CHEM 120 Unit 2: Chemical Structures

Hello Class!

For this discussion, I selected the element Barium (Ba) from the periodic table. Barium has 56 protons and 81 neutrons in the nucleus, and 56 electrons orbiting the nucleus in the shells. I chose the element Barium because I have seen used in diagnostic medicine for swallowing studies. Usually, the medical provider will order this test for a patient who has dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) to examine the upper alimentary canal for obstructions or occlusions. Barium has 2 valence electrons in its outer shell. The valence electrons reside in the n=6 or 6s2 orbital. All 56 of the electrons are paired in Barium. Barium needs 6 more electrons to achieve the octet rule for its valence. It is likely that Barium, an alkaline metal, would give up or donate its valence electrons to form an ionic bond more readily than to form a covalent bond. Typically, nonmetals and metals form ionic bonds and 2 nonmetals form with covalent bonds. Barium can not participate in a double or triple bond because it only has 2 electrons in its valence shell and it needs 6 more electrons to be “happy”. Elements on the right side of the periodic table form multiple bonds such Carbon (C) in organic chemistry.

Electron configuration for Ba: 1s2,2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 3d10 ,4s2 4p6 4d10 ,5s2 5p6, 6s2

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Lewis dot structure of Barium = · Ba · 


Bentor, Y. (n.d.). Retrieved May 14, 2019, from to an external site.

Kolb, D. K., Hill, J. W., & McCreary, T. W. (2016). Chemistry: For changing times (14th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

Lewis dot is the chemical bonds formed by the interactions of the valence electrons in atoms. It is used to let the element represent the core of the molecule. So each dot represents the number of valence electrons in the atom. They arranged to the right, left, and above and below of the symbol. Today I will discuss Titanium Nitride (TiN).

Titanium Nitride is a refractory compound with high microhardness and chemical, and thermal stability. Titanium Nitride has a property for excellent wear resistance, corrosion resistant, and heat resistance. Therefore, the material is often used to coat on titanium alloys, steel, carbide, and aluminum components.

Titanium nitrate

Ti – Titanium 4 valence electrons

N – Nitrogen 5 valence electrons

Total electrons 24

   .               . .

 . Ti .        : N :

    .              ..

Compound name: TiN


Hill, J. W., McCreary, T. W. Chemistry for Changing Times. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from

Naik, G., Kim, J., Kinsey, N. and Boltasseva, A. (2014). Alternative Plasmonic Materials. [online] Science Direct. Retrieved from [Accessed 15 May 2019].

Hello class,

Option 2:

I chose for my discussion the word LIF (LiF) from the elements Lithium and Fluorine. Lithium derives from the Greek word “lithos” meaning stone. It is the lightest metal of all the elements that it is dense enough to float on water. Lithium can be found in some minerals and salts, in this form it is very powerful. One of the best uses of this element is in the more modern anti-depression medications.  FYI, Lithium was the first drug to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat depression and other mental health disorders. Fluorine on the Periodic table belongs in group 7. What make Fluorine so special is that it is a very active element in that it reacts almost every other element on the table. Some of the more common uses for this element is added to drinking water, also it’s a major ingredient in toothpaste (not toothpaste for small children) because it fights tooth decay.

Lithium: Li= 1 Valence Electrons

Fluorine: F= 7 Valence Electrons

Compound Name: Lithium Fluoride

Formula: Li+F- = LiF


Li.      .F..



Retrieved from: to an external site.

Retrieved From: to an external site.

I really enjoyed reading your post, I chose lithium to learn more about it because I learned a little about fluorine from week one’s post. Lithium is an element and it is in group one. Like you said lithium gets its name from Greek “Lithos” meaning stone because it is present in trace amounts in nearly all rocks. Lithium works with other elements, drugs, enzymes, hormones, vitamins, and growth factors in the body in many different ways. People use it for medicine. Lithium is used for headache, liver disease, kidney disorders, alcoholism, Other uses include treatment of asthma, Huntington’s. Lithium usage is risky in women who are breastfeeding. Lithium can enter the breast milk and cause unnecessary side effects in a nursing infant.


Lithium: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning. (n.d.). Retrieved from

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