Assignment: Tuberculosis Epidemiology Paper
Assignment: Tuberculosis Epidemiology Paper
Social determinants of health include any situation or condition that an individual is born, grows, works, and ages. These cover a range of factors from the physical environment, the social environment, neighborhood, education, healthcare, and socioeconomic factors. These factors are determined and influenced by several other factors which are not limited to political and economic forces.
The different social determinants of health include access to healthcare, security, food security, education, neighborhood, housing and basic amenities, employment and job security, incomes, social security, working life conditions, structural conflicts, and social inclusion (Palmer, Ismond, Rodriquez, & Kaufman, 2019). Social determinants of health determine the accessibility and affordability of healthcare services. People who earn a decent amount of money tend to have better access to healthcare as compared to those that have a low income. Similarly, educated people are usually aware of diseases, the different modes of healthcare, and where they can get healthcare services as compared to those who are less educated. Security, good housing, and a good environment promote health in the sense that there is less harm, less exposure to harmful substances, and less pollution that could otherwise be detrimental to the health of the individual. The working conditions and environment, and unemployment status play a big role in the mental health and well-being of an individual.
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The communicable disease chain consists of three components which are the infectious agent, the host, and the environment. This means that for a communicable disease to be transmitted, there has to be a susceptible host and an infectious agent that are present in a suitable environment for disease transmission. To break the link of transmission of diseases, a nurse can employ primary prevention for the susceptible host. This is through taking the necessary steps towards prevention of transmission by encouraging washing hands regularly with soap and water, covering the mouth when coughing and sneezing for those already infected, vaccination drives, encouraging and ensuring all rooms are well ventilated, staying away from crowds when sick, and cleaning all surfaces regularly (Huremović, 2019). By understanding the social determinants of health, what are the measures taken to control communicable diseases?
Huremović, D. (2019). Social distancing, quarantine, and isolation. In Psychiatry of pandemics (pp. 85-94). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-15346-5_8
Palmer, R. C., Ismond, D., Rodriquez, E. J., & Kaufman, J. S. (2019). Social determinants of health: future directions for health disparities research. American Journal of Public Health, 109(S1), S70-S71. https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2019.304964
Obesity is a serious global health issue that affect the international health community every day. Overweight and obesity are both defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. This disease impacts major body systems such as the heart, liver, kidneys, joints and reproductive systems. According to WHO is can also lead to a number of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke, various forms of cancer, and mental health issues. Since 1975 obesity has nearly tripled worldwide. Between 1975-2016 children and adolescents ages 5-19 years old have increased from 4% to 18% globally (WHO, 2022)
Obesity was once considered a problem in high-income countries, however now they are both on the rise in low-and middle-income countries, especially in urban settings. According to WHO, 1 in 5 adults and 1 in 10 children and teenagers are projected to be obese by December 2023 in 10 high-burden African countries (WHO, 2022). In 2019, 24% of the worlds overweight children under 5 came from Africa. In Asia, almost half the children in 2016 were overweight or obese ( United Nations, 2021)
The prevention of obesity is important for the general public protection and welfare. There are no quick answers, but the state and local organizations, corporations and community groups, policy makers, educators, child care, and healthcare providers all need to work together to build a healthier lifestyle. According to WHO, a key to preventing obesity is to act early. For example, before one consideres to start a family they should get health first. The global response in regards to obesity, all countries need to work together to create a better food environment so that everyone can access and afford a healthy diet. It is crucial that steps be taken to include restricting the marketing to children of food and drinks that are high in fats, sugars, and salt (United Nations, 2021).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, March 17). Adult obesity prevalence maps. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html
United Nations. (n.d.). Over one billion obese people globally, health crisis must be reversed – who | UN news. United Nations. https://news.un.org/en/story/2022/03/1113312
World Health Organization. (n.d.). Obesity rising in Africa, who analysis finds. World Health Organization. https://www.afro.who.int/news/obesity-rising-africa-who-analysis-finds
Choose one of the communicable diseases listed below and write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment. See the attached files for details
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS
Discussion Questions (DQ)
Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality
Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.
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