Developmental Assessment And The School-Aged Child Assignment
Developmental Assessment And The School-Aged Child assignment
The physical assessment of school-aged children should entail a complete head-to-toe examination or comprehensive exam of each body system. The vital signs, height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference is monitored for all ages (Chiocca, 2010). Blood pressure monitoring requires the use of a different cuff depending on the child’s age and mid-arm circumference. A vision test is performed with a Snellen’s chart, and the child should be assessed for strabismus, nystagmus and the range of eye movements (Chiocca, 2010). A dental exam should be done for all children; 6-8-year-olds should be assessed for the eruption of secondary teeth and shedding of primary teeth (Chiocca, 2010). Children aged 9-12 year are examined for dental cavities or delay in the growth of secondary teeth.
When assessing a school-aged child, I would modify the assessment approach by starting with the assessment of the body parts that require the child to cooperate (Press, 2015). For instance, if the child has respiratory symptoms, I will begin with assessing the nose, chest, lungs, and heart and finalize with the musculoskeletal system. Besides, painful procedures will be done last, and I will explain to the child the discomfort associated with the assessment or procedure and the time it will last before proceeding (Press, 2015). If the child had a complaint of pain in a specific body, I would examine the area last to avoid discomfort in the entire assessment. For the younger child aged 5-7 years, I will encourage the caregiver to be present or to hold them to promote cooperation (Press, 2015). Furthermore, I will ensure I screen the child during the examination and instruct the child to uncover only the part that is being examined and re-clothe it to avoid embarrassment and discomfort.
Developmental Assessment And The School-Aged Child Assignment Instructions
The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 500-750-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:
- 1. Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
- 2. Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
- 3. Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide An abstract/thesis is required.Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child Assignment.
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Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child
School-age children include those between the ages of 5 to 12 years, also referred to as middle childhood. The school-age child’s growth presents with gradual growth and development with notable differences in weight, height, and body build (Riley, Morrison & McEvoy, 2019). Besides, language skills continue to develop, and most behavior changes occur as they strive to find their place among their peers. In this regard, this paper will describe the physical assessment of school-aged children, including the typical developmental stages of a child 12-year-old child, and apply the Piaget theory to assess a school-age child developmentally.
Physical Assessments among School-Aged Children
Physical assessment of school-age children is similar in that the examiner applies the four techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation when conducting a head-to-toe exam. The examiner begins the physical exam by taking vital signs, including blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and temperature (Riley et al., 2019). However, the blood pressure cuff differs based on the child’s age and size. The height and weight are taken and plotted against a growth graph to assess the child’s nutritional status. Additionally, the general appearance of the school-age child is documented, which includes the hygiene status, dressing, signs of neglect, and mannerism (Riley et al., 2019). The examiner also assesses the child for physical signs of abuse since school-aged children are vulnerable to abuse. Assessment of the reproductive system varies among school-aged children based on age. Children above ten years are assessed for secondary sexual characteristics, including breast growth and pubic hair, which is not the case for those below ten years (Riley et al., 2019). Physical assessments of school-age children also entail dental and vision screening to assess dental cavities and visual defects.
For a child aged 5-10 years, I would use a simple drape over their underpants or a colorful examination gown and cover the parts not being assessed to maintain privacy. Fr the younger child, I would conduct the exam in the caregiver’s presence to relieve anxiety and promote cooperation (Riley et al., 2019). However, examination of the older child would be performed in the caregiver’s absence to maintain privacy. Furthermore, I would start with the least distressful exam procedures and end with the most distressful and body parts associated with pain.
Typical Developmental Stages of a 12-Year-Old Child
A 12-year-old is characterized by numerous physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes. Physical changes include the development of secondary sexual characteristics attributed to hormonal changes. Most males grow facial and pubic hair, and the voices deepen while most females grow pubic hair and breasts and start their menstruation (Sawyer et al., 2018). At 12 years, the child enjoys all physical activities and continues to improve their motor coordination. Cognitive changes include demonstrating an increased ability for complex thought and express feelings through talking (Sawyer et al., 2018). The child also develops a stronger sense of right and wrong. Emotional and social changes include expressing more concern about body image, looks, and clothes and experiencing more moodiness. Besides, 12-year-olds tend to focus on themselves, going back and forth between high expectations and lack of confidence (Sawyer et al., 2018). They also show more interest in and influence by peer group but express less affection toward parents and at times might seem rude or short-tempered.
Applying Piaget Developmental Theory to Developmentally Assess the Child
The school-age child falls in the concrete operational stage of Piaget’s cognitive development. The stage is characterized by more logical and methodical manipulation of symbols (Babakr et al., 2019). The child is less egocentric and more aware of the outside world and events. They are also able to function on a higher level in their mental ability. I would developmentally assess a child using the Piaget theory by giving the child a fictional problem or scenario and asking them to solve it (Babakr et al., 2019). I will assess if the child can solve the problem without physically encountering it in the real world.
During the assessment, I would offer explanations using simple terms and language in line with the child’s cognitive developmental stage. I would also answer questions openly and in simple terms and ask the child questions to establish trust and promote cooperation (Riley et al., 2019). Besides, I will explain the assessment procedures to the child using simple terms before beginning the exam to promote cooperation and alleviate anxiety. I would also inform the child of the painful or distressing procedures to prepare them psychologically and increase their cooperation (Riley et al., 2019). After the assessment, I will explain to the child of the abnormal findings, possible causes for these findings, and any diagnostic procedures that will be required.
The physical assessment of the school-age child follows the head-to-toe approach and uses the basic examination techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. The assessment should include taking vital signs, height and weight, general survey, dental and vision screening. Developmental stages of a 12-year-old include development of secondary sexual characteristics, increased cognitive capacity, and social and emotional changes. A school-aged child falls in the concrete operational stage in the Piaget theory and can be used to assess whether the child can function on a higher level in their mental ability.
Babakr, Z. H., Mohamedamin, P., & Kakamad, K. (2019). Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory: Critical Review. Education Quarterly Reviews, 2(3), 517-524.
Riley, M., Morrison, L., & McEvoy, A. (2019). Health Maintenance in School-Aged Children: Part I. History, Physical Examination, Screening, and Immunizations. American family physician, 100(4), 213-218.
Sawyer, S. M., Azzopardi, P. S., Wickremarathne, D., & Patton, G. C. (2018). The age of adolescence. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, 2(3), 223-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642 (18)30022-1
NRS 434 Classroom Policy
Grand Canyon University requires all students enrolled in an online course to attend every week. This attendance is marked by activity in the online classroom. An online week for undergraduate students is Monday through Sunday. Students are not permitted to be out of attendance more than two consecutive, online weeks. An administrative withdrawal will be processed should a student be out of attendance for more than two consecutive, online weeks.
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Participating in classroom discussion is paramount to the learning experience. Participating in the weekly discussions allows students and instructors to share experiences, investigate complicated subject matter, share expertise, and examine the content from new perspectives. The qualitative participation requirements are:
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Course Code Class Code Assignment Title Total Points
NRS-434VN NRS-434VN-O505 Developmental Assessment and the School-Aged Child 110.0
Criteria Percentage 1: Unsatisfactory (0.00%) 2: Less Than Satisfactory (75.00%) 3: Satisfactory (79.00%) 4: Good (89.00%) 5: Excellent (100.00%)
Comparison of Physical Assessment Among School-Aged Children 25.0% A comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is omitted. An incomplete comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is summarized. How assessment techniques would be modified depending on the age and developmental stage of the child is omitted or contains significant inaccuracies. A general comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is summarized. How assessment techniques would be modified depending on the age and developmental stage of the child is generally described. More information or support is needed for clarity or accuracy. A comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is presented. How assessment techniques would be modified depending on the age and developmental stage of the child is described. Some information is needed for clarity. A detailed comparison of physical assessments among different school-aged children is presented. How assessment techniques would be modified depending on the age and developmental stage of the child is thoroughly described. Insight is demonstrated into the physical assessment of school age children.
Typical Assessment for a Child of a Specific Age 25.0% The typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is not described. The typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is summarized. The summary contains significant inaccuracies for the age of the child. The typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is generally described. The description contains some inaccuracies for the age of the child. The typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is described. The overall description is accurate. Some information is needed for clarity. The typical developmental stage of a child between the ages 5 and 12 is accurately and thoroughly described.
Developmental Assessment of a Child Using a Developmental Theory (Erickson, Piaget, Kohlberg) 30.0% A child assessment based on a developmental theory is omitted. A child assessment based on a developmental theory is partially summarized. Partial strategies to gain cooperation and for how explanations would be offered during the assessment are presented. The potential findings expected from the assessment are omitted or are incorrect. There are significant inaccuracies. A child assessment based on a developmental theory is generally described.
General strategies to gain cooperation and for how explanations would be offered during the assessment are presented. The potential findings expected from the assessment are summarized. There are minor inaccuracies. A child assessment based on a developmental theory is described. Appropriate strategies to gain cooperation and for how explanations would be offered during the assessment are presented. The potential findings expected from the assessment are described. Some information is needed for clarity. A child assessment based on a developmental theory is thoroughly described. Well-developed strategies to gain cooperation and for how explanations would be offered during the assessment are presented. The potential findings expected from the assessment are all accurate and described in detail.
Organization and Effectiveness 15.0%
Thesis Development and Purpose 5.0% Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear. Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose. Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
Argument Logic and Construction 5.0% Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative. Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) 5.0% Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) 2.0% Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent. Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct.
Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) 3.0% Sources are not documented. Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error. Developmental Assessment And The School-Aged Child assignment
Assessment is an important practice in nursing. Assessment provides data that nurses utilize in making their diagnoses and appropriate treatment plans for their patients. Assessment methods differ significantly based on the age group of a client. For example, it is anticipated that the physical assessment methods used for a pediatric patient differs significantly from that of an adult patient. Similarly, the assessment tools utilized to determine the care needs of the patients of different ages vary. Therefore, this paper explores the comparison of physical assessments used in school-aged children, their modification, and assessment of a child based on Piaget’s theory of development.
Comparison of Physical Assessment Among School-Aged Children
The assessment of school-aged children differs significantly from that of the toddlers, infants and the preschoolers. School-aged children have an enhanced understanding of the reality unlike infants, preschoolers, and toddlers that live in a world of fantasy. The thinking also differs among them as seen from the fact that school-aged children have developed logical thinking and comprehension of events. They also understand the consequences of their actions.
School-aged children also have developed social skills from interacting with others in their societies. As a result, they have curiosity to learn new aspects in their lives and accomplish tasks for recognition. The children at the age group of 5-12 years can also express their health problems as well as their experience with them (Chiocca, 2019). Therefore, the appropriate modification of physical assessment techniques when working with them entails asking the children appropriate questions. It also entails involving the guardians or parents in the assessment process to obtain adequate data to inform the treatment plans. An additional modification entails beginning the assessment with areas that the children have a high level of awareness and moving to complex aspects of care (Tagher & Knapp, 2019).
Typical Assessment for a Child of a Specific Age
The selected case study involved a seven-year-old female patient brought to the clinic by her parents for assessment. The patient was brought for the annual normal checkup. She was born through caesarian surgery and with an Apgar score of 10. The immunization history is up-to-date with developments appropriate for her age. She does not have any history of surgeries or hospitalizations. The patient should demonstrate a number of cognitive, social, emotional and motor developmental milestones. She should have developed the desired cognitive abilities, as evidenced by her ability to describe her thoughts, feelings, and experiences and appreciate those of others. Further, she should be independent in forming friends and seeks acceptance from others. Finally, she should be able to perform physical activities such as sports and coordinate body activities effectively.
Developmental Assessment of a Child Using a Developmental Theory (Piaget)
Piaget’s theory of development can be applied in the above case study. According to Piaget, child’s development occurs gradually in four stages. The stages include sensory motor (birth to 2 years), preoperational (1.5-7 years), concrete operational (7-11 years), and formal operational (12-19 years). Based on the above, the child in the case study is in the concrete operational stage in Piaget’s model. Children in this stage are expected to have developed logical thinking.
They have operational thought process characterized by their ability to relate abstract concepts with their experiences (Chiocca, 2019). Children in this stage also have the ability to express their feelings, emotions, and experiences. They also acknowledge the feelings and emotions of others. The focus of physical assessment when providing care to this client entails asking specific questions that they can answer to the best of their abilities and not her parents. The assessment should also focus on the exploration of issues relevant to the interests of the child. An example is asking questions related to the school, friends, her likes and dislikes. The nurse should provide information in simple language that is easy to understand for the children (Hockenberry et al., 2021). Since the visit by the client to the hospital was for regular assessment, it is anticipated that normal findings will be obtained.
The physical assessment of pediatric patients utilizes different approaches. The assessment depends largely on the developmental stage of the children. Nurses should demonstrate adaptability by being able to change the physical assessment approaches to suit the age group of their patients. In addition, theories of development such as Piaget’s should be used to inform the assessment findings.
Chiocca, E. M. (2019). Advanced Pediatric Assessment. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Hockenberry, M. J., Wilson, D., & Rodgers, C. C. (2021). Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing. Los Angeles, CA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Tagher, G., & Knapp, L. (2019). Pediatric Nursing: A Case-Based Approach. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.
The purpose of this essay is to examine the developmental assessment of an 8-year-old child by
considering physical characteristics, the child’s developmental stage based on Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, and the significance of incorporating multiple perspectives, so that valuable insights into the child’s overall development can be gained.
Children between the ages of 5 and 12 undergo significant physical changes and exhibit specific developmental characteristics (Dreschler et al., 2020). These include growth in height and weight, improved coordination and fine motor skills, primary and permanent teeth development, and matured vision and hearing.
Developmentally, an 8-year-old child falls into Piaget’s concrete operational stage. Children exhibit logical thinking during this stage and can perform mental operations on concrete objects (Piaget, 1954). They can understand the conservation of volume, number, and mass and begin to grasp concepts like seriation and classification. Their thinking becomes less egocentric, and they can consider other perspectives. However, abstract or hypothetical thinking is still challenging for them.
You can conduct a thorough developmental assessment, and strategies aligned with the child’s age and stage should be employed (Nieswiadomy, 2017). includes creating a comfortable environment, using age-appropriate language, and engaging in play-based or interactive activities to make the assessment enjoyable and less intimidating. Clear and concise explanations of the tasks or questions involved during the assessment should are asked. For example, present two identical glasses filled with the same amount of water when assessing conservation. Then the water can be poured from one glass into a taller, narrower glass. Ask the child if the amount of water is still the same or has changed. If the child responds that the amount has changed, explain the understanding of conservation and reassure the child that there are no right or wrong answers.
Additionally, the child’s active participation should be encouraged, and ask open-ended questions to explore their thought processes. For example, asking them how they arrived at a particular answer or why they think a certain way can provide insights into their reasoning abilities and identify potential areas of strength or areas that require further development.
To ensure a holistic evaluation, considering the perspectives of individuals who have meaningful insights into the child’s development is vital. Parents or guardians are pivotal in providing firsthand knowledge about the child’s behaviors, milestones, and concerns (Berger, 2018). Collaborating with teachers offers valuable insights into the child’s academic progress, social interactions, and behavior in the classroom. Additionally, consulting with healthcare professionals, such as psychologists or occupational therapists, can further enhance the assessment process by contributing their expertise and recommendations.
Potential findings from the assessment might include the child’s ability to successfully conserve volume, number, and mass and demonstrate seriation and classification skills. They may exhibit more logical thinking and show an understanding of cause-and-effect relationships. On the other hand, they may struggle with abstract or hypothetical thinking tasks as these skills continue to develop throughout the later stages of childhood.
Finally, the developmental assessment of an 8-year-old child requires an understanding of their physical characteristics, recognition of their developmental stages according to Piaget’s theory, and the integration of perspectives from parents, teachers, and healthcare professionals. By employing appropriate assessment strategies and considering various perspectives, healthcare professionals can gain a comprehensive understanding of the child’s cognitive development and provide targeted support for their growth and learning, ensuring their need are met and facilitate their overall well-being
Great comparison! You submission highlighted the differences between an adult assessment and a child assessment very well. It is vital that a nurse carefully examines a child for signs and symptoms of mistreatment during an assessment. Since children cannot fully answer for themselves, the parent or caregiver will provide most of the answers. This is great to get vital information but a nurse has to be aware of signs and symptoms of the caregiver that portray neglect or disimportance. A nurse has to take into account the child’s developmental stage and consider the age appropriate milestones to be aware of. This can also include looking at the child’s past records to see growth rate. Overall, the foundation of an assessment is the same but further information needs to be obtained for children.
An extremely low birth infant can be defined as an infant with a birth weight of less than 1000g. These babies could be inadequately adapted to extrauterine growth in addition, they can be more prone to mental defect with spastic quadriplegia and lower than average intelligence level. Extremely low birth weight babies with congenital central nervous system defects such as spina bifida causes long term stress to the family due to management of patient care (Davis, 1982). In my limited experience working in a neonatal intensive care unit, I have witnessed family especially mother go through stress that is associated with caring of extremely low birth babies. It requires a lot of resources and family support and it is very challenging to feed the extremely low birth weight babies. It may require feeding tubes or long duration to feed the babies and seem very tiring to the mother and the family. A very common problem is that the mother is unable to produce milk due to absence of sucking reflex.
Supplemental milk is not as nutritious as breast milk that again effects the growth and development of the baby. Infants born at extreme preterm gestation are at risk for both death and disability such as cerebral palsy, deafness, blindness and other serious illness. Although rates of survival have improved for this population, some evidence suggests a trend toward decreased neuromotor impairment over the past decades. A significant improvement in overall early neurodevelopmental outcome has not yet been realized (Rogers & Hintz, 2016). Due to long term illnesses, it can affect their school and personal life.
African-Americans and Latinos have elevated risks for chronic disease and death, these risks are particularly acute among their youngest members. Low birth weights recognized as one of the primary factors contributing to racial/ethnic disparities as the African-American LBW rate has been at least twice the corresponding rate for Whites for decades (Sims et al., 2008).
The Warren center in Texas provides comprehensive support for coping with a premature birth with our online resource library and database. The Warren center advocates, serves, and empowers the children and the family impacted by developmental delays and families. For most parents, adjusting to a premature birth can come with a host of stresses and challenges.
We have designed this library to demystify the terminology associated with premature diagnoses and to keep stress levels as low as possible. Learn about support care recommended after leaving the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or special care nursery, breathing support, and follow-up checkups. Our database provides an overview of early childhood intervention designed to treat or support all conditions associated with prematurity (The Warren Center, n.d.)
Davis, J. A. (1982). Low Birth Weight and Implications for Disability. Adoption & fostering, 6(1), 14–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/030857598200600106
Rogers EE, Hintz SR. Early neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants. Semin Perinatol. 2016 Dec;40(8):497-509. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2016.09.002. Epub 2016 Nov 16. PMID: 27865437
Sims, M., Sims, T. L., & Bruce, M. A. (2008). Race, ethnicity, concentrated poverty, and low birth weight disparities. Journal of National Black Nurses’ Association : JNBNA, 19(1), 12–18.
The warren center, ( n.d). Premature birth.
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