Benchmark – Nursing  Process: Approach to Care Assignment

NRS 410 Benchmark – Nursing Process: Approach to Care Assignment

Benchmark – Nursing Process Approach to Care Assignment

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Cancer is defined as abnormal cell growth that spreads to other parts of the body. The condition, which can affect any part of the body, is one of the leading causes of death in the United States and around the world, with an estimated 9.6 million deaths by the year 2018. (Bray et al., 2018). Furthermore, the condition has a high economic cost because it requires billions of dollars to manage. Cancer is not a single condition, but rather a collection of more than 100 types, each with its own set of signs and symptoms. The condition occurs when cells begin to grow excessively and overwhelm healthy cells, preventing normal cell formation from functioning properly.

Because each type of cancer manifests differently and has different symptoms, it is critical to provide patients with individualized treatment based on their cancer type and stage. Because this condition is often fatal for patients and their families, nurses should provide comprehensive patient care. The purpose of this paper is to investigate cancer by providing insights into diagnosis and staging, cancer complications, physical and psychological effects, annual incidences and mortality rates and contributing factors, how the American Cancer Society provides education and support to cancer patients, how the nursing process is applied in cancer patients, and how liberal arts and science studies enable nurses to care for patients while using the nursing process.

Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

Cancer patients can be identified by physicians through screening or the patient’s presentation of specific symptoms. The doctor can determine the condition by asking about the patient’s family history. Furthermore, physical examinations of the genitalia, skin, and breasts can aid in the early detection of cancer. If the doctor suspects cancer, a blood test can be performed to check cancer markers, as well as various scans such as CT, MRI, bone, and PET scans to confirm cancer diagnosis. If a tumor is found, a biopsy can be performed to determine whether it is cancerous. Cancer staging is performed after testing and diagnosis confirm the presence of cancer.

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Cancer. Net (2018) defines cancer staging as describing the location of the cancer, whether or not it has spread, and whether or not it is affecting other parts of the body. Diagnostic tests are used to determine the cancer stage. Identifying the cancer stage assists the physician in understanding the seriousness of the condition, advising on the best treatment approach, and identifying appropriate clinical trials to cure or manage the condition. The most widely used cancer staging system is the Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) method, which depicts cancer stages as follows;

T- Indicates the location, size, and extent of tumor in the nearby tissues.

N- Indicate the number of lymph nodes that possess cancer.

M-Indicates whether or not the cancer has spread to other areas in the body.

Moreover, the other staging system is categorization of cancer into four groups where the cancer can be described from stage 0 to stage IV (Cancer.Net, 2018).

            Stage 0

Here, the cancer is still located in the original place where it started and is yet to spread in nearby tissues.

            Stage I

This is an early-stage cancer phase that is characterized by a small cancer or tumor that is starting to grow in nearby tissues and is yet to spread in lymph nodes and the rest of the body.

            Stage II

Here the cancer or tumors have increased in size and grown deeply into nearby tissue and may have spread to lymph nodes.

            Stage III

Based on the type of cancer, the cancer may present with many tumors. It has spread to the nearby lymph nodes, tissues, and organs.

            Stage IV

This is stage of cancer and the cancer is metastasis in the other parts of the body.

Complications of Cancer, the Side Effects of Treatment, and Methods to Lessen Physical and Psychological Effects

The complications of cancer include constipation or diarrhea which is caused when treatment affect the patient’s bowels. The other complication is weight loss which happens when cancer deprives the normal cells foods and nutrients. Lastly, cancer may cause brain and nervous systems issues when it presses on nearby nerves and lead to loss of function on certain parts of the body. Moreover, brain cancers may lead to pain and signs and symptoms stroke including causing weakness on one side of the body.

On the other hand, CDC (2020) postulate that cancer treatment can cause various side effects including neutropenia which is a

Benchmark - Nursing Process Approach to Care Assignment
Benchmark – Nursing Process Approach to Care Assignment

condition characterized by massive reduction in white blood cells, which are the major defense mechanisms of the body against infections. The other side effect is hair loss which is mostly common after undergoing some kind of chemotherapy. The condition is known as alopecia. Lastly, nausea and vomiting are also side effects of cancer treatments that cause discomfort in patients’ stomach.

Essentially, cancer patients often experience intense physical and psychological stress due to devastating nature of the condition. Therefore, to lessen these effects, emotional and social support is necessary to cope with stress by minimizing anxiety, depression, and symptoms related to treatment. Such support includes different approaches such as counseling, social support groups, training in stress management, and cancer educational services.

Factors Contributing to the Yearly Incidence and Mortality Rates of Various Cancers in Americans

The annual incidences and mortality rates of different cancers are contributed by intricate and interrelated factors among the racial, underserved, and ethnic groups.  Healthypeople.gov (2020) observes that the major factors include insufficient health coverage and low socioeconomic status (SES). The SES is based on individual’s education level, income, demographics, social status, and occupation. The SES determines how a person or group access education, insurance coverage, health services, and healthy and safe living and working conditions free from toxin exposure. These factors are related to the risk of contracting and surviving cancer (Healthypeople.gov, 2020).

How the American Cancer Society (ACS) Provide Education and Support

ACS provides education and support to cancer patients and general public by providing free information in their website. Through the website and telephone support, ACS helps the patient and their families with critical cancer information such as understanding the type and nature of various cancer, treatment options, making informed treatment decisions, coping with side effects, handling financial matters, and emotional support. Primarily, ACS avails the information to help cancer patients from the initiation of diagnosis to recovery stages (Smith et al., 2017).  The ACS’s services that can be recommended to cancer patients include patient lodging services which help patients to secure a place to get treatment in situations where their treatment facility is far from where they are currently living. Moreover, services such as rides to treatment is essential in enabling the cancer patients to access treatment in situations where they are incapacitated to drive to the health facility. Additionally, the Patient Navigation Program is crucial in guiding, supporting, and informing many cancer patients in every step in coping with the condition. According to Riley & Riley (2016), the program is useful in many situations including helping in coping with news of cancer, identifying the best insurance company, handling financial matters, and counseling support.

How the Nursing Process is Utilized to Provide Safe and Effective Care for Cancer Patients across the Life Span

Nursing process connotes a scientific technique applied by nurses to provide quality care to patients. Therefore, to ensure safe and effective care to cancer patients, the process can be broken into five steps (McCuistion, Yeager, Winton & DiMaggio, 2020).

            Assessment Phase

This is the first step in the process where the gather collects patient information including the psychological, spiritual, and sociological status. Several techniques can be utilized including physical examination, interviews, family history, referencing health history of patient, and observation.

            Diagnosing Phase

Here, the nurse makes an informed judgment on the actual cancer a patient suffers from. Many diagnoses are carried out not only to describe the condition but also to determine if the patient is at risk of developing more problems. Moreover, diagnosis determines the level of readiness for health improvement. This is a critical stage in determining the best treatment.

            Planning Phase

After completing diagnosis, a treatment plan is created. If many diagnoses are to be addressed, the nurse prioritizes starting from the high risk and severe symptoms.

            Implementation Phase

This is a critical where the nurse acts on the determined plan of action. The plan should be patient-centered and based on tenable outcomes. The key activities include monitoring patient for possibility of change, patient education on cancer management, patient referrals, and follow ups.

            Evaluation Phase

This is the last stage of all nursing interventions and it is done to determine whether or not the goals of patient wellness are met. The patient outcomes are illustrated in three terms; the condition of the patient improved, stabilized, or worsened, died, or discharged. In case the wellness objectives are not achieved, the nursing process starts afresh.

How Undergraduate Education in Liberal Arts and Science Studies Contributes To the Foundation of Nursing Knowledge

Fundamentally, there is more to nursing than the technical skills and knowledge. A proficient nurse should also be well-rounded, think critically, cultural competent, and good communicator. Incorporation of liberal arts courses in undergraduate courses is crucial in growing these competencies and eventually improves patient outcomes. Regarding science studies, mathematics, and social and physical sciences, it is important to note that nursing is a genuine scientific discipline anchored on theory, continuous research, and evidence that are used to improve the care quality and enhance nursing practice. Therefore, understanding sciences is fundamental in nursing practice (Bernard, 2015). Taken together, nursing is both an art and science and the success in nursing field requires one to have both. When applied concurrently, the two make nurse effective and it is reflected in quality patient care.

Conclusion

Cancer is a considerable public health concern and its effects are continuously being felt by the patients, families, and economy. Therefore, creating educational and awareness programs about cancer is crucial. In particular, since nurses are the group of health care providers who take most of the time with cancer patients during the management of the condition, they need to seek more knowledge about cancer by consulting resources such as ACS and also properly apply nursing processes to ensure effective patient care. Moreover, nursing education should focus on both art and science to help nurses become well-rounded, think critically, cultural competent, and good communicator.

References

Bernard, J. S. (2015). The flipped classroom: fertile ground for nursing education research. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 12(1), 99-109.

Bray, F., Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Siegel, R. L., Torre, L. A., & Jemal, A. (2018). Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 68(6), 394-424.

Cancer.Net. (2018). Stages of Cancer. Cancer.Net. Retrieved 13 June 2020, from https://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/diagnosing-cancer/stages-cancer.

CDC. (2020). Side Effects of Cancer Treatment. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 13 June 2020, from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/survivors/patients/side-effects-of-treatment.htm.

Healthypeople.gov. (2020). Cancer | Healthy People 2020. Healthypeople.gov. Retrieved 13 June 2020, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/cancer.

McCuistion, L. E., Yeager, J. J., Winton, M. B., & DiMaggio, K. V. (2020). Pharmacology-E-Book: A Patient-Centered Nursing Process Approach. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Riley, S., & Riley, C. (2016). The role of patient navigation in improving the value of oncology care. Journal of Clinical Pathways, 2(1), 41-47.

Smith, R. A., Andrews, K. S., Brooks, D., Fedewa, S. A., Manassaram‐Baptiste, D., Saslow, D., … & Wender, R. C. (2017). Cancer screening in the United States, 2017: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 67(2), 100-121.

Assessment Description

The nursing process is a tool that puts knowledge into practice. By utilizing this systematic problem-solving method, nurses can determine the health care needs of an individual and provide personalized care.

Write a paper (1,750-2,000 words) on cancer and approach to care based on the utilization of the nursing process. Include the following in your paper:

  1. Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer.
  2. Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.
  3. Discuss what factors contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans.

Complications of Cancer, Side Effects and Ways of Lessening Physical and Psychological Effects

Cancer is associated with several complications. One of the complications of cancer is disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). DIC is a bleeding disorder that arises from the alteration in the mechanisms involved in blood clotting. Patients experience uncontrolled hemorrhage due to the depletion of the clotting factors. DIC is common in patients with breast, lung, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. The cause of DIC is attributed to the activation of clotting cascade by granules of leukemia or cancer cells. The second complication of cancer is hypercalcemia (Li et al., 2017). Hypercalcemia is characterized by the abnormally high levels of serum calcium. Hypercalcemia is common in patients with cancers of the kidneys and the breast. Hypercalcemia arises from the alteration in the fluid and electrolyte balance levels in the body (Frowen et al., 2020). The last complication of cancer is anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis arises from the patients developing allergic reactions to the medications used in cancer treatment. Patients being treated using chemotherapy may develop hypersensitivity that may lead to cardiovascular and respiratory collapse (Jain et al., 2017). Therefore, healthcare providers should monitor patients carefully to detect and manage anaphylaxis during treatment. Cancer treatment is associated with significant side effects. The side effects include immune suppression, alopecia, and loss of appetite, anemia, constipation, bleeding gums, and edema. Effective interventions that can be used to lessen the physical and psychological side effects of cancer treatment include provision of wigs for cosmetic purposes, oral cryotherapy, guided imagery, counseling, acupuncture, and provision of adequate social support to the patients (Darbandi et al., 2020).

  1. Explain how the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support. What ACS services would you recommend and why?
  2. Explain how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span. Your explanation should include each of the five phases and demonstrate the delivery of holistic and patient-focused care.
  3. Discuss how undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process. Consider mathematics, social and physical sciences, and science studies as an interdisciplinary research area.

You are required to cite to a minimum of four sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and relevant to nursing practice.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.

SAMPLE 2

Benchmark – Nursing Process: Approach to Care

The nursing process aims at providing patient-centered care in five stages including assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The first thing nurses ought to do as they interact with patients is to assess their health needs. The assessment approach depends on the presenting illnesses in the patients; though, taking history and the objective data is important for all conditions. The outcomes in the subsequent steps depend on how well the assessment was conducted. The assessment helps the nurses to identify the correct diagnosis for the patients. Cancers are a major threat with minimal survival rates especially when the condition is diagnosed late. Thorough assessment allows the nurses to apply critical thinking skills so that they can detect cancer diseases at their early stages. On the other hand, the patients with advanced cancer disease require palliative care, with the most focus being on emotional and spiritual wellbeing. The side effects of the cancer treatments can be overwhelming and so the patients must be reassured all the time. The current study explores the role of the nursing process in managing cancer patients.

The Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

Many cases of cancer have been missed due to poor patient assessment. Therefore, the diagnosis begins with an appropriate assessment and analysis of the patients’ signs and symptoms. The assessment involves determining the presence of tissue growths and lumps in the affected areas. For cancer affecting internal organs, imaging techniques such as endoscopy and laparoscopy are used. Subsequently, the sample from the tissue mass or fluid in the affected areas is drawn for cytological and histological tests. Cancer is characterized by the abnormal growth of the body cells; therefore, the diagnosis is based on analyzing the size, shape, and other morphological characteristics of the cells. On the other hand, there are also cancer antigen markers used in the diagnosis. Though, caution must be taken to avoid reporting either false-negative or false-positive results. The common cancer antigen markers include the prostate-specific antigen, the prostatic acid phosphatase, the CA 125, carcinoembryonic antigen alpha-fetoprotein, the human chorionic gonadotrophin, and CA 19-9. These biomarkers are normally produced by the body cells; however, elevated readings may indicate abnormal cell growth in the specific regions.

The cancer staging depends on the size of the mass, and whether the cells have metastasized or not. The staging helps in determining the treatment method to use as well as the survival rate. Commonly, the staging is based on the TNM system. The TNM is an acronym for the tumor, node, and metastasis (Cancer staging, n.d.). The tumor is graded from 0-4 depending on the size. On the other hand, the node is graded from 0-3 depending on the number of lymph nodes affected. Finally, the metastasis is graded from 0 to 1 depending on whether the cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. Based on the TNM score, cancer can be categorized as either stage 1, 2, 3, or 4. At stage 1, the cancer is small and has not spread to other parts of the body. Stage II and III mean that the cancer is large and has grown to the nearby tissues and lymph nodes (Cancer staging, n.d.). In stage IV, cancer has spread to other parts of the body and this means that the treatment also becomes extremely complex.

The Complications and Side Effects of Cancer Treatment

Cancer is characterized by abnormal cell division; therefore, the treatment options involve eliminating the uncontrollably dividing cells. In a localized tumor, the cancerous cells can be removed surgically. On the other hand, in cases where the mass is large and has spread to other parts of the body, the patients are subjected to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The first side effect of treatment is alopecia; a condition characterized by hair loss. In addition, the patients may have other skin complications including dryness and redness. The second side effect is anemia  (Momenimovahed & Salehiniya, 2019). Patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy are likely to have anemia because the treatment inadvertently kills the healthy red blood cells in the blood system. Thirdly, cancer patients experience a lot of pain during the treatment (de Pauli et al., 2019). Pain can interfere with the patient’s quality of life and contribute to other emotional and physiological problems. Furthermore, nausea and vomiting is a common side effect for the people receiving cancer treatment.

The complications and side effects can be reduced by eating a light meal before the procedure and eating a balanced diet. The light meal helps in reducing nausea while the balanced diet reduces the likelihood of developing anemia. Also, the patients require a lot of counselling and emotional support to reduce the emotional torture associated with the expectation of pain especially when they are about to undergo the treatment procedure. On the other hand, patients experiencing hair loss may need to cover their heads to avoid sunburns and

Factors Contributing to Incident and Mortality Rates of Various Cancers

The onset and progression of cancer depend on various factors. Lifestyle and behavioral patterns are major determinants of the incident and mortality rates for various cancers (Momenimovahed & Salehiniya, 2019). For example, people who smoke are more vulnerable to lung, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and oesophageal cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer in the United State. Also, occupation may expose one to cancer. People working in the chemical industries and inhale the chemical materials may also develop lung cancer. The chemicals are also linked with skin cancer. Also, the mortality rates depend on the economic status. People from low-income families are unlikely to afford all the cancer treatments.

American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society can provide education and cancer support to cancer patients through national cancer day programs. Also, they may develop campaign programs such as the fight against lung cancer and HPV and so educate the public on the causes, and prevention measures for the various cancers. Further, the education should promote regular screening and inform the public where they can seek help to promote early diagnosis and treatment of the cancer cases. Moreover, it is recommended that ACS offer support groups and access to care through financial support programs especially among the vulnerable populations; the services will help reduce the burden of cancer.

Utilization of Nursing Process Across the Life Span

According to Bates et al. (2018), the nurses touch patients at different levels of care delivery. In this case, the nursing process has an important role in identifying the health needs of the patients at the assessment level and developing appropriate remedies at the assessment and diagnosis levels. At the planning phase, the nurses develop new methods of addressing the patients’ needs. For example, the emergency telehealth system can be effectively implemented to improve the treatment outcomes for cancer patients. In such cases, the nurses ought to interact with their patients, understand their psychosocial and economic needs and come up with methods that will increase their level of access to medical services courtesy of the telehealth system. The new treatment methods are then implanted and customized to the patient’s setting. Finally, the effectiveness of the intervention is analyzed at the evaluation phase to determine its effectiveness in promoting the patient’s health outcome.

Contribution of Liberal Art and Science Studies to Nursing Knowledge

The human system is unitary and so spiritual healing is an important component that determines the patients’ treatment outcomes. Therefore, the understanding of art and science studies helps in understanding how the patient’s environment affects their wellbeing. Art has been significantly integrated into the healing process because of the calming effects they have on the patients. Patients with terminal illnesses such as cancer can significantly benefit from the serene and holistic environment creates through the artistic works (Kooken & Kerr, 2018). The liberal art improves the communication skills among the nurses and interacts with highly diversified populations accordingly. Also, mathematics, social and physical sciences, and science studies are part of the interdisciplinary research area with significant contributions to nursing care delivery.

Conclusion

Cancer patients require holistic care and a lot of social and emotional support because of the complications and side effects associated with cancer treatment. The nursing process approach of care illustrates the role of nurses as they interact with the patients from assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. In addition, integrating the skills from liberal art and sciences equips the nurses with relevant competencies to address the complex needs of the patients.

References

Bates, R. A., Blair, L. M., Schlegel, E. C., McGovern, C. M., Nist, M. D., Sealschott, S., & Arcoleo, K. (2018). Nursing across the lifespan: Implications of Lifecourse theory for nursing research. Journal of Pediatric Health Care32(1), 92-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2017.07.006

Cancer staging. (n.d.). National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/staging

de Pauli Paglioni, M., Araújo, A. L. D., Arboleda, L. P. A., Palmier, N. R., Fonsêca, J. M., Gomes-Silva, W., … & Santos-Silva, A. R. (2019). Tumor safety and side effects of photobiomodulation therapy used for prevention and management of cancer treatment toxicities. A systematic review. Oral oncology, 93, 21-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2019.04.004

Kooken, W. C., & Kerr, N. (2018). Blending the liberal arts and nursing: Creating a portrait for the 21st century. Journal of Professional Nursing34(1), 60-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2017.07.002

Momenimovahed, Z., & Salehiniya, H. (2019). Epidemiological characteristics of and risk factors for breast cancer in the world. Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy, 11, 151. doi: 10.2147/BCTT.S176070

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

RN-BSN

2.1: Incorporate liberal arts and science studies into nursing knowledge.

3.1 Utilize the nursing process to provide safe and effective care for patients across the life span.

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NRS-410 Topic 4 DQ 1

Immune dysfunction can vary in severity. Every person is impacted differently. When the immune system is failing, disease ensues. Abnormal responses include hypersensitive response of the immune system and autoimmune responses (Merck, 2018, as cited in Randall, 2018). Nurses can provide holistic treatment plan in response to disease and immune dysfunction. Immune dysfunction may be evidenced as hypersensitivity, anaphylactic shock, or some cancers (Randall, 2018).

A now well known immune disease is Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). 20 years ago, HIV was basically a death sentence. Patients would arrive at the county nursing home to live on a separate unit designated for HIV patients. Some lived a few years but the disease ran its course and eventually the person would succumb to opportunistic infection, such as pneumonia. Opportunistic infections occur more frequently and are more harmful to those who carry the HIV (CDC, 2022). Although HIV is less prevalent than in the 90’s, it is still a public health threat. In 2020, 30,635 people were diagnosed HIV diagnosis in the United States. People who are diagnosed with HIV can receive treatment and can live long, healthy lives while protecting their partners (CDC, 2022). Current treatments now keep viral loads at bay and help people lead longer and healthier lives with the HIV medications.

Nurses can assist patients who have high risk factors, by helping them to get tested for HIV and receive treatment. Patients should know their viral load and learn to be “educated consumers.” The nurse can help with linkages in the community and gaining access to treatment.

References:

Opportunistic infections | Living with HIV | HIV basics | HIV/AIDS | CDC. (2022, March 30). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/livingwithhiv/opportunisticinfections.html

Randall, J. (2018). Cellular & Immunological Complexities. In Pathophysiology clinical applications for client health. https://bibliu.com/app/#/view/books/1000000000590/epub/Chapter4.html%23page_79

Rubric Criteria

Total 250 points

Criterion

1. Unsatisfactory

2. Less Than Satisfactory

3. Satisfactory

4. Good

5. Excellent

Contribution of Liberal Arts and Science Studies to Nursing Knowledge (B)

Contribution of Liberal Arts and Science Studies to Nursing Knowledge (C2.1)

0 points

Discussion on how undergraduate education in the liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process is omitted.

9.38 points

An incomplete summary on how undergraduate education in the liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process is presented. There are significant omissions. It is unclear how undergraduate education contributed.

9.88 points

A general discussion on how undergraduate education in the liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process is presented. A general correlation for how undergraduate education contributed to nursing knowledge is established.

11.13 points

A discussion on how undergraduate education in the liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process is presented. A correlation for how undergraduate education contributed to nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process is established. Some information or detail is needed for clarity or support.

12.5 points

A thorough discussion on how undergraduate education in the liberal arts and science studies contributes to the foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process is presented. A strong correlation for how undergraduate education contributed to nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the nursing process is clearly established. Insight into the contribution of liberal arts and science studies to nursing practice is demonstrated.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)

0 points

Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.

9.38 points

Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present.

9.88 points

Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.

11.13 points

Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.

12.5 points

Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Documentation of Sources

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)

0 points

Sources are not documented.

5.63 points

Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.

5.93 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.

6.68 points

Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.

7.5 points

Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Thesis Development and Purpose

Thesis Development and Purpose

0 points

Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.

9.38 points

Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.

9.88 points

Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.

11.13 points

Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.

12.5 points

Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.

American Cancer Society (ACS)

American Cancer Society (ACS)

0 points

Explanation for how the ACS might provide education and support is omitted.

28.13 points

A partial explanation for how the ACS might provide education and support is presented. Overall, the role and function of the ACS are unclear. There are inaccuracies.

29.63 points

A summary for how the ACS might provide education and support is presented. Some additional information is required to fully represent the role and function of the ACS. There are some inaccuracies. General ACS services to be recommended are referenced.

33.38 points

An explanation for how the ACS might provide education and support is presented. The role and function of the ACS are apparent. Some ACS services to be recommended are referenced. Detail is needed for clarity.

37.5 points

A detailed explanation for how the ACS might provide education and support is presented. The role and function of the ACS are clear and informative. ACS services to be recommended are discussed and rationale is provided for the recommendation.

Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

Diagnosis and Staging of Cancer

0 points

A description of the diagnosis and staging of cancer is omitted.

28.13 points

A partial description summarizes the diagnosis and staging of cancer. There are significant omissions.

29.63 points

A general description summarizes the diagnosis and staging of cancer. There are inaccuracies. Some information is needed.

33.38 points

A description of the diagnosis and staging of cancer is presented. There are very minor inaccuracies. Some detail is needed for clarity.

37.5 points

A detailed description of the diagnosis and staging of cancer presented. The description is informative and well-developed.

Utilization of Nursing Process Across the Life Span (B)

Utilization of Nursing Process Across the Life Span (C3.1)

0 points

Explanation of how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span is omitted; or, the explanation fails to accurately represent the nursing process.

28.13 points

A partial explanation of how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span is presented. Major aspects of the nursing process are omitted from the explanation. It is unclear the process provides safe and effective care for patients across the life span.

29.63 points

A general explanation of how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span is presented. A summary outlines how the process provides safe and effective care for patients across the life span. There are some inaccuracies. Rationale or evidence is needed for support.

33.38 points

An explanation of how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span is presented. The explanation generally describes how the process provides safe and effective care for patients across the life span. Some rationale or evidence is needed for support.

37.5 points

A well-developed explanation of how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer patients across the life span is presented. The explanation clearly describes how the process provides safe and effective care for patients across the life span. Strong rationale or evidence is provided for support. Insight into the nursing process and its utilization to provide safe and effective care for patients across the life span is demonstrated.

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)

0 points

Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.

3.75 points

Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent.

3.95 points

Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.

4.45 points

Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style.

5 points

All format elements are correct.

Complications of Cancer, Side Effects of Treatment, and Methods to Lessen Effects

Complications of Cancer, Side Effects of Treatment, and Methods to Lessen Physical and Psychological Effects

0 points

Three complications of cancer, side effects of treatment, and methods to lessen the physical and psychological effects are omitted.

28.13 points

Fewer than two complications of cancer are described. The side effects of treatment and methods to lessen the physical and psychological effects are partially presented. There are major inaccuracies.

29.63 points

At least three complications of cancer are generally described. The side effects of treatment and methods to lessen the physical and psychological effects are summarized. There are some inaccuracies.

33.38 points

Three or more complications of cancer are described. The side effects of treatment and methods to lessen the physical and psychological effects are generally described. Some detail is needed for clarity or accuracy.

37.5 points

Three or more complications of cancer are detailed. The side effects of treatment and methods to lessen the physical and psychological effects are thoroughly described.

Factors Contributing to Incident and Mortality Rates of Various Cancers in Americans

Factors Contributing to Incident and Mortality Rates of Various Cancers in Americans

0 points

Factors contributing to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans are omitted.

28.13 points

The factors contributing to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans are partially outlined. Key factors are missing. There are major inaccuracies.

29.63 points

Some key factors contributing to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans are generally discussed. There are some inaccuracies. The discussion lacks rationale or evidence to support the key factors presented.

33.38 points

The major factors contributing to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans are discussed. The discussion provides general rationale or evidence to support the factors presented.

37.5 points

The discussion is accurate, detailed, and presents all significant factors contributing to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of various cancers in Americans. Strong rationale and evidence support the discussion.

Argument Logic and Construction

Argument Logic and Construction

0 points

Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.

9.38 points

Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.

9.88 points

Argument is orderly but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.

11.13 points

Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.

12.5 points

Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

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