Developmental Assessment And The School-Aged Child assignment
Physical Assessments Among School-aged Children SAMPLE
The physical assessment of school-aged children should entail a complete head-to-toe examination or comprehensive exam of each body system. The vital signs, height, weight, and mid-upper arm circumference is monitored for all ages (Chiocca, 2010). Blood pressure monitoring requires the use of a different cuff depending on the child’s age and mid-arm circumference. A vision test is performed with a Snellen’s chart, and the child should be assessed for strabismus, nystagmus and the range of eye movements (Chiocca, 2010). A dental exam should be done for all children; 6-8-year-olds should be assessed for the eruption of secondary teeth and shedding of primary teeth (Chiocca, 2010). Children aged 9-12 year are examined for dental cavities or delay in the growth of secondary teeth.
When assessing a school-aged child, I would modify the assessment procedure by beginning with an evaluation of the child’s cooperative body parts (Press, 2015). For example, if a child presents with respiratory symptoms, I will begin by evaluating the nose, chest, lungs, and heart before proceeding to the musculoskeletal system. In addition, painful procedures will be performed last, and I will explain to the child the duration of the discomfort associated with the assessment or procedure before proceeding (Press, 2015). If the child complained of pain in a particular area of the body, I would examine that area last to avoid unnecessary discomfort. For children ages 5-7, I will encourage the caretaker to be present or to hold them to encourage cooperation (Press, 2015). In addition, I will ensure that I screen the child during the examination and instruct the child to uncover and redress only the area being examined to avoid embarrassment and discomfort.
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Compare the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult. In addition to describing the similar/different aspects of the physical assessment, explain how the nurse would offer instruction during the assessment, how communication would be adapted to offer explanations, and what strategies the nurse would use to encourage engagement.
Physical assessment of the child and that of an adult is done similarly yet differently. The act of auscultation, palpation, taking the vital signs to get the objective data are done the same but the normal range limits are different. For example, the healthy adult blood pressure normal range is from 90/60 mmHg – 120/80 mmHg, pulse rate 60-100 beats per minute and temperature of 97.8 ‘F to 98.6″F whereas to a 1-11-year-old child has a heart rate of 70-120 bpm, blood pressure of 90-110 systolic and 55-75 diastolic.
In using Erikson’s theory, an adult’s stage of development is focused on the fear of loneliness if there is no long-lasting relationship and adult contemplates their contribution to society with their achievements or lack of, and for a school-aged child, the focus is more on establishing trust and self-esteem (Grand Canyon University, 2018).
Communication and approach with these two different age groups also differ. A caring and comfortable environment is needed for a school-aged child in order to extend their trust from their parents to the healthcare provider. The questions are also formulated so that the child is able to answer. Whereas for the adult, a more factual and straightforward questioning is done. Utilizing the evidence-based practice tools provided to the health care team, a thorough and effective assessment is done to promote health and have an effective nursing process.
Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health assessment: Foundations for effective practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for-effective-practice/v1.1/
Medline Plus. Retrieved from: Vital signs: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia