Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

NRS 428 Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Hygiene is a critical component of healthy living practices of human life right from childhood to adulthood. However, lapses in hygiene are noted especially in hand washing approaches among students, teachers and parents which has led to unrestricted spread of germs. Due to this, there is a need to address the aspect of hand washing to sensitize people on the basics of hygiene and how to protect oneself from germs (Giddens, Caputi & Rodgers, 2019). Community teaching work plan proposal is one of the perfect guide to sensitize people on hygiene as well as develop prevention strategies to control the spread of infections. The present proposal delves into the importance of hand washing to guide in the prevention of infection in Shaman Oaks High school. Different approaches of hygiene will also be outlined to control the spread of germs not only among students, but also to teachers and parents.

Planning and Topic

Directions: Develop an educational series proposal for your community using one of the following four topics:

  1. Bioterrorism/Disaster
  2. Environmental Issues
  3. Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
  4. Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population

Planning Before Teaching:

Name and Credentials of Teacher:
Estimated Time Teaching Will Last: 30 to 40 minutes Location of Teaching: Urban High School (Shaman Oaks High)
Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed: Computer, Projector, PowerPoint Presentation, Screen, detailed paper handouts, pens, chalks, soap and hand sanitizers. Estimated Cost: Materials such as screen, projector and computer were provided by the school. $45 is anticipated to be the cost of consumable items.
Community and Target Aggregate:School going children in the age range of 10 and 17 years most of whom are enrolled in the high school. Teachers in the high school and a representative or member of family for each child will also be enrolled on the program.
Topic:Primary Prevention/ Health Promotion: Importance of Hand Washing in Controlling Infections


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Identification of Focus for Community Teaching:

School children engage in different activities and risky behaviors that predisposes them to health hazards. Hand hygiene is one of the simplest as well as the most effective method to prevent transmission of infectious agents such as diarrhea, common colds, food-borne illnesses and influenza (Dickie et al., 2018). Keeping hands clean is a major approach to control the spread of these infections in school going children, staff members and parents. According to the estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 52.2 million incidences of common cold affects U.S populations below the age of 17 years and this results in 22 million school days lost every year. Besides, about 5-20 percent of Americans acquire influenza but children remain the most vulnerable to serious complications of flu (Clark, Crandall & O’Bryan, 2018). Diarrhea as one of the common symptoms of infectious food-borne illnesses is ranked second after colds that disproportionately affect children leading to loss of approximately 25 days of school days each year. The condition also affects about 100 members of the population every year. Infections are readily spread from one person to another in school setting as people are in a close environment in addition to inadequate hand hygiene exacerbated by sharing of equipment and other supplies.

Epidemiological Rationale for Topic

In this topic, the epidemiological rationale is derived from the concept that hand washing using detergents reduces the risk of transmission of infections that cause diarrhea by 50% (Clark, Crandall & O’Bryan, 2018). CDC recommends that every person should routinely wash their hands using clean water and soap for about 15-20 seconds before one eats or prepares food, after sneezing or coughing, when one handles animals and after visiting a toilet (Dickie et al., 2018). Alternatively, one can use alcohol-based hand sanitizers or gel especially when soap and water are not available. These practices help to kill infectious agents and control the spread of germs from an infected person to healthy populations. Besides, effective hand washing reduces the risk of transmission of respiratory diseases by about 16% and therefore the spread of infections such as common cold, asthma attacks and dust pneumonia are controlled. Use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers for hand washing have significantly reduced the spread of germs by about 20%. Studies by Clark, Crandall and O’Bryan (2018) and Dickie et al., 2018 report that appropriate hand washing significantly reduce infections and absenteeism from school among children as they are less likely to develop respiratory or gastro-intestinal illnesses.

The benchmark assesses the following competency:

4.2 Communicate therapeutically with patients.

The RN to BSN program at Grand Canyon University meets the requirements for clinical competencies as defined by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), using nontraditional experiences for practicing nurses. These experiences come in the form of direct and indirect care experiences in which licensed nursing students engage in learning within the context of their hospital organization, specific care discipline, and local communities.

Note:  The teaching plan proposal developed in this assignment will be used to develop your Community Teaching Plan: Community Presentation due in Topic 5. You are strongly encouraged to begin working on your presentation once you have received and submitted this proposal.

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Select one of the following as the focus for the teaching plan:

  • Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
  • Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population
  • Bioterrorism/Disaster
  • Environmental Issues

Use the “Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal” resource to complete this assignment. This will help you organize your plan and create an outline for the written assignment.

  1. After completing the teaching proposal, review the teaching plan proposal with a community health and public health provider in your local community.
  2. Request feedback (strengths and opportunities for improvement) from the provider.
  3. Complete the “Community Teaching Experience” form with the provider. You will submit this form in Topic 5.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

How does the community health nurse recognize bias, stereotypes, and implicit bias within the community? How should the nurse address these concepts to ensure health promotion activities are culturally competent? Propose strategies that you can employ to reduce cultural dissonance and bias to deliver culturally competent care. Include an evidence-based article that address the cultural issue. Cite and reference the article in APA format.

A community health nurse can recognize bias, stereotypes, and implicit bias within community by conducting thorough community assessments, nurses can identify disparities in health outcomes and access to care among different population groups. Analyzing these disparities can help them uncover potential sources of bias within the healthcare system. Recognizing bias, stereotypes, and implicit bias is essential for providing unbiased and culturally sensitive care. A community health nurse plays a vital role in promoting health equity and addressing disparities within the community. According to Angel Falkner (2018), ” Implicit bias, a term used within the health care community, is the unconscious attitude displayed based on stereotypes that directly affect understanding, decisions, and actions that may impact patient care. This type of bias has been found in a large number of health care workers. The nurse should be well informed regarding stereotypes and biases in order to be sensitive to these issues and provide the most unbiased care possible. Discrimination based on these stereotypes and biases is an unfortunate yet common occurrence in health care. The nurse should be aware of these issues and be a strong advocate for those who have experienced this kind of discrimination. Once again, this highlights the importance of cultural competence as an imperative nursing skill, as ensuring that all people receive adequate health care regardless of gender, race, age, or other socioeconomic disadvantage is the goal of health equity”.

There are several steps a community health nurse can take to help change and eventually eliminate biases.

  • The first step is for the nurse to engage in self-awareness and reflection. Nurses need to critically examine their own beliefs, attitudes, and assumptions to identify any personal biases or stereotypes they may hold. This introspection allows nurses to better understand how their own biases might impact their interactions with individuals and communities. According to Julia Quinn-Szcesuil (2018), “Recognizing an inherent bias means that you understand you might have certain feelings about populations, appearances, or mannerisms that need to be addressed and dealt with to provide the best possible care… But it happens, and the best approach to fixing implicit bias is to recognize its presence, and then constantly reassess how you feel and your approach”.
  • Community health nurses should undergo cultural competence training to enhance their understanding of various cultures, norms, and values. This education helps them recognize and challenge stereotypes and biases that may arise from a lack of understanding or familiarity with diverse populations. Nurses must approach each community and individual with an open mind, avoiding preconceived notions or judgments. This allows them to recognize and challenge any assumptions they might have based on biases. According to Adolfo G. Cuevas, Kerth O’Brien, and Somnath Saha (2017), “Health care disparities might be reduced through a patient-centred approach to cultural competency training, general knowledge of the cultural context of clinicians’ patient population, and attention to the effects of racial bias and discrimination among both clinicians and non-clinical staff”.
  • Building trust and rapport with community members is essential. By establishing strong relationships, nurses can gain insights into the unique challenges and experiences faced by different groups, which can help identify instances of bias or implicit bias. Nurses should stay updated on research, literature, and best practices related to health equity and bias recognition. Regular education and training sessions can help them develop the skills to recognize and address bias effectively. According to Stacy D. Winters (2019), “Make a connection. According to the Institute of Healthcare Improvement, one method to decrease bias and increase understanding is to challenge yourself to meet and engage with people who are not like you. Do you make personal time to learn about other cultures? Do you know the history of healthcare experience of other racial/ethnic groups and LGBT persons? Understanding other’s experience can foster empathy”.
  • Working alongside other healthcare professionals, social workers, and community leaders can provide different perspectives on bias and stereotypes. Collaborative efforts can help identify instances of bias and develop strategies to address them. There are various validated tools available to assess biases and stereotypes, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT). These tools can help nurses gain insight into their own implicit biases and work towards addressing them (Winters, 2019).


Cuevas, A. G., O’Brien, K., & Saha, S. (2017). What is the key to culturally competent care: Reducing bias or cultural tailoring? Psychology & Health32(4), 493-507.

Quinn-Szcesuil, J. (2018, January 3). Recognizing implicit bias in health care settings. Minority Nurse.

Todt, K. (2023, July 1). Strategies to combat implicit bias in nursing. American Nurse.

Winters, S. D. (2019, December 4). Addressing implicit bias in nursing: What color is your lens? American Nurse.

Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Planning and Topic

Directions: Develop an educational series proposal for your community using one of the following four topics:

  1. Bioterrorism/Disaster
  2. Environmental Issues
  3. Primary Prevention/Health Promotion
  4. Secondary Prevention/Screenings for a Vulnerable Population

Planning Before Teaching:

Name and Credentials of Teacher:
Estimated Time Teaching Will Last: Location of Teaching:
Supplies, Material, Equipment Needed: Estimated Cost:
Community and Target Aggregate:

Identification of Focus for Community Teaching (Topic Selection):

Epidemiological Rationale for Topic (Statistics Related to Topic):

Teaching Plan Criteria

Your teaching plan will be graded based on its effectiveness and relevance to the population selected. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

Nursing Diagnosis:

Readiness for Learning: Identify the factors that would indicate the readiness to learn for the target aggregate. Include emotional and experiential readiness to learn.

Goal: Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) objective(s) utilized as the goal for the teaching. Include the appropriate objective number and rationale for using the selected HP2020 objective (use at least one objective from one of the 24 focus areas). If an HP2020 objective does not support your teaching, explain how your teaching applies to one of the two overarching HP2020 goals.

How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives

Develop Behavioral Objectives (Including Domains), Content, and Strategies/Methods:

Behavioral Objective
and Domain
Example – Third-grade students will name one healthy food choice in each of the five food groups by the end of the presentation. (Cognitive Domain)
(be specific)Example – The Food Pyramid has five food groups which are….Healthy foods from each group are….
Unhealthy foods containing a lot of sugar or fat are….
Strategies/Methods(label and describe)Example – Interactive poster presentation of the Food  Pyramid. After an explanation of the poster and each food category, allow students to place pictures of foods on the correct spot on the pyramid. Also, have the class analyze what a child had for lunch by putting names of foods on the poster and discussing what food group still needs to be eaten throughout day.
1. 1. 1.
2. 2. 2.
3. 3. 3.
4. 4. 4.

Creativity: How was creativity applied in the teaching methods/strategies?

Planned Evaluation of Objectives (Outcome Evaluation): Describe what you will measure for each objective and how.

Planned Evaluation of Goal:  Describe how and when you could evaluate the overall effectiveness of your teaching plan.


Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher (Process Evaluation):


Barriers: What are potential barriers that may arise during teaching and how will those be handled?


Therapeutic Communication

4.2 Communicate therapeutically with patients.

How will you begin your presentation and capture the interest of your audience? Describe the type of activity will you use with your audience to exhibit active listening? Describe how you applied active listening in tailoring your presentation to your audience? How will you conclude your presentation? What nonverbal communication techniques will you employ?

Research the delivery, finance, management, and sustainability methods of the U.S. health care system. Evaluate the effectiveness of one or more of these areas on quality patient care and health outcomes. Propose a potential health care reform solution to improve effectiveness in the area you evaluated and predict the expected effect. Describe the effect of health care reform on the U.S. health care system and its respective stakeholders. Support your post with a peer-reviewed journal article.

Phyllis Osafo

Jan 12, 2023, 12:03 AM

A health care delivery system incorporates four functional components, financing, insurance, delivery, and payment, (the quad-function model). Health care delivery systems differ depending on the arrangement of these components. There are three main finance sources for health care in the United States: the government, private health insurers, and the individuals. Between Medicaid, Medicare and the other health care programs it runs, the federal government covers just about half of all medical spending (Havaei et al., 2019). The current US delivery system and financing structures are unsustainable. Inequitable distribution of resources continues, and an increasing number of American families do not have access to adequate care. The U.S. health care delivery system is complex and massive. I honestly feel unqualified to judge the effectiveness accurately, but while my gut instinct wants to say “no” the data supports that it is functioning better than any other system worldwide of its size. The vast array of institutions includes 5,700 hospitals, 15,900 nursing homes, almost 2,900 inpatient mental health facilities, and 11,000 home health agencies and hospices (Cleveland et al., 2019). Despite spending far more on healthcare than other high-income nations, the US scores poorly on many key health measures, including life expectancy, preventable hospital admissions, suicide, and maternal mortality. And for all that expense, satisfaction with the current healthcare system is low. By making health coverage more affordable and accessible and thus increasing the number of Americans with coverage, by funding community-based public health and prevention programs, and by supporting research and tracking on key health measures, the ACA can help begin to reduce disparities, improve access to preventive care, improve health outcomes and reduce the nation’s health spending.

Havaei, F., Dahinten, V. S., & MacPhee, M. (2019). Effect of Nursing Care Delivery Models on Registered Nurse Outcomes. SAGE Open Nursing

Cleveland, K.A., Motter, T., Smith, Y., (2019) “Affordable Care: Harnessing the Power of Nurses” OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 24, No. 2, Manuscript 2.

Active listening is a technique nurses should be doing to every patient, even healthcare members on their interdisciplinary team. If we do not actively listen, we cannot learn about the other person we are discussing with. To be culturally competent we must be willing to learn about other people. It goes beyond listening to them. One nurse taught me to always google translate little sayings like “please,” “thank you,” “hello” before going into a patient’s room who has a different primary language than english. It make patients feel more comfortable and happy to hear healthcare workers use their native tongue. We do not have to be fluent in every language, but taking that extra 5 minutes can really make such a difference to a patient’s stay and perception of their nurse. I saw this first hand with a sweet old hmong woman who smiled from ear to ear when we said Hello in her language. I don’t even remember how to say it now, but if I ever have another patient who doesn’t speak english, I will be sure to look up little sayings ahead of time.

Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal

Course Code   Class Code      Assignment Title        Total Points

HLT-362V      HLT-362V-OL191      Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal       100.0

Criteria            Percentage      Unsatisfactory (0.00%)           Less Than Satisfactory (80.00%) Satisfactory (88.00%) Good (92.00%)            Excellent (100.00%)

Content           80.0%

Planning and Topic     30.0%  The chosen topic is not one of four approved topics. The epidemiologic rationale is omitted.     The teaching plan is based on an approved topic. The epidemiological rational contains significant inaccuracies.       The teaching plan is based on an approved topic. The epidemiological rational is unclear. There are some inaccuracies.   The teaching plan is based on an approved topic. The epidemiological rational needs some detail for accuracy or clarity.  The teaching plan is based on an approved topic. The epidemiological rational is well-supported and relevance to the topic is demonstrated.

Benchmark – Community Teaching Plan: Community Teaching Work Plan Proposal Effectiveness of Teaching Plan Criteria         40.0%  Two or more of the assignment criteria are omitted.         More than one of the assignment criteria are omitted. Overall, the teaching plan is vague. Significant information is needed. One of the assignment criteria is omitted or, multiple criteria are incomplete. The teaching plan can be effective, but more information or rational is needed.         All assignment criteria are adequately completed. Some rational is needed for support or clarity. Overall, the teaching plan is effective.           All assignment criteria are thoroughly completed. Rational and detail is provided throughout.

Therapeutic Communication  (C 4.2 Communicate therapeutically with patients.)         10.0%  Therapeutic communication approach is omitted. Therapeutic approach is not demonstrated.    The teaching plan attempts to communicate with an activity; the activity is not appropriate for the teaching plan. It is unclear if active listening techniques were used to connect with the audience. A partial summary of how the interaction of the audience  is presented.It is unclear if nonverbal techniques were employed. More information is needed.         The teaching plan is communicated with an activity that generally uses active listening techniques to connect with the audience.  A summary of how the attention of the audience was captured and how the presentation was concluded is presented. The teaching plan indicates that some nonverbal techniques were employed.    The teaching plan is communicated with an activity that uses active listening techniques to connect with the audience. How the attention of the audience was captured and how the presentation was concluded is presented. The teaching plan indicates that the use of nonverbal techniques was employed.        The teaching plan is communicated with an activity that uses clear active listening techniques to connect with the audience.  A clear description of how the attention of the audience was captured and how the presentation was concluded is presented. The teaching plan thoroughly describes nonverbal techniques that were employed, such as eye contact, appropriate dress for the setting, facial expressions, and voice intonation.

Organization and Effectiveness          15.0%

Organization of Proposal, Paragraph Development, and Transitions            10.0%  Organization of proposal is disjointed. Paragraphs and transitions consistently lack unity and coherence. There are no apparent connections between ideas. Transitions are inappropriate or lacking.            Some degree of organization is evident. Some paragraphs and transitions may lack logical progression of ideas, unity, coherence, or cohesiveness.  Paragraphs are generally competent, but ideas may show some inconsistency in organization or in their relationships to each other.            A logical progression of ideas between paragraphs is apparent. Paragraphs exhibit a unity, coherence, and cohesiveness.     Proposal is well-organized and logical.  Ideas progress and relate to each other.  Paragraph and transition construction guide the reader.

Criteria 2Mechanics of Writing  (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)         5.0%    Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.        Some degree of organization is evident. Some paragraphs and transitions may lack logical progression of ideas, unity, coherence, or cohesiveness.  Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, or word choice are present.     Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used.      Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used.      Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Format 5.0%

Paper Format  (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)            2.0%    Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.    Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.         Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.    Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.           All format elements are correct.

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)  3.0%    Sources are not documented.   Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.            Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.      Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.            Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.


Discussion Questions (DQ)

  • Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
  • Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
  • One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
  • I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.

Weekly Participation

  • Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
  • In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
  • Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
  • Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.

APA Format and Writing Quality

  • Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
  • Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
  • I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.

Use of Direct Quotes

  • I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
  • As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
  • It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.


LopesWrite Policy

  • For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
  • Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
  • Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
  • Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

  • The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
  • Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
  • If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
  • I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
  • As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


  • Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me: 
    • Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
    • Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Topic 3 DQ 1

Discuss how the concept of “health” has changed overtime. Discuss how the concept has evolved to include wellness, illness, and overall well-being. How has health promotion changed over time? Why is it important that nurses implement health promotion interventions based on evidence-based practice?


The definition of health has evolved. There were widespread infections in the early 1900s due to a lack of sanitation, polluted water, and incorrect disposal of human excrement. Throughout this time, health was defined as the absence of sickness. The notion of health shifted in the late 1900s and early 1900s to include being a productive member of society. Disease prevention has become a focus with the creation and delivery of vaccines in the twentieth century since several illnesses were virtually eliminated (World Health Organization, 2019). The World Health Organization was founded in 1948, and at the time, health was defined as more than only the absence of sickness. The concept of health has shifted concerning health promotion, and it now includes physical, mental, and spiritual wellbeing components.

Today, people understand that health, wellbeing, and sickness prevention go hand in hand. Primary prevention is avoiding disease, reducing chronic illness, and promoting a healthy lifestyle. Using primary prevention is similar to the adage that “an abundance of caution equals a pound of treatment.” Instead of concentrating on finding therapy after sickness has formed, our culture aims to avoid or reduce disease. Health promotion is persuading individuals to take charge of and improve their overall health.

Evidence-based practice is the benchmark in the nursing profession for improving patients’ general health. What distinguishes EBP is its use of the most recent data, professional knowledge, and patient values to create adjustments to enhance patient outcomes (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Evidence-based practice refers to scientifically validated strategies that promote health while being cost-effective. The nurse’s role in health promotions is crucial since it encompasses advocacy, care/service delivery, management, education, and research. Using EBP, the nurse is pressing for change to tighten processes to increase patient safety.


Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health promotion: Health & wellness across the continuum. Retrieved from

World Health Organization. (2019). what is health promotion? Retrieved from

In the context of disaster preparedness and management, primary prevention (pre-impact phase) refers to the planning done prior to the disaster, secondary prevention (impact phase) refers to the phase of emergency response to the disaster, and tertiary prevention (post-impact phase) refers to the recovery phase (Falkner et al.).

Primary prevention

Reflecting on the earthquake that devastated Haiti, the country could have improved its primary prevention by being more prepared to respond to natural disasters. As identified by the author of the diary entries, the hospital was unprepared and unequipped by lacking supplies and equipment to provide essential services. For example, the hospital was unable perform x-rays because though the hospital had x-ray film, it did not have an x-ray machine. X-ray was a huge need due to so many injuries sustained from the earthquake (Diary of a Medical Mission Trip). Public health nurses can work collaboratively with hospitals of the community to ensure emergency and disaster planning and preparedness are completed, and plans are updated regularly. Supplies and equipment for essential services should be kept in reserve for emergency response needs. This process takes place in the pre-impact phase of disaster (Falkner et al.).

Secondary prevention

In the response to the disaster in Haiti, secondary prevention was carried out by rescuing people from the rubble, triaging the patients and their injuries, providing first aid and other direct patient care, providing food and water to the people, and locating/retrieving supplies that were desperately needed by the medical teams. In secondary prevention, the impact phase of disaster, the public health nurse’s role is to provide care and support in any way that is needed. Nurses do this by providing all of these interventions listed above. During this phase the public health nurse will work closely with the local health care facilities, local health care providers, local emergency medical services, local law enforcement, and disaster management organizations such as the American Red Cross (Falkner et al.).

Tertiary prevention

Tertiary prevention, or the post-impact phase, was carried out in Haiti through community clean-up efforts, structural repairs, supporting injured individuals through rehabilitation, and providing mental health and spiritual care support as applicable. Another focus of this phase is to evaluate the effectiveness of phases one and two, identify areas needing improvement, and then update and improve the emergency/disaster management plan accordingly (Falkner et al.). To do this, the public health nurse would again work collaboratively with the local health care facilities, local health care providers, local emergency medical services, and local law enforcement. Public health nurses could even receive help and support from disaster management organizations such as the American Red Cross.


Falkner, A. (n.d.). Chapter 5 Disaster Management. In Community and Public Health: The Future of Health Care. essay. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from

Grand Canyon University. (n.d.). Diary of a Medical Mission Trip. Retrieved July 22, 2022, from

In working with the Hispanic and Latino populations it is very important to provide primary prevention and screening for metabolic syndrome. Not only is there a high correlation of the syndrome within the population but new genetic research, the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study, has provided evidence for linkage of metabolic syndrome to 1q23-q31, and evidence linkage to this region (LOD 1.2) (Langefeld et al., 2004). This research contributes to the growing evidence that chromosome 1q harbors at least one locus related to the metabolic precursors of diabetes. Linkage of diabetes to the 1q21-25 regions has previously been reported in European-Caucasian, Amerindian, and Chinese populations. Genetic research provides exciting possibilities for the future of DM treatment, but it does not negate the powerful influence that lifestyle and behavioral choices have on the prevention and minimization of the detrimental effects of this predisposition. This genetic predisposition hopefully can be used to motivate Hispanics to proactively modify diet and activity levels. Studies in Mexico show similar rates of metabolic syndrome and lack of activity that are seen in the Hispanic American population. In one study in an industrialized Northeastern Mexican city, the prevalence of obesity for men was 32%, women 7% (Gilson, 2007). Elevated levels of cholesterol were 44%M and 10% F, and healthy exercise rates were low, with 76% of women and 70% of men identified as inactive. They concluded much like American researchers that there is a need to increase healthy physical activity.

The Opportunities Program had been cited has been replaced with a newer National Alliance for Health and it aims to involve all members of society (Acosta-Mendez et al., 2007). Its value is to be independent of any international recommendation. It appears that the international recommendations of the Opportunities Program were not well received.  Additionally, It appears that previous efforts have suffered from low empowerment and high community action that resulted in superficial community participation. A strength cited about the new Alliance for Health is it is a solely Mexican effort, but its critics cite it lacks a deep analysis of the health issues that it is supposed to solve.


Acosta-Mendez, M., Mariscal-Servitje, L., & Santos-Burgoa, C. (2007, December). The present and future of Mexican health promotion. Promotion &Amp; Education, 14(4), 224–227.

Gilson, N. D. (2007, March). Health-Enhancing Physical Activity and Health-Related Risk in a Sample of North Mexican, Office-Based Employees. Promotion &Amp; Education, 14(1), 12–16.

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