NURS 6501 Week 2 Assignment Understanding of Cells and Cell Behavior

NURS 6501 Week 2 Assignment Understanding of Cells and Cell Behavior

NURS6501 Week 2 Assignment Understanding of Cells and Cell Behavior

An infection by a disease causing microorganisms often lead to alteration in the cellular responses. The alteration in the cellular responses result in the development of signs and symptoms that guide the development of diagnoses and treatment plans. The cellular responses also reflect the active role that innate and acquired immunity plays in preventing individuals from a disease. The management of diseases relies on the use of interventions such as prescription of pharmacological agents. Patient factors must be considered in the prescription of drugs to minimize the risk of adverse events. Therefore, this paper examines a case study to evaluate the role of genetics, presentation of signs and symptoms and influence of age on the selected patient assignment.

The Role of Genetics in the Disease

Recurrent sore throat is a common health problem in children. Streptococcus group A bacteria causes this health problem and is often associated with genetics (Zupin et al., 2016). Accordingly, the existence of genetic variations in the HLA region have been linked to the recurrence in sore throat. The variations in the HLA region of the genes have been shown to cause gene mediated interaction with the bacteria causing sore throat (Tian et al., 2017). The genetic variation in the HLA region has also been shown to alter the normal innate as well as acquire defense systems towards the bacterial infection (Pearce et al., 2020). The influence of genetics in sore throat can also be seen in the recurrence of the disease in twins. The recurrence of sore-throat related infections such as tonsillitis in identical twins is almost similar while the rate of recurrence varies in dizygotic twins. Due to this, scholars argue that about 60% of sore throat recurrence in children is associated with environmental exposures while the rest occurs due to environmental exposure.  Similar findings can be seen in the study by Bager et al., (2018) where the researchers found the recurrence of severe tonsillitis to be highly linked to genetic factors. The authors found that the influence of genetics on the development of severe tonsillitis did not depend on patient’s age and sex. Therefore, genetics play a role in the recurrence of the sore throat infections.

Why Patient is presenting with the Specific Symptoms

The signs and symptoms that the patient presented with to the hospital is attributed to the changes in the cellular response processes. The invasion of the body with Streptococcus group A bacteria stimulates immune response that is characterized by the secretion of pus as well as reddening and inflammation of the tonsils. The production of pus arises from the release of inflammatory cells in response to the infection to fight the bacteria. As a result, the clinical symptoms of sore throat develop due to the accumulation of the fibronectin-binding proteins in the pharynx. The symptoms that the patient reported following ingestion of amoxicillin were attributed to allergic reactions to antibiotics. The symptoms show that the ingestion of amoxicillin led to the stimulation of the immune system to release IgE. The release of IgE increased the secretion of inflammatory cells such as interleukins and cytokines. The result of these processes is that massive inflammation occurred leading to vomiting, nausea, fast heart rate, difficulty in breathing, wheezing, swelling of the face and lips and shock. These symptoms are the signs or allergic response to an allergen such as drug or environmental pollutant.

Physiologic Response to Stimuli

A number of signs and symptoms in the case study demonstrate the patient’s response to stimuli. The signs and symptoms include the reddening of the posterior pharynx alongside the enlargement of the tonsils 3+. The assessment also revealed posterior and anterior cervical adenopathy, which imply immune response to the infection. A rapid strep test also confirmed the positive diagnosis of streptococcus group A bacteria (Volavšek, 2016). These symptoms were experienced due to the patient’s acquired and innate response to the infection.

Cells and Cellular Mediators

The cellar mediators that were involved in the response to the infection include prostaglandins E2m chemokines, leukotriene B4, eicosanoids, antimicrobial peptides, and cytokines that enhanced the inflammatory processes. The cells that were involved in the response include macrophages, neutrophils, epithelial, mast, and dendritic cells. The mediated actions of these cells and the cellular response mechanisms led to the development of the signs and symptoms of the disease as well as recovery from it (Kırmusaoğlu, 2018). The response to infection by the cells also led to the symptoms seen in the allergic reaction to amoxicillin.

Effect of Age on Response

The response to Streptococcus group A bacterial infections vary with age. Unlike children, adults are least likely to be affected by the infection. The symptoms of the infection are also less severe in adults than in children. The differences in the response is attributed to the influence of immune system development in adults than in children (Chanmugam et al., 2016). Therefore, healthcare providers should make treatment decisions with a consideration of the age of the patients to minimize the risk of adverse drug events.

References

Bager, P., Corn, G., Wohlfahrt, J., Boyd, H. A., Feenstra, B., & Melbye, M. (2018). Familial aggregation of tonsillectomy in early childhood and adolescence. Clinical Epidemiology, 10, 97–105. https://doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S148575

Chanmugam, A. S., Bissonette, A., Rothman (MD), R., Desai, S. V., & Putman, S. B. (2016). Infectious Diseases Emergencies. Oxford University Press.

Kırmusaoğlu, S. (2018). Bacterial Pathogenesis and Antibacterial Control. BoD – Books on Demand.

Pearce, S., Bowen, A. C., Engel, M. E., Lande, M. de la, & Barth, D. D. (2020). The incidence of sore throat and group A streptococcal pharyngitis in children at high risk of developing acute rheumatic fever: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE, 15(11), e0242107. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242107

Tian, C., Hromatka, B. S., Kiefer, A. K., Eriksson, N., Noble, S. M., Tung, J. Y., & Hinds, D. A. (2017). Genome-wide association and HLA region fine-mapping studies identify susceptibility loci for multiple common infections. Nature Communications, 8(1), 599. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00257-5

Volavšek, M. (2016). Head and Neck Pathology. Springer International Publishing.

Zupin, L., Angelelli, F., Grasso, D., & Crovella, S. (2016). Lactoferrin gene polymorphisms in Italian patients with recurrent tonsillitis. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.07.002

Case Study Analysis

An understanding of cells and cell behavior is a critically important component of disease diagnosis and treatment. But some diseases can be complex in nature, with a variety of factors and circumstances impacting their emergence and severity.

Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond isolated cell behavior. Genes, the environments in which cell processes operate, the impact of patient characteristics, and racial and ethnic variables all can have an important impact.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Hero Images

An understanding of the signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.

In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify cell, gene, and/or process elements that may be factors in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.

To prepare:

By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.

The Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)

Develop a 1- to 2-page case study analysis in which you:

Explain why you think the patient presented the symptoms described.

Identify the genes that may be associated with the development of the disease.

Explain the process of immunosuppression and the effect it has on body systems.

By Day 7 of Week 2

Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 2.

Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates). All papers submitted must use this formatting.

Submission and Grading Information

To submit your completed Assignment for review and grading, do the following:

NURS6501 Week 2 Assignment Understanding of Cells and Cell Behavior
NURS6501 Week 2 Assignment Understanding of Cells and Cell Behavior

Please save your Assignment using the naming convention “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” as the name.

Click the Module 1 Assignment Rubric to review the Grading Criteria for the Assignment.

Click the Module 1 Assignment link. You will also be able to “View Rubric” for grading criteria from this area.

Next, from the Attach File area, click on the Browse My Computer button. Find the document you saved as “M1Assgn+last name+first initial.(extension)” and click Open.

If applicable: From the Plagiarism Tools area, click the checkbox for I agree to submit my paper(s) to the Global Reference Database.

Click on the Submit button to complete your submission.

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You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

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ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE CLASS

Discussion Questions (DQ)

Initial responses to the DQ should address all components of the questions asked, include a minimum of one scholarly source, and be at least 250 words.
Successful responses are substantive (i.e., add something new to the discussion, engage others in the discussion, well-developed idea) and include at least one scholarly source.
One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
Weekly Participation

Your initial responses to the mandatory DQ do not count toward participation and are graded separately.
In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
Participation posts do not require a scholarly source/citation (unless you cite someone else’s work).
Part of your weekly participation includes viewing the weekly announcement and attesting to watching it in the comments. These announcements are made to ensure you understand everything that is due during the week.
APA Format and Writing Quality

Familiarize yourself with APA format and practice using it correctly. It is used for most writing assignments for your degree. Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for APA paper templates, citation examples, tips, etc. Points will be deducted for poor use of APA format or absence of APA format (if required).
Cite all sources of information! When in doubt, cite the source. Paraphrasing also requires a citation.
I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes

I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
LopesWrite Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to LopesWrite, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.
Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.
Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?
Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.
Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.
Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.
If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.
I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.
As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.
Communication

Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:
Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.
Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

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