. Partial strategies to gain cooperation and for how explanations would be offered during the assessment are presented.
The potential findings expected from the assessment are omitted or are incorrect. There are significant inaccuracies.A child assessment based on a developmental theory is generally described. General strategies to gain cooperation and for how explanations would be offered during the assessment are presented. The potential findings expected from the assessment are summarized. There are minor inaccuracies.A child assessment based on a developmental theory is described. Appropriate strategies to gain cooperation and for how explanations would be offered during the assessment are presented. The potential findings expected from the assessment are described.
Some information is needed for clarity.A child assessment based on a developmental theory is thoroughly described. Well-developed strategies to gain cooperation and for how explanations would be offered during the assessment are presented. The potential findings expected from the assessment are all accurate and described in detail.
15.0 %Organization and Effectiveness 5.0 %Thesis Development and PurposePaper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper.
Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
15.0 %Organization and Effectiveness 5.0 %Argument Logic and ConstructionStatement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
15.0 %Organization and Effectiveness 5.0 %Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present.Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
5.0 %Format 2.0 %Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.All format elements are correct.
5.0 %Format 3.0 %Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)Sources are not documented.Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.100 %Total Weightage
Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child
Assessment is an important practice in nursing. Assessment provides data that nurses utilize in making their diagnoses and appropriate treatment plans for their patients. Assessment methods differ significantly based on the age group of a client. For example, it is anticipated that the physical assessment methods used for a pediatric patient differs significantly from that of an adult patient. Similarly, the assessment tools utilized to determine the care needs of the patients of different ages vary. Therefore, this paper explores the comparison of physical assessments used in school-aged children, their modification, and assessment of a child based on Piaget’s theory of development.
Comparison of Physical Assessment Among School-Aged Children
The assessment of school-aged children differs significantly from that of the toddlers, infants and the preschoolers. School-aged children have an enhanced understanding of the reality unlike infants, preschoolers, and toddlers that live in a world of fantasy. The thinking also differs among them as seen from the fact that school-aged children have developed logical thinking and comprehension of events.
They also understand the consequences of their actions. School-aged children also have developed social skills from interacting with others in their societies. As a result, they have curiosity to learn new aspects in their lives and accomplish tasks for recognition. The children at the age group of 5-12 years can also express their health problems as well as their experience with them (Chiocca, 2019). Therefore, the appropriate modification of physical assessment techniques when working with them entails asking the children appropriate questions. It also entails involving the guardians or parents in the assessment process to obtain adequate data to inform the treatment plans. An additional modification entails beginning the assessment with areas that the children have a high level of awareness and moving to complex aspects of care (Tagher & Knapp, 2019).
Typical Assessment for a Child of a Specific Age
The selected case study involved a seven-year-old female patient brought to the clinic by her parents for assessment. The patient was brought for the annual normal checkup. She was born through caesarian surgery and with an Apgar score of 10. The immunization history is up-to-date with developments appropriate for her age. She does not have any history of surgeries or hospitalizations. The patient should demonstrate a number of cognitive, social, emotional and motor developmental milestones. She should have developed the desired cognitive abilities, as evidenced by her ability to describe her thoughts, feelings, and experiences and appreciate those of others. Further, she should be independent in forming friends and seeks acceptance from others. Finally, she should be able to perform physical activities such as sports and coordinate body activities effectively.
Developmental Assessment of a Child Using a Developmental Theory (Piaget)
Piaget’s theory of development can be applied in the above case study. According to Piaget, child’s development occurs gradually in four stages. The stages include sensory motor (birth to 2 years), preoperational (1.5-7 years), concrete operational (7-11 years), and formal operational (12-19 years). Based on the above, the child in the case study is in the concrete operational stage in Piaget’s model. Children in this stage are expected to have developed logical thinking.
They have operational thought process characterized by their ability to relate abstract concepts with their experiences (Chiocca, 2019). Children in this stage also have the ability to express their feelings, emotions, and experiences. They also acknowledge the feelings and emotions of others. The focus of physical assessment when providing care to this client entails asking specific questions that they can answer to the best of their abilities and not her parents. The assessment should also focus on the exploration of issues relevant to the interests of the child. An example is asking questions related to the school, friends, her likes and dislikes. The nurse should provide information in simple language that is easy to understand for the children (Hockenberry et al., 2021). Since the visit by the client to the hospital was for regular assessment, it is anticipated that normal findings will be obtained.
The physical assessment of pediatric patients utilizes different approaches. The assessment depends largely on the developmental stage of the children. Nurses should demonstrate adaptability by being able to change the physical assessment approaches to suit the age group of their patients. In addition, theories of development such as Piaget’s should be used to inform the assessment findings.
Chiocca, E. M. (2019). Advanced Pediatric Assessment. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Hockenberry, M. J., Wilson, D., & Rodgers, C. C. (2021). Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing. Los Angeles, CA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Tagher, G., & Knapp, L. (2019). Pediatric Nursing: A Case-Based Approach. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.
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