Developmental Assessment And School Age Child
When comparing the physical assessment of a child to that of an adult, various similarities can be noted. For example, monitoring vital signs, such as temperature, pulse rate, and blood pressure, is crucial in assessing both children and adults. Additionally, the aspects of physical examination are similar in children and adults. On the other side, various differences are noted. According to Dersch-Mills (2019), as much as assessments may be similar between children and adults, there are various specific factors that need to be considered in children in addition to what is included in the adult assessment. For example, as you have stated, adult patients can express themselves while children may not fully assist with their own assessment, which causes pressure on the provider to evaluate and dictate correct treatment options. In this case, care providers may need assistance from parents/caregivers when assessing children. Additionally, communication and approach between children and adults differ. Children may have limited vocabulary or difficulty expressing themselves verbally. Nurses should adapt their communication techniques and use simpler and clear language to facilitate understanding.
Nurses can employ various strategies to encourage engagement during physical assessments. For example, you have indicated that to engage pediatric patients and encourage cooperation is to create a safe, quiet environment. Additionally, active listening, age-appropriate communication, and a playful approach can promote engagement with a child during assessment.
Dersch-Mills, D. (2019). Assessment considerations in pediatric patients. Patient Assessment in Clinical Pharmacy: A Comprehensive Guide, 387-401. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7123523/
The needs of the pediatric patient differ depending on age, as do the stages of development and the expected assessment findings for each stage. In a 600-700-word paper, examine the needs of a school-aged child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old and discuss the following:
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- Compare the physical assessments among school-aged children. Describe how you would modify assessment techniques to match the age and developmental stage of the child.
- Choose a child between the ages of 5 and 12 years old. Identify the age of the child and describe the typical developmental stages of children that age.
- Applying developmental theory based on Erickson, Piaget, or Kohlberg, explain how you would developmentally assess the child. Include how you would offer explanations during the assessment, strategies you would use to gain cooperation, and potential findings from the assessment.
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Developmental Assessment of School-Aged Child
Physical assessment of school-aged children is an important process that facilitates the provision of appropriate care to pediatric patients. The physical assessment should be comprehensive to enable the development of accurate treatment plans that addresses both the actual and potential needs of the pediatric patients. Nurses utilize a number of physical assessment techniques in working with this population. Therefore, this essay examines physical assessment of school-aged children, typical developmental stages of a school-aged children and application of a theory of developmental growth in assessing school-aged children.
Comparison of the Physical Assessment
Physical assessment in school-aged children is an important process that provides data about the growth as well as development of the children. Physical assessment provides essential data about the health and development of the school-aged children that include language, cognitive, social-emotional, and physically/motor approaches to learning. Besides the above, the assessment aims at providing data on the growth in all the aspects of development in the children. A comprehensive physical assessment also enables the identification of special needs children that need additional support and care (Davies & Troy, 2020). Through the process, nurses develop personalized care plans that address the actual and potential needs of the children.
The health needs of the school-aged children vary significantly according to their ages. The variation implies that the assessment methods that are utilized also change across children of all age groups. For example, the physical assessment of a five-year-old child will differ from that of a 10-year-old child. The assessment of a 5-year-old children will rely mainly on information provided by the caregivers since the children cannot express himself or herself as expected. The assessment also tends to rely on the use of techniques such as observation and close monitoring of vital signs. On the other hand, the assessment of a 10-year-old child will rely mainly on the information that the pediatric patients give. The children can express various aspects related to their health such as pain rating scale, characteristics of a disease and location (Nemeth & Glozman, 2020). Therefore, the age of the school-aged children has a significant effect on the assessment methods used in pediatric assessments and development of care plans.
The selected child for this phase of the assignment is a six-year-old school-aged child. The child had a normal delivery, normal developmental milestones, and exclusively breastfed. The typical developmental stages of the child at this age therefore comprises of a number of aspects. Children at this stage of development are expected to dress themselves, engage in physical activities such as catching a ball, and tying their shoes. The children also develop social skills and can form friendships. The children also develop confidence in areas of life such as sports, school activities and friendships. The children also demonstrate independence from their parents as well as family. In addition, they understand about their world, learn new ways of describing their experiences, and focus more on others than on self (Forbes & Watt, 2020). Therefore, the child is expected to perform well in academic, social, and physical activities in the school.
Application of Developmental Theory
Erik Erikson developed a theory that can be used for assessing the developmental stages of children. The theory identified eight stages of human development. The child in the above scenario is in the fourth stage of Erickson’s theory called industry vs. inferiority. The children in this stage according to Erickson’s theory develop competencies. The assessment of the child using the theory should focus on aspects such as the child’s ability to write and read. The child in this stage should also have the cognitive skills that relate to performing simple tasks such as sums. A focus in the development of the child should be placed on his peers. Peers can have a significant influence on the development of self-esteem in the child (Judie, 2018). The assessment of the child should therefore be performed when he is playing with his friends to determine his developmental abilities.
Overall, child assessment is important to determine the developmental stages and needs of school-aged children. The assessment enables the healthcare provider to come up with ways of ensuring that the health and developmental needs of the children are met effectively. The assessment needs of the children differ based on their ages. Therefore, nurses should select an appropriate approach to child assessment that will provide adequate information about the needs of the children.
Davies, D., & Troy, M. F. (2020). Child Development, Fourth Edition: A Practitioner’s Guide. Guilford Publications.
Forbes, H., & Watt, E. (2020). Jarvis’s Health Assessment and Physical Examination – E-Book: Australian and New Zealand. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Judie, A. (2018). Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing: Second South Asian Edition. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Nemeth, D. G., & Glozman, J. (2020). Evaluation and Treatment of Neuropsychologically Compromised Children: Understanding Clinical Applications Post Luria and Reitan. Elsevier.
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